Publications by authors named "Rahul Tripathi"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association Between Obesity and Cancer Mortality: An Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic Perspective.

J Clin Med Res 2021 Jul 28;13(7):377-386. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine, Cooper University Health Care, Camden, NJ, USA.

Background: Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of cancer that has a causal relationship with cancers of esophagus, breast and colon. Paradoxically, there are studies demonstrating that obesity is associated with improved survival in cancer patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of obesity and cancer mortality in adult patients.

Methods: Retrospective medical record review of 784 adult patients was performed who had a diagnosis of cancer and who were seen in our outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019.

Results: Forty-three (5.2%) patients were cancer non-survivors and 741 (94.8%) were cancer survivors. The mean age of the cancer non-survivors group was significantly higher than that of the cancer survivors (78.7 vs. 68.0 years, respectively; P < 0.001). For every unit increase in age, there was 7.6% increased odds of cancer death (95% confidence interval (CI): 3-12%) (P = 0.001). Average body mass index (BMI) of the patients in the cancer non-survivors group was significantly lower than that of the cancer survivors group (25.0 vs. 28.1 kg/m; P = 0.008). Non-obese patients had 4.9 times greater odds of cancer death (95% CI: 1.51 - 15.81) (P = 0.008). The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly higher in the cancer non-survivors group compared to the cancer survivors group (7.1% vs. 6.0%; P < 0.001), and for every unit increase in HbA1c there was 1.6 times greater odds of cancer death (95% CI: 1.14 - 2.23) (P = 0.006). Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) had 3.5 times greater odds of cancer death compared to those without PAD (95% CI: 1.18 - 10.19) (P = 0.023).

Conclusions: Non-obese patients with cancer had higher odds of cancer death. Rising HbA1c, increasing age, and presence of PAD were associated with increased cancer mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336943PMC
July 2021

Application of gamma-ray spectrometry, neutron multiplicity counting and calorimetry for non-destructive assay of U-Pu mixed samples.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Oct 5;176:109891. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, India.

This paper presents a standardless non-destructive method for simultaneous assay of uranium and plutonium in mixed samples relevant to nuclear safeguards, forensics and fuel cycle. The method is based on an in-situ absolute efficiency calibration of a γ-ray detector using plutonium γ-rays that can subsequently be used for quantification of uranium in the sample. The method was tested by assaying U-Pu samples with known amounts of U and Pu with varying mass, geometry, composition, reactor type, age and fissile isotope enrichment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109891DOI Listing
October 2021

Protective role of anticancer drugs in neurodegenerative disorders: A drug repurposing approach.

Neurochem Int 2020 11 24;140:104841. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Molecular Neuroscience and Functional Genomics Laboratory, Room# FW4TF3, Mechanical Engineering Building, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi, 110042, India. Electronic address:

The disease heterogeneity and little therapeutic progress in neurodegenerative diseases justify the need for novel and effective drug discovery approaches. Drug repurposing is an emerging approach that reinvigorates the classical drug discovery method by divulging new therapeutic uses of existing drugs. The common biological background and inverse tuning between cancer and neurodegeneration give weight to the conceptualization of repurposing of anticancer drugs as novel therapeutics. Many studies are available in the literature, which highlights the success story of anticancer drugs as repurposed therapeutics. Among them, kinase inhibitors, developed for various oncology indications evinced notable neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we shed light on the salient role of multiple protein kinases in neurodegenerative disorders. We also proposed a feasible explanation of the action of kinase inhibitors in neurodegenerative disorders with more attention towards neurodegenerative disorders. The problem of neurotoxicity associated with some anticancer drugs is also highlighted. Our review encourages further research to better encode the hidden potential of anticancer drugs with the aim of developing prospective repurposed drugs with no toxicity for neurodegenerative disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104841DOI Listing
November 2020

Structural insight of two 4-Coumarate CoA ligase () isoforms in suggests targeted genetic manipulations could lead to better lignin extractability from the pulp.

