Publications by authors named "Rahul Kumar"

511 Publications

Autoimmune hepatitis following COVID-19 Vaccination: true causality or mere association?

J Hepatol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore; Medicine Academic Clinical Programme, SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medical Centre, Singapore. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.06.009DOI Listing
June 2021

An impact of agronomic practices of sustainable rice-wheat crop intensification on food security, economic adaptability, and environmental mitigation across eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains.

Field Crops Res 2021 Jun;267:108164

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

In the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP), conventional rice-wheat system has led to a decline in productivity, input-use efficiency, and profitability. To address these, a four-year field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of tillage and crop establishment (TCE) methods in rice-wheat-greengram rotation. The treatments included: 1) random puddled transplanted rice (RPTR) - conventional-till broadcast wheat (BCW) - zero-till greengram (ZTG); 2) line PTR (LPTR) - conventional-till drill sown wheat (CTW) - ZTG; 3) machine transplanted rice in puddled soil (CTMTR) - zero tillage wheat (ZTW) - ZTG; 4) machine transplanted rice in zero-till wet soil (ZTMTR) - ZTW - ZTG; 5) system of rice intensification (SRI) - system of wheat intensification (SWI) - ZTG; 6) direct-seeded rice (DSR) - ZTW - ZTG; and 7) zero-till DSR - ZTW - ZTG. During the initial two years, conventional rice system (PTR) recorded a 16.2 % higher rice grain yield than DSR system. Whereas in the fourth year, the rice yields under DSR and PTR were comparable. As compared to SRI/SWI, the average wheat yield in ZT system was significantly high, whereas in rice, SRI/SWI system was comparable with CT system. ZTW after non-puddled rice was at par to CTW after PTR. The ZT wheat produced 4.6 % more yield than CT system. DSR production system consumed 6.8 % less water compared to transplanted system. On the system basis, 10.8 % higher net returns were recorded with CA-based system compared to conventional system. The system energy productivity under CA-based production system was 14-36 % higher than PTR-based systems. CA-based system also led to 8-10 % lower global warming potential (GWP) than conventional methods. The current study indicated that as compared to conventional system, a significant gain in productivity, profitability and energy-use efficiency, and reduction in the environmental mitigation are possible with emerging alternative TCE methods. Long-term expansion and further refinement of these technologies in local areas need to be explored for the second green revolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146726PMC
June 2021

Approaching the motional ground state of a 10-kg object.

Science 2021 06;372(6548):1333-1336

LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA.

The motion of a mechanical object, even a human-sized object, should be governed by the rules of quantum mechanics. Coaxing them into a quantum state is, however, difficult because the thermal environment masks any quantum signature of the object's motion. The thermal environment also masks the effects of proposed modifications of quantum mechanics at large mass scales. We prepared the center-of-mass motion of a 10-kilogram mechanical oscillator in a state with an average phonon occupation of 10.8. The reduction in temperature, from room temperature to 77 nanokelvin, is commensurate with an 11 orders-of-magnitude suppression of quantum back-action by feedback and a 13 orders-of-magnitude increase in the mass of an object prepared close to its motional ground state. Our approach will enable the possibility of probing gravity on massive quantum systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abh2634DOI Listing
June 2021

Room-Temperature Gas Sensors Under Photoactivation: From Metal Oxides to 2D Materials.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Aug 13;12(1):164. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur, 342037, India.

Room-temperature gas sensors have aroused great attention in current gas sensor technology because of deemed demand of cheap, low power consumption and portable sensors for rapidly growing Internet of things applications. As an important approach, light illumination has been exploited for room-temperature operation with improving gas sensor's attributes including sensitivity, speed and selectivity. This review provides an overview of the utilization of photoactivated nanomaterials in gas sensing field. First, recent advances in gas sensing of some exciting different nanostructures and hybrids of metal oxide semiconductors under light illumination are highlighted. Later, excellent gas sensing performance of emerging two-dimensional materials-based sensors under light illumination is discussed in details with proposed gas sensing mechanism. Originated impressive features from the interaction of photons with sensing materials are elucidated in the context of modulating sensing characteristics. Finally, the review concludes with key and constructive insights into current and future perspectives in the light-activated nanomaterials for optoelectronic gas sensor applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00503-4DOI Listing
August 2020

WheatQTLdb: a QTL database for wheat.