3 Biotech 2020 Sep 8;10(9):383. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, 211004 India.

4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase () is a key enzyme involved in the early steps of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. It is hypothesized to modulate S and G monolignol content in the plant. Lignin removal is imperative to the paper industry and higher S/G ratio governs better extractability of lignin and economics of the pulping process. This background prompted us to predict 3D structure of two isoforms of in and evaluate their substrate preferences. The 3D structure of and protein were created by homology modeling and further refined by loop refinement. Molecular docking studies suggested differential substrate preferences of both the isoforms. preferred sinapic acid (- 4.91 kcal/mole), ferulic acid (- 4.84 kcal/mole), hydroxyferulic acid (- 4.72 kcal/mole), and caffeic acid (- 4.71 kcal/mole), in their decreasing order. Similarly, preferred caffeic acid (- 6.56 kcal/mole, 4 H bonds), hydroxyferulic acid (- 6.56 kcal/mole, 3 H bonds), and ferulic acid (- 6.32 kcal/mole) and sinapic acid (- 5.00 kcal/mole) in their decreasing order. Further, active site residues were identified in both the isoforms and in silico mutation and docking analysis was performed. Our analysis suggested that ASP228, TYR262, and PRO326 for and SER165, LYS247 and PRO315 for were important for their functional activity. Based on differential substrate preferences of the two isoforms, as a first step towards genetically modified having the desired phenotype, it can be proposed that over-expression of gene and/or down-regulation of gene could yield higher S/G ratio leading to better extractability of lignin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02375-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415054PMC
September 2020

Alteration in plant spacing improves submergence tolerance in Sub1 and non-Sub1 rice (cv. IR64) by better light interception and effective carbohydrate utilisation under stress.

Funct Plant Biol 2020 09;47(10):891-903

IRRI-SARC, Varanasi-221006, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Besides genetic improvement for developing stress-tolerant cultivars, agronomic management may also add considerable tolerance against different abiotic stresses in crop plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of six different spacing treatments (S1: 10 × 10 cm; S2: 15 × 10 cm; S3:15 × 15 cm; S4:20 × 10 cm; S5: 20 × 15 cm; S6: 20 × 20 cm (row-row × plant-plant)) for improving submergence tolerance in rice. A high yielding submergence intolerant rice cultivar IR64 was tested against its SUB1 QTL introgressed counterpart (IR64-Sub1) for 12 days of complete submergence for different spacing treatments in field tanks. Relatively wider spaced plants showed higher individual plant biomass and early seedling vigour, which was particularly helpful for IR64 in increasing plant survival (by 150% in S6 over S1) under 12 days of submergence, whereas the improvement was less in IR64-Sub1 (13%). Underwater radiation inside the plant canopy, particularly beyond 40 cm water depth, was significantly greater in wider spacing treatments. Leaf senescence pattern captured by SPAD chlorophyll meter reading and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging data (Fm, Fv/Fm) taken at different time intervals after stress imposition suggested that there was lesser light penetration inside the canopy of closer spaced plants, and that it might hasten leaf senescence and damage to the photosynthetic system. The initial content of total non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) was higher in wider spaced plants of IR64, and also the rate of depletion of NSC was lesser compared with closer spaced plants. In contrast, there was not much difference in NSC depletion rate under different spacing in IR64-Sub1. Further, higher antioxidant enzyme activities in wider spaced plants (both IR64 and IR64-Sub1) after de-submergence indicated better stress recovery and improved tolerance. Taken together we found that wider spacing (row-row: 20 cm and plant-plant: 15 cm and more) can significantly improve submergence tolerance ability in rice, particularly in submergence intolerant non-Sub1 cultivar like IR64, perhaps due to better underwater light penetration, delayed leaf senescence and slower depletion of NSC reserve.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP19364DOI Listing
September 2020

Fabrication of Conducting Nanochannels Using Accelerator for Fuel Cell Membrane and Removal of Radionuclides: Role of Nanoparticles.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Apr 3;12(15):17628-17640. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221 005, India.

Latent tracks in pure polymer and its nanohybrid are fabricated by irradiating with swift heavy ions (SHI) (Ag) having 140 MeV energy followed by selective chemical etching of the amorphous path, caused by the irradiation of SHI, to generate nanochannels of size ∼80 nm. Grafting is done within the nanochannels utilizing free radicals generated from the interaction of high-energy ions, followed by tagging of ionic species to make the nanochannels highly ion-conducting. The uniform dispersion of two-dimensional nanoparticles better controls the size and number density of the nanochannels and, thereby, converts them into an effective membrane. The nanoparticle and functionalization induce a piezoelectric β-phase in the membrane. The functionalized membrane removes the radioactive nuclide like Am (α-emitting source) efficiently (∼80% or 0.35 μg/cm) from its solution/waste. This membrane act as a corrosion inhibitor (92% inhibition efficiency) together with its higher proton conduction (0.13 S/m) ability. The higher ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, ion conduction, and high sorption by the nanohybrid membrane are explored with respect to the extent of functionalization and control over nanochannel dimension. A membrane electrode assembly has been fabricated to construct a complete fuel cell, which exhibits superior power generation (power density of 45 mW/cm at a current density of 298 mA/cm) much higher than that of the standard Nafion, measured in a similar condition. Further, a piezoelectric matrix along with its anticorrosive property, high sorption characteristics, and greater power generation makes this class of material a smart membrane that can be used for many different applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c02845DOI Listing
April 2020

Identification of Novel Microsatellite Markers to Assess the Population Structure and Genetic Differentiation of Causing Covered Smut of Barley.

Front Microbiol 2019 15;10:2929. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

ICAR - Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, India.

Barley covered smut (CS) pathogen genome was mined for microsatellite distribution and their application in defining population structure and genetic variation. To dissect the molecular variation and genetic structure of , 59 fungal isolates representing two distinct agro-ecological zones of India were analyzed by employing simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Using bioinformatic approaches, a total of 100,239 and 137,442 microsatellites were identified from 20.13 and 26.94 Mb of assembled genomic sequences of Uh364 and Uh4857-4 isolates of , respectively. Penta-nucleotides (31.29 and 29.75%) followed by tri-nucleotide (28.27 and 29.88%) were most prevalent in both the genomes. Out of them, 15 polymorphic microsatellites showing conservancies in both the genomes were selected for exploring population genetic structure of . An average of two alleles per microsatellite marker was generated with band size ranging from 180 to 850 bp. Polymorphic information content (PIC) varied between 0.095 and 0.37. Fifty-nine isolates were distributed in two distinct groups with about 65% genetic similarity according to UPGMA clustering and population structure analysis ( = 2). Gene flow analysis (Nm = 1.009) reflected moderate gene flow among the analyzed population. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) displayed high level of genetic variation within population (87%) and low variation among populations (13%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated positively significant but relatively low standardized index of association (SIA) value in both the population sets (SIA = 0.181), advocating a state of LD with epidemic population structure. In conclusion, the newly developed neutral SSR markers are highly polymorphic within and will be useful for revealing evolutionary history and providing deep insight into the population dynamics of in India as well as facilitating developing management strategies for CS of barley.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974468PMC
January 2020

Field-specific nutrient management using Rice Crop Manager decision support tool in Odisha, India.

Field Crops Res 2019 Sep;241:107578

International Rice Research Institute, PO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines.

The requirement of rice ( L.) for fertilizer can depend on crop and soil management practices, which can vary among fields within a rice-growing area. A web-based decision support tool named Rice Crop Manager (RCM) was developed previously to calculate field-specific rates of fertilizer N, P, and K for rice in Odisha State in eastern India. We compared field-specific nutrient management calculated by RCM with farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) and a blanket fertilizer recommendation (BFR), which used a uniform 80 kg N ha, 17 kg P ha, and 33 kg K ha. A total of 209 field trials were conducted in two seasons (kharif and rabi) for two years across ten districts in six agro-climatic zones. Grain yield was consistently higher with fertilization recommended by RCM than with FFP. Higher yield with RCM was attributed to a combination of applying more of the total fertilizer N at the critical growth stage of panicle initiation, applying more fertilizer N in kharif, and applying zinc. The RCM recommendation frequently increased yield compared to BFR as a result of improved N management, which included the adjustment of N rate for a target yield set slightly higher than historical yield reported by a farmer. Fertilization based on RCM rather than BFR reduced the risk of financial loss. The effectiveness of an RCM recommendation relative to BFR and FFP was consistent across rice varieties with different growth duration, irrigated and rainfed rice, and three categories of soil clay content. The RCM recommendation failed to increase yield relative to BFR in one of the six agro-climatic zones, where a higher rate of fertilizer P and/or K was apparently required. The nutrient management calculations used by RCM can be improved as new information and research findings become available. Experiences with RCM in Odisha can help guide the development of comparable nutrient management decision tools in other rice-growing areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2019.107578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737991PMC
September 2019

Metal(loid)s (As, Hg, Se, Pb and Cd) in paddy soil: Bioavailability and potential risk to human health.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jan 7;699:134330. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

ICAR - National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha, India.