Mol Genet Genomics 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, 250004, India.

During the last three decades, QTL analysis in wheat has been conducted for a variety of individual traits, so that thousands of QTL along with the linked markers, their genetic positions and contribution to phenotypic variation (PV) for concerned traits are now known. However, no exhaustive database for wheat QTL is currently available at a single platform. Therefore, the present database was prepared which is an exhaustive information resource for wheat QTL data from the published literature till May, 2020. QTL data from both interval mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been included for the following classes of traits: (i) morphological traits, (ii) N and P use efficiency, (iii) traits for biofortification (Fe, K, Se, and Zn contents), (iv) tolerance to abiotic stresses including drought, water logging, heat stress, pre-harvest sprouting and salinity, (v) resistance to biotic stresses including those due to bacterial, fungal, nematode and insects, (vi) quality traits, and (vii) a variety of physiological traits, (viii) developmental traits, and (ix) yield and its related traits. For the preparation of the database, literature was searched for data on QTL/marker-trait associations (MTAs), curated and then assembled in the form of WheatQTLdb. The available information on metaQTL, epistatic QTL and candidate genes, wherever available, is also included in the database. Information on QTL in this WheatQTLdb includes QTL names, traits, associated markers, parental genotypes, crosses/mapping populations, association mapping panels and other useful information. To our knowledge, WheatQTLdb prepared by us is the largest collection of QTL (11,552), epistatic QTL (107) and metaQTL (330) data for hexaploid wheat to be used by geneticists and plant breeders for further studies involving fine mapping, cloning, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) during wheat breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-021-01796-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Mitochondrial quality control: Epigenetic signatures and therapeutic strategies.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jun 8;148:105095. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, Telangana, 500037, India. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelle staging a crucial role in cellular stress response, energy metabolism and cell survival. Maintaining mitochondrial quality control is very important for its homeostasis. Pathological conditions such as oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, disrupt this quality control, and involvement of genetic and epigenetic materials in this disruption have been reported. These regulatory factors trigger mitochondrial imbalance, as seen in many neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. The dynamic regulatory pathways i.e. mitophagy, biogenesis, permeability pore transitioning, fusion-fission are affected as a consequence and have been reviewed in this article. Moreover, several epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modulation participating in such neurological disorders have also been discussed. Apart from it, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial quality control have been tremendously explored showing ameliorative effects for these diseases, and have been discussed here with a novel perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105095DOI Listing
June 2021

Children's Oncology Group Phase III Trial of Reduced-Dose and Reduced-Volume Radiotherapy With Chemotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Average-Risk Medulloblastoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 10:JCO2002730. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Children with average-risk medulloblastoma (MB) experience survival rates of ≥ 80% at the expense of adverse consequences of treatment. Efforts to mitigate these effects include deintensification of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) dose and volume.

Methods: ACNS0331 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00085735) randomly assigned patients age 3-21 years with average-risk MB to receive posterior fossa radiation therapy (PFRT) or involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) following CSI. Young children (3-7 years) were also randomly assigned to receive standard-dose CSI (SDCSI; 23.4 Gy) or low-dose CSI (LDCSI; 18 Gy). Post hoc molecular classification and mutational analysis contextualized outcomes according to known biologic subgroups (Wingless, Sonic Hedgehog, group 3, and group 4) and genetic biomarkers. Neurocognitive changes and ototoxicity were monitored over time.

Results: Five hundred forty-nine patients were enrolled on study, of which 464 were eligible and evaluable to compare PFRT versus IFRT and 226 for SDCSI versus LDCSI. The five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 82.5% (95% CI, 77.2 to 87.8) and 80.5% (95% CI, 75.2 to 85.8) for the IFRT and PFRT regimens, respectively, and 71.4% (95% CI, 62.8 to 80) and 82.9% (95% CI, 75.6 to 90.2) for the LDCSI and SDCSI regimens, respectively. IFRT was not inferior to PFRT (hazard ratio, 0.97; 94% upper CI, 1.32). LDCSI was inferior to SDCSI (hazard ratio, 1.67%; 80% upper CI, 2.10). Improved EFS was observed in patients with Sonic Hedgehog MB who were randomly assigned to the IFRT arm ( = .018). Patients with group 4 MB receiving LDCSI exhibited inferior EFS ( = .047). Children receiving SDCSI exhibited greater late declines in IQ (estimate = 5.87; = .021).