Rice is one of the principal staple foods, essential for safeguarding the global food and nutritional security, but due to different natural and anthropogenic sources, it also acts as one of the biggest reservoirs of potentially toxic metal(loids) like As, Hg, Se, Pb and Cd. This review summarizes mobilization, translocation and speciation mechanism of these metal(loids) in soil-plant continuum as well as available cost-effective remediation measures and future research needs to eliminate the long-term risk to human health. High concentrations of these elements not only cause toxicity problems in plants, but also in animals that consume them and gradual deposition of these elements leads to the risk of bioaccumulation. The extensive occurrence of contaminated rice grains globally poses substantial public health risk and merits immediate action. People living in hotspots of contamination are exposed to higher health risks, however, rice import/export among different countries make the problem of global concern. Accumulation of As, Hg, Se, Pb and Cd in rice grains can be reduced by reducing their bioavailability, and controlling their uptake by rice plants. The contaminated soils can be reclaimed by phytoremediation, bioremediation, chemical amendments and mechanical measures; however these methods are either too expensive and/or too slow. Integration of innovative agronomic practices like crop establishment methods and improved irrigation and nutrient management practices are important steps to help mitigate the accumulation in soil as well as plant parts. Adoption of transgenic techniques for development of rice cultivars with low accumulation in edible plant parts could be a realistic option that would permit rice cultivation in soils with high bioavailability of these metal(loid)s.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134330DOI Listing
January 2020

Water vapor flux in tropical lowland rice.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Aug 9;191(9):550. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Division of Crop Production, National Rice Research Institute, -753006, Cuttack, Odisha, India.

A field experiment was conducted at Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha, India in the dry seasons of 2015 and 2016 to assess the water vapor flux (FHO) and its relationship with other climatic variables. The FHO and climatic variables were measured by an eddy covariance system and a micrometeorological observatory. Daily mean FHO during the dry seasons of 2015 and 2016 were 0.009-0.092 g m s and 0.014-0.101 g m s, respectively. Seasonal average FHO was 14.6% higher in 2016 than that in 2015. Diurnal variation for FHO showed a bell-shaped curve with its peak at 13:30-14:00 Indian Standard Time (IST) in both the years. Carbon dioxide flux was found higher with rise in FHO. This relationship was stronger at higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) (20 ≤ VPD ≤ 40 and VPD > 40 hPa). The FHO showed significant positive correlation with latent heat flux, net radiation flux, photosynthatically active radiation, air, water and soil temperatures, shortwave down and upwell radiations, maximum and minimum temperatures, evaporation, and relative humidity in both the years. Principal component analysis showed that FHO was very close to latent heat flux in both the years (Pearson correlation coefficient close to 1). The two-dimensional observation map of the principal component F1 and F2 showed the observations taken during the vegetative stage and panicle initiation stage, and flowering stage and maturity stage were closer to each other. It can be concluded that the most important climatic variables controlling the FHO were latent heat of vaporization, net radiation, air temperature, soil temperatures, and water temperature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7709-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Phylogeography and Population Structure Analysis Reveal Diversity by Gene Flow and Mutation in (Pers.) Roussel Causing Loose Smut of Wheat.

Front Microbiol 2019 15;10:1072. Epub 2019 May 15.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research (IIWBR), Karnal, India.

(Pers.) Roussel (UST) causes loose smut of wheat account for considerable grain yield losses globally. For effective management, knowledge of its genetic variability and population structure is a prerequisite. In this study, UST isolates sampled from four different wheat growing zones of India were analyzed using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II () and a set of sixteen neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. Among the 112 UST isolates genotyped, 98 haplotypes were identified. All the isolates were categorized into two groups ( = 2), each consisting of isolates from different sampling sites, on the basis of unweighted paired-grouping method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and the Bayesian analysis of population structure. The positive and significant index of association (I = 1.169) and standardized index of association (rBar = 0.075) indicate population is of non-random mating type. Analysis of molecular variance showed that the highest variance component is among isolates (91%), with significantly low genetic differentiation variation among regions (8%) (F = 0.012). Recombination (R = 0) was not detected. The results showed that UST isolates have a clonal genetic structure with limited genetic differentiation and human arbitrated gene flow and mutations are the prime evolutionary processes determining its genetic structure. These findings will be helpful in devising management strategy especially for selection and breeding of resistant wheat cultivars.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529584PMC
May 2019

Ecosystem services in different agro-climatic zones in eastern India: impact of land use and land cover change.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Jan 24;191(2):98. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

ICAR - National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha, 753006, India.

Land use and land cover (LULC) change have considerable influence on ecosystem services. Assessing change in ecosystem services due to LULC change at different spatial and temporal scales will help to identify suitable management practices for sustaining ecosystem productivity and maintaining the ecological balance. The objective of this study was to investigate variations in ecosystem services in response to LULC change over 27 years in four agro-climatic zones (ACZ) of eastern India using satellite imagery for the year 1989, 1996, 2005, 2011 (Landsat TM) and 2016 (Landsat 8 OLI). The satellite images were classified into six LULC classes, agriculture land, forest, waterbody, wasteland, built-up, and mining area. During the study period (1989 to 2016), forest cover reduced by 5.2%, 13.7%, and 3.6% in Sambalpur, Keonjhar, and Kandhamal districts of Odisha, respectively. In Balasore, agricultural land reduced by 17.2% due to its conversion to built-up land. The value of ecosystem services per unit area followed the order of waterbodies > agricultural land > forests. A different set of indicators, e.g., by explicitly including diversity, could change the rank between these land uses, so the temporal trends within a land use are more important than the absolute values. Total ecosystem services increased by US$ 1296.4 × 10 (50.74%), US$ 1100.7 × 10 (98.52%), US$ 1867 × 10 (61.64%), and US$ 1242.6 × 10 (46.13%) for Sambalpur, Balasore, Kandhamal, and Keonjhar, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7224-7DOI Listing
January 2019

Paclitaxel Encapsulation into Dual-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2019 Jan 7;20(2):51. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Maliba Pharmacy College, Uka Tarsadia University, Gopal-Vidyanagar Campus, Surat, 394350, India.

This work reports the synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from xylene/ferrocene using catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique. Following characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy, CNT surface was dual-functionalized using ethylenediamine and phenylboronic acid groups. Average diameter of CNTs was calculated to be 16.5 nm. EDX spectra confirmed the existence of carbonaceous deposits on the tube's surface. Scattered electron diffraction and X-ray peak broadening calculations showed consistent inter-planer distance of the grown CNTs. Chemical functionalization, confirmed from FT-IR and Raman spectra, showed an enhanced dispersibility of CNTs in water. We describe the changes in the first- and second-order regions of the Raman spectra following the encapsulation of an anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel (PLX), into the free volume of functionalized CNTs. High PLX loading, achieved through its non-covalent π-π stacking within the CNT interior, is confirmed through the blue-shifted, softened G band in the Raman spectrum. While not addressed here, we will exploit this dual functionalization tactic to elaborate the relative role of attached moieties in the affinity interaction of CNTs with extra-cellular sialic acid, a biological target showing metastatic stage-dependent over-expression in colon cancer cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-018-1218-6DOI Listing
January 2019

Functionalized graphene nanosheets with improved dispersion stability and superior paclitaxel loading capacity.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 Jan 9;173:421-428. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Uka Tarsadia University, Maliba Pharmacy College, Gopal-Vidyanagar Campus, Surat, 394350, India. Electronic address:

This study reports our attempt of improving dispersibility of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through differential functionalization of carboxyl moieties with ethylene diamine (EDA) and folic acid (FA) using carbodimide chemistry. Successful covalent linkage was demonstrated through FT-IR, Raman and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Functionalized nanosheets (GNs) produced a stable dispersion up to 0.1 wt% which remained unaffected against salt- and protein-induced aggregation. Hemolysis test showed negligible toxicity of GNs in murine erythrocytes up to 100 μg/ml. Non-covalent hydrophobic and п-п stacking interactions between GNs and paclitaxel (PLX) offered a superior loading (95.07%) capacity. The latter could substantially minimize the incidence of disruptive protein-carrier interactions and thus, inflate the biomedical potential of graphene materials. Besides, the attached FA groups can be exploited for target-selective delivery of PLX to folate receptor over-expressing tumor cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.10.016DOI Listing
January 2019

Bioadhesive polymeric film-based integrative platform for the unidirectional carbamazepine release from a volatile microemulsion.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Oct 5;170:683-691. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

UKA Tarsadia University, Maliba Pharmacy College, Gopal-Vidyanagar Campus, Surat, 394350, Gujarat, India. Electronic address:

Carbamazepine (CBZ) shows inconsistent absorption primarily due to its poor dissolution rate. In this study, we describe a bioadhesive polymeric film, embedded with microemulsion (ME), as a tool to enable improved CBZ dissolution and achieve sustained release. The ME was formulated using pseudo-ternary components; water, oil (n-butyl acetate), surfactant (tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, TPGS) and cosurfactant (1,4-butanediol). The region at surfactant to co-surfactant ratio of 1:1 was characterized using dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. Scattering studies showed that size distribution did not change upon water addition and temperature. Optimized ME composition containing CBZ was embedded into bioadhesive films composed with a backing layer. We successfully demonstrate the confinement of CBZ-ME into the film matrix and thereupon, the achievement of unidirectional sustained drug release up to 8 h. Our further investigations are directed over testing the system for localized drug delivery applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.07.009DOI Listing
October 2018

Greenhouse gas emissions and energy exchange in wet and dry season rice: eddy covariance-based approach.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Jun 25;190(7):423. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Division of Crop Production, National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha, 753006, India.

Lowland tropical rice-rice system has a unique micrometrological characteristic that affects both energy component and net ecosystem energy. Periodic and seasonal variations of methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and energy exchange from irrigated lowland rice-rice ecosystem were studied using open-path eddy covariance (EC) system during the dry (DS) and wet (WS) seasons in 2015. Concurrently, the manual chamber method was employed in nitrous oxide (NO) measurement efflux. Cumulative net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) was observed highest (- 232.55 g C m) during the WS and lowest (- 14.81 g C m) during wet fallow (WF). Similarly, the cumulative net ecosystem methane exchange (NEME) was found highest (13,456.5 mg CH m) during the WS and lowest (2014.3 mg CH m) during the WF. Surface energy fluxes, i.e., sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) fluxes, showed a similar trend. With the advancement of time, the ratio of ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross primary production (GPP) increased. The cumulative global warming potential (GWP) for the two cropping seasons including two fallows was 13,224.1 kg CO equivalent ha. The GWP and NEME showed a similar trend as soil enzymes and labile carbon pools in both seasons (except GWP at the harvesting stage in the wet season). The mean NEE exhibited a more negative value with decrease in labile pools from panicle initiation to harvesting stage in the WS. Soil labile C and soil enzymes can be used as an indicator of NEE, NEME, and GWP in lowland rice ecology. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of GHG emission and energy exchange in lowland rice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6805-1DOI Listing
June 2018

Rehabilitation of hemi-maxillectomy with a definite one piece hollow bulb obturator.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2018 Jan-Jun;9(1):82-85

Department of Prosthodontics, Crown and Bridge, SPPGIDMS, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Maxillary intraoral defects due to surgical resection create an open link between the oral and nasal cavities causing difficulty in deglutition, speech, and an unaesthetic appearance. Prosthetic innervention is required to restore the needs of speech, mastication as well as closing the oroantral communication. This article shows a case report of systematic approach for fabrication of immediate plate just after surgery, followed by interim feeding plate 2 weeks after surgery, and finally definitive one piece hollow bulb obturator 6 months after surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/njms.NJMS_85_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996660PMC
June 2018

Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages.

Int J Biometeorol 2018 Aug 12;62(8):1375-1387. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Crop Production Division, ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha, 753006, India.

It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results suggest that the exogenous application of boron had a substantial effect on cell membrane stability, sugar mobilization, pollen viability, and spikelet fertility, hence the yield. The cultivars due to their variation in the tolerance level for high temperature stress behaved differently, and at high temperature stress, more response of the application of boron was seen in susceptible cultivars.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1537-zDOI Listing
August 2018

Capacitive behavior of carbon nanotube thin film induced by deformed ZnO microspheres.

Nanotechnology 2017 Sep 11;28(39):395101. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India 560012.

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are uniformly distributed with piezoelectric microspheres. This leads to a large strain gradient due to an induced capacitive response, providing a 250% enhancement in electromechanical response compared with pristine CNTs. The fabricated large-area flexible thin film exhibits excellent pressure sensitivity, which can even detect an arterial pulse with a much faster response time (∼79 ms) in a bendable configuration. In addition, the film shows a rapid relaxation time (∼0.4 s), high stability and excellent durability with a rapid loading-unloading cycle. The dominant contribution of piezoelectric microspheres in a CNT matrix as opposed to nanoparticles showed a much higher sensitivity due to the large change in capacitance. Therefore, hybrid microstructures have various potential applications in wearable smart electronics, including detection of human motion and wrist pulses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa7df7DOI Listing
September 2017

Melt-in-Mouth Multi-particulate System for the Treatment of ADHD: A Convenient Platform for Pediatric Use.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2016 Aug 21;17(4):878-90. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Department of Pharmaceutics, B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD) Centre, Ahmedabad, 380054, India.