Conclusion: Reducing the radiation boost volume in average-risk MB is safe and does not compromise survival. Reducing CSI dose in young children with average-risk MB results in inferior outcomes, possibly in a subgroup-dependent manner, but is associated with better neurocognitive outcome. Molecularly informed patient selection warrants further exploration for children with MB to be considered for late-effect sparing approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02730DOI Listing
June 2021

Visualization of band offsets at few-layer MoS2/Ge heterojunction.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, NH-62, Nagaur Road, Karwad, Jodhpur, Jodhpur, 342037, INDIA.

The visualization of band alignment for designing heterostructures between transition metal dichalcogenides and germanium plays a vital role in a deeper understanding of carrier dynamics at the heterointerface. Here, to study the band alignment across the MoS2/Ge heterojunction, we have deposited a wafer-scale highly crystalline few atomic layers MoS2 film via a highly controllable and scalable sputtering technique coupled with a post sulfurization process in a sulfur-rich environment. The Raman and XRD spectra of as-fabricated MoS2/Ge heterojunction expose the presence of highly crystalline few atomic layer MoS2 on top of Ge substrate. Interestingly, we found a type-II band alignment at the MoS2/Ge heterointerface having valence band, and conduction band offset values of 0.88 and 0.21 eV, which can provide very efficient recombination through spatially confining charge carriers. The calculation of band offset parameters offers a promising way for device engineering across the MoS2/Ge heterojunction interface. Moreover, to demonstrate the practicability of the fabricated heterostructure, we explored the suitability of our device for broadband photodetection applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0932DOI Listing
June 2021

Post covid 19 pulmonary fibrosis. Is it real threat?

Indian J Tuberc 2021 Jul 10;68(3):330-333. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, AIIMS Patna, 801505, India.

After the COVID-19 outbreak, increasing number of patients worldwide who have survived COVID-19 continue to battle the symptoms of the illness, long after they have been clinically tested negative for the disease. As we battle through this pandemic, the challenging part is to manage COVID-19 sequelae which may vary from fatigue and body aches to lung fibrosis. This review addresses underlying mechanism, risk factors, course of disease and treatment option for post covid pulmonary fibrosis. Elderly patient who require ICU care and mechanical ventilation are at the highest risk to develop lung fibrosis. Currently, no fully proven options are available for the treatment of post inflammatory COVID 19 pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654356PMC
July 2021

A Young Woman With Palpitations: A Poison or a Remedy?

Circulation 2021 Jun 7;143(23):2312-2315. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Cardiology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. Now with Department of Cardiology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054890DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficient Parametrization of Force Field for the Quantitative Prediction of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquid Electrolytes.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064, India.

The prediction of transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids from nonpolarizable force field-based simulations has long been a challenge. The uniform charge scaling method has been widely used to improve the agreement with the experiment by incorporating the polarizability and charge transfer effects in an effective manner. While this method improves the performance of the force fields, this prescription is ad hoc in character; further, a quantitative prediction is still not guaranteed. In such cases, the nonbonded interaction parameters too need to be refined, which requires significant effort. In this work, we propose a three-step semiautomated refinement procedure based on (1) atomic site charges obtained from quantum calculations of the bulk condensed phase; (2) quenched Monte Carlo optimizer to shortlist suitable force field candidates, which are then tested using pilot simulations; and (3) manual refinement to further improve the accuracy of the force field. The strategy is designed in a sequential manner with each step improving the accuracy over the previous step, allowing the users to invest the effort commensurate with the desired accuracy of the refined force field. The refinement procedure is applied on ,-diethyl--methyl--(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEME-TFSI), a front-runner as an electrolyte for electric double-layer capacitors and single-molecule-based devices. The transferability of the refined force field is tested on ,-dimethyl--ethyl--methoxyethoxyethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (N-TFSI). The refined force field is found to be better at predicting both structural and transport properties compared to the uniform charge scaling procedure, which showed a discrepancy in the X-ray structure factor. The refined force field showed quantitative agreement with structural (density and X-ray structure factor) and transport properties-diffusion coefficients, ionic conductivity, and shear viscosity over a wide temperature range, building a case for the wide adoption of the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jctc.1c00268DOI Listing
June 2021

Secondary cytoreduction for relapsed ovarian cancer.