Generally, pellets obtained from extrusion/spheronization, containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), do not disintegrate. An attempt has been made to develop melt-in-mouth pellets of taste-masked atomoxetine hydrochloride, using extrusion-spheronization, for pediatric patients. Melt-in-mouth pellets were prepared using extrusion-spheronization method and optimized using 3(3) FFD. MCC (X1, %), mannitol (X2, %) and Indion 414: Pharmaburst 500 ratio (X3, ratio) were the factors (independent variables) studied, whereas responses studied (dependent variables) were friability (Y1, %), yield (Y2, %) shape (Y3, roundness) in vitro disintegration time (Y4, seconds). The optimized formulation obtained from FFD was characterized for friability, shape and morphology, in vitro disintegration time, porosity, moisture uptake, in vitro release study and in vivo taste and disintegration time in healthy human volunteers. Randomized, two-treatment, two-sequence, two-period, single dose, crossover sensory evaluation study of taste-masked melt-in-mouth pellet was carried out in 10 healthy human subjects. A statistically significant polynomial mathematical relationship was generated between the factors and responses to obtain an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation was characterized (in vitro and in vivo) and exhibited a rapid drug release in vitro attributed to fast disintegration of pellets and high solubility of drug in 0.1 N HCl and buffer (pH 6.8). In vivo, 40% of volunteers ranked taste-masked optimized formulation as slightly bitter while 60% ranked it as no taste. The optimized pellets were conveniently administered in volunteers and exhibited rapid in-vivo disintegration in the oral cavity. Melt-in-mouth pellets can be a used as a platform technology for administering drugs to paediatric patients accurately and conveniently resulting in patient compliance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-015-0412-zDOI Listing
August 2016

Post-flood nitrogen and basal phosphorus management affects survival, metabolic changes and anti-oxidant enzyme activities of submerged rice (Oryza sativa).

Funct Plant Biol 2014 Dec;41(12):1284-1294

Division of Crop Production, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha 753 006, India.

Flooding is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low lying areas of Asia and crop losses due to submergence are considerably high. Along with plant breeding techniques, agronomic management options in general and nutrient management in particular should be taken into consideration. Response of Sub 1 and non-Sub1 cultivars of rice to post-flood nitrogen (N) management under variable flood water was compared at maximum tillering stage. Submergence tolerance on survival, leaf senescence, metabolic changes, and anti-oxidant enzymatic activities were evaluated. Sub1 cultivars proved their superiority over IR-20 in terms of significantly higher survival, anti-oxidant enzymes and lower metabolic changes. Turbid water resulted in lower survival because of poor light transmission, chlorophyll retention and silt deposition. Basal phosphorus reduced the elongation, senescence and ethylene accumulation. Post-flood foliar spray of urea substantially increased the chlorophyll, soluble sugars and extenuated ethylene accumulation resulting in significantly higher survival. These nutrient management options can provide opportunities for better survival and productivity even under turbid water, helping farmers to cope with the existing problems in flood-prone areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP14093DOI Listing
December 2014

Design and evaluation of enteric coated microporous osmotic pump tablet (ECMOPT) of quetiapine fumarate for the treatment of psychosis.

Acta Pol Pharm 2012 Nov-Dec;69(6):1125-36

Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

The present work investigates the feasibility of the design of an enteric coated microporous osmotic pump tablet (ECMOPT) to prolong the drug release of an antipsychotic drug, quetiapine fumarate (QTF). The ECMOPT consisted of an osmotic core coated with a microporous membrane (MPM) made up of cellulose acetate and PEG 4000 as in situ micropore former. The effect of formulation variables such as concentration of sodium chloride, types of pore former (PEG 400, PEG 4000 and PEG 6000), coat thickness (100 and 200 microm) of MPM were evaluated for drug release characteristics. The FTIR, DSC and XRD analyses were carried out to characterize physico-chemical changes of powder blend and final formulation. SEM images have confirmed in situ micropores formation in MPM. A zero order release was obtained for QTF. The formulations were found to be stable up to 3 months when tested for stability at 40 degrees C/75% RH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2013

"Development and evaluation of sodium alginate-polyacrylamide graft-co-polymer-based stomach targeted hydrogels of famotidine".

AAPS PharmSciTech 2012 Dec 31;13(4):1091-102. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221 005, India.