Lancet Oncol 2021 06;22(6):e230

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh 249203, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00181-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Genetic mechanisms of HLA-I loss and immune escape in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(22)

Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032;

Fifty percent of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases lack cell-surface expression of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I), thus escaping recognition by cytotoxic T cells. Here we show that, across B cell lymphomas, loss of MHC-I, but not MHC-II, is preferentially restricted to DLBCL. To identify the involved mechanisms, we performed whole exome and targeted HLA deep-sequencing in 74 DLBCL samples, and found somatic inactivation of and the loci in 80% (34 of 42) of MHC-I tumors. Furthermore, 70% (22 of 32) of MHC-I DLBCLs harbored monoallelic HLA-I genetic alterations (MHC-I), indicating allele-specific inactivation. MHC-I and MHC-I cases harbored significantly higher mutational burden and inferred neoantigen load, suggesting potential coselection of loss and sustained neoantigen production. Notably, the analysis of >500,000 individuals across different cancer types revealed common germline homozygosity, preferentially in DLBCL. In mice, germinal-center B cells lacking HLA-I expression did not progress to lymphoma and were counterselected in the context of oncogene-driven lymphomagenesis, suggesting that additional events are needed to license immune evasion. These results suggest a multistep process of loss in DLBCL development including both germline and somatic events, and have direct implications for the pathogenesis and immunotherapeutic targeting of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2104504118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179151PMC
June 2021

A Single-Organelle Optical Omics Platform for Cell Science and Biomarker Discovery.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 28;93(23):8281-8290. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics and Department of Chemistry, Natural Science Complex, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260, United States.

Research in fundamental cell biology and pathology could be revolutionized by developing the capacity for quantitative molecular analysis of subcellular structures. To that end, we introduce the Ramanomics platform, based on confocal Raman microspectrometry coupled to a biomolecular component analysis algorithm, which together enable us to molecularly profile single organelles in a live-cell environment. This emerging omics approach categorizes the entire molecular makeup of a sample into about a dozen of general classes and subclasses of biomolecules and quantifies their amounts in submicrometer volumes. A major contribution of our study is an attempt to bridge Raman spectrometry with big-data analysis in order to identify complex patterns of biomolecules in a single cellular organelle and leverage discovery of disease biomarkers. Our data reveal significant variations in organellar composition between different cell lines. We also demonstrate the merits of Ramanomics for identifying diseased cells by using prostate cancer as an example. We report large-scale molecular transformations in the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum that accompany the development of prostate cancer. Based on these findings, we propose that Ramanomics datasets in distinct organelles constitute signatures of cellular metabolism in healthy and diseased states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01131DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent advances in the discovery of potent RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors targeting viruses.

RSC Med Chem 2021 Mar 23;12(3):306-320. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Chemical Technology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology Palampur Himachal Pradesh-176 061 India.

WHO has declared COVID-19 a pandemic, which has affected the whole world and has caused unprecedented social and economic disruption. Since the emergence of the disease, several druggable targets have been suggested including 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL), spike, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and the papain-like protease (PL) computational approach. From the beginning, viral replication has been the main focus for any antiviral drug development for viral diseases, including HCV, influenza virus, zika virus, norovirus, measles, dengue virus, and coronaviruses. This review lists the nucleoside, nucleotide, and non-nucleoside RdRp inhibitor analogues of various viral diseases that may be evaluated for drug development to treat COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0md00318bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130609PMC
March 2021

Higher mortality in acute variceal haemorrhage: Is fresh frozen plasma alone to be blamed?

Liver Int 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14968DOI Listing
May 2021

Hydrocephalus surveillance following shunt placement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy: a survey of surgeons in the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Networks.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 21:1-8. Epub 2021 May 21.

1Division of Neurosurgery, Connecticut Children's, Hartford.

Objective: Late failure is a well-documented complication of cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement and, less commonly, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). However, standards regarding the frequency of clinical and radiological follow-up in these patients have not been defined. Here, the authors report on their survey of surgeons at sites for the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) or its implementation/quality improvement arm (HCRNq) to provide a cross-sectional overview of practice patterns.

Methods: A 24-question survey was developed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform and was distributed to the 138 pediatric neurosurgeons across 39 centers who participate in the HCRN or HCRNq. Survey questions were organized into three sections: 1) Demographics (5 questions), 2) Shunt Surveillance (12 questions), and 3) ETV Surveillance (7 questions).

Results: A total of 122 complete responses were obtained, for an overall response rate of 88%. The majority of respondents have been in practice for more than 10 years (58%) and exclusively treat pediatric patients (79%). Most respondents consider hydrocephalus to have stabilized 1 month (21%) or 3 months (39%) after shunt surgery, and once stability is achieved, 72% then ask patients to return for routine clinical follow-up annually. Overall, 83% recommend lifelong clinical follow-up after shunt placement. Additionally, 75% obtain routine imaging studies in asymptomatic patients, although the specific imaging modality and frequency of imaging vary. The management of an asymptomatic increase in ventricle size or an asymptomatic catheter fracture also varies widely. Many respondents believe that hydrocephalus takes longer to stabilize after ETV than after shunt placement, reporting that they consider hydrocephalus to have stabilized 3 (28%), 6 (33%), or 12 (28%) months after an ETV. Although 68% of respondents have patients return annually for routine clinical follow-up after an ETV, only 56% recommend lifelong follow-up. The proportion of respondents who perform lifelong follow-up increases with greater practice experience (p = 0.01). Overall, 67% of respondents obtain routine imaging studies in asymptomatic patients after an ETV, with "rapid" MRI the study of choice for most respondents.

Conclusions: While there is a general consensus among pediatric neurosurgeons across North America that hydrocephalus patients should have long-term follow-up after shunt placement, radiological surveillance is characterized by considerable variety, as is follow-up after an ETV. Future work should focus on evaluating whether any one of these surveillance protocols is associated with improved outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.PEDS20830DOI Listing
May 2021

Defining the Prognosis of Critically Ill Patients with Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

J Hepatol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Royal Free Campus, UCL, London, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.04.054DOI Listing
May 2021

Influence of cooking methods on antinutritional factors, oligosaccharides and protein quality of underutilized legume Macrotyloma uniflorum.

Food Res Int 2021 May 9;143:110299. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Food Technology Vignan Foundation for Science, Technology and Research Vadlamudi, Guntur 522213, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Macrotyloma uniflorum is a salubrious but underutilized legume mainly consumed in semi-arid zones of Africa, Australia and India. Various antinutritional factors- phytates, oxalates and oligosaccharides- has limited its consumption. Current work describes the influence of various thermal processing technologies - autoclaving, microwave, micronization and extrusion- on antinutritional profile, phenolic acid profile and protein digestibility of two selected varieties. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction in antinutritional content was observed for horse gram grains processed using various thermal technologies. Among all processing technologies extrusion caused marked degradation in antinutritional components. The reduction in oxalic acid, trypsin inhibitor, phytates and tannins ranged from 33 to 87 %, 77-82%, 33-60% and 51-66% respectively. Further, the decline in content of various oligosaccharides viz. raffinose, stachyose and verbascose varied from 36 to 61 %, 25-49% and 30-74% respectively for both the varieties. Although extrusion caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in the essential amino acid index and protein efficiency ratio, simultaneous increased was observed in biological value. The processing had significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on grain antinutritional content and also retained its substantial functional properties. This establishes the utility of grain and promote the introduction of these new grains and enlarge the market of novel healthy foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110299DOI Listing
May 2021

Point absorbers in Advanced LIGO.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):4047-4063

Small, highly absorbing points are randomly present on the surfaces of the main interferometer optics in Advanced LIGO. The resulting nanometer scale thermo-elastic deformations and substrate lenses from these micron-scale absorbers significantly reduce the sensitivity of the interferometer directly though a reduction in the power-recycling gain and indirect interactions with the feedback control system. We review the expected surface deformation from point absorbers and provide a pedagogical description of the impact on power buildup in second generation gravitational wave detectors (dual-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometers). This analysis predicts that the power-dependent reduction in interferometer performance will significantly degrade maximum stored power by up to 50% and, hence, limit GW sensitivity, but it suggests system wide corrections that can be implemented in current and future GW detectors. This is particularly pressing given that future GW detectors call for an order of magnitude more stored power than currently used in Advanced LIGO in Observing Run 3. We briefly review strategies to mitigate the effects of point absorbers in current and future GW wave detectors to maximize the success of these enterprises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.419689DOI Listing
May 2021

Young man with life-threatening palpitations.