In the present study, grafting technology has been used to develop novel grafted hydrogel beads as controlled drug delivery carriers. The chemical crosslinking and grafting of polyacrylamide onto sodium alginate has been found to be efficient method for the development of new polymeric carrier. The successful crosslinking has been confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. The polymeric network of sodium alginate-co-polyacrylamide (NaAlg-g-PAM) has been interlinked by covalent and hydrogen bonds which also strength the gel network. Simple ionotropic gelation method has been used for the preparation of NaAlg-g-PAM hydrogel beads. Its swelling and gelation were dependent on monomer and crosslinker concentrations. Entrapment of the drug moiety (famotidine; an antiulcer drug) within the grafted beads has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. More than 75% of drug loading in beads occurred with the increase of monomer and crosslinker concentration. In vitro drug release was found to be sustained up to the 12 h with 80% drug release.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-012-9824-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3513462PMC
December 2012

Microbial biomass and carbon mineralization in agricultural soils as affected by pesticide addition.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2012 Apr 7;88(4):538-42. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

Crop Production Division, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, 753 006, Orissa, India.

A laboratory study was conducted with four pesticides, viz. a fungicide (carbendazim), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride) and an herbicide (pretilachlor) applied to a sandy clay loam soil at a field rate to determine their effect on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and carbon mineralization (C(min)). The MBC content of soil increased with time up to 30 days in cartap hydrochloride as well as chlorpyrifos treated soil. Thereafter, it decreased and reached close to the initial level by 90th day. However, in carbendazim treated soil, the MBC showed a decreasing trend up to 45 days and subsequently increased up to 90 days. In pretilachlor treated soil, MBC increased through the first 15 days, and thereafter decreased to the initial level. Application of carbendazim, chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride decreased C(min) for the first 30 days and then increased afterwards, while pretilachlor treated soil showed an increasing trend.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0538-6DOI Listing
April 2012

Methotrexate: a detailed review on drug delivery and clinical aspects.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2012 Feb;9(2):151-69

Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Technology, Department of Pharmaceutics, Varanasi, India.

Introduction: Uses of methotrexate (MTX) are well established for the treatment of various types of malignancy, psoriasis, rheumatological diseases and the medical termination of pregnancy. Formulation and targeting approaches for MTX with controlled release carriers, multiparticulate systems, prodrug and drug conjugates have been found to improve bioavailability, reduce adverse effects and maximize clinical efficacy, compared with conventional methods.

Areas Covered: This exhaustive literature survey on different electronic databases covers drug delivery and clinical trials on MTX. This review deals with the challenges and achievements of controlled release, multiparticulate, prodrug and drug conjugate systems of MTX.

Expert Opinion: Therapeutic drug monitoring of MTX is crucial to attain a good efficacy. In spite of the advantages of multiparticulate, prodrug and drug conjugates, clinical applications of such formulations of MTX are still under infancy. These drug delivery systems require the special attention of medical experts for its wider clinical usage, and pharmaceutical experts for its scale-up. The combination of MTX with other antineoplastic and immunosuppressants should also be subjected to clinical trials, such as the combination of misoprostol with MTX in abortion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17425247.2012.642362DOI Listing
February 2012

Floating elementary osmotic pump tablet (FEOPT) for controlled delivery of diethylcarbamazine citrate: a water-soluble drug.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2011 Dec 4;12(4):1312-23. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

The present work investigates the feasibility of the design of a novel floating elementary osmotic pump tablet (FEOPT) to prolong the gastric residence of a highly water-soluble drug. Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) was chosen as a model drug. The FEOPT consisted of an osmotic core (DEC, mannitol, and hydrophilic polymers) coated with a semipermeable layer (cellulose acetate) and a gas-generating gelling layer (sodium bicarbonate, hydrophilic polymers) followed by a polymeric film (Eudragit RL 30D). The effect of formulation variables such as concentration of polymers, types of diluent, and coat thickness of semipermeable membrane was evaluated in terms of physical parameters, floating lag time, duration of floatation, and in vitro drug release. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis were carried out to study the physicochemical changes in the drug excipients powder blend. The integrity of the orifice and polymeric film layer was confirmed from scanning electron microscopy image. All the developed FEOPT showed floating lag time of less than 8 min and floating duration of 24 h. A zero-order drug release could be attained for DEC. The formulations were found to be stable up to 3 months of stability testing at 40°C/75% relative humidity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-011-9699-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3225518PMC
December 2011
-->