Heart 2021 Jun;107(11):894-936

Cardiology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319132DOI Listing
June 2021

Slow-cycling (dormant) cancer cells in therapy resistance, cancer relapse and metastasis.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA; Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX, 78957, USA. Electronic address:

It is increasingly appreciated that cancer cell heterogeneity and plasticity constitute major barriers to effective clinical treatments and long-term therapeutic efficacy. Research in the past two decades suggest that virtually all treatment-naive human cancers harbor subsets of cancer cells that possess many of the cardinal features of normal stem cells. Such stem-like cancer cells, operationally defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs), are frequently quiescent and dynamically change and evolve during tumor progression and therapeutic interventions. Intrinsic tumor cell heterogeneity is reflected in a different aspect in that tumors also harbor a population of slow-cycling cells (SCCs) that are not in the proliferative cell cycle and thus are intrinsically refractory to anti-mitotic drugs. In this Perspective, we focus our discussions on SCCs in cancer and on various methodologies that can be employed to enrich and purify SCCs, compare the similarities and differences between SCCs, CSCs and cancer cells undergoing EMT, and present evidence for the involvement of SCCs in surviving anti-neoplastic treatments, mediating tumor relapse, maintaining tumor dormancy and mediating metastatic dissemination. Our discussions make it clear that an in-depth understanding of the biological properties of SCCs in cancer will be instrumental to developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent tumor relapse and distant metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.04.021DOI Listing
May 2021

Recent advances in understanding chronic myeloid leukemia: where do we stand?

Fac Rev 2021 1;10:35. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Georg-Speyer-Haus, Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy, 60596 Frankfurt, Germany.

While the need for complete eradication of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myeloid leukemia may be controversial, it is agreed that remaining LSCs are the cause of relapse and disease progression. Current efforts are focused on the understanding of the persistence of immunophenotypically defined LSCs, which feature abnormalities in signaling pathways relating to autophagy, metabolism, epigenetics, and others and are influenced by leukemia cell-extrinsic factors such as the immune and bone marrow microenvironments. In sum, these elements modulate response and resistance to therapies and the clinical condition of treatment-free remission (TFR), the newly established goal in CML treatment, once the patient has achieved a durable molecular remission after treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Novel combination therapies based on these identified vulnerabilities of LSCs, aimed at the induction or maintenance of TFR, are being developed, while other research is directed at the elucidation of factors mediating progression to blast crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12703/r/10-35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103906PMC
April 2021

Ciprofloxacin and Acetaminophen sorption onto Banana Peel Biochars: Environmental and Process Parameter Influences.

Environ Res 2021 May 6:111218. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India. Electronic address:

Environmental (pH, temperature ionic strength, cations, anions) and process (pyrolysis temperature, particle size, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration) parameters were evaluated for ciprofloxacin and acetaminophen sorption onto a series of sustainable banana peel biochars. Ciprofloxacin and acetaminophen were chosen as model pharmaceuticals for removal owing to their worldwide presence in aquatic systems. After pyrolytic preparation from 450 to 750 °C, the biochars were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by physicochemical, morphological, mineralogical and elemental analyses. Batch sorption studies were employed to evaluate the pH effects from 2 to 10, biochar pyrolysis temperatures (450, 550, 650, and 750C), particle sizes (30-50, 50-100, 100-150 BSS mesh), adsorbent dosages (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/L), adsorbate concentrations (0.5-200 ppm) and uptake temperatures (10, 25, 40 °C) on sorption efficiency. Maximum pharmaceutical sorption is achieved by the biochar prepared at 750 °C. Sorption rate increased with decreasing in biochar particle size from 30-50 to 100-150 BSS mesh. Relationships between biochar properties and their sorptive potential showed positive correlations with surface area, total pore volume, %C, %ash and C/N molar ratios. Sorption data was modelled using different isotherm models and both kinetic and thermodynamic equations. Maximum Langmuir capacities of ciprofloxacin and acetaminophen on BPBC750 were 23.3 and 57.3 mg/g at 10 and 45 °C, respectively. Langmuir isotherm fittings and thermodynamic parameters confirmed the exothermic sorption (for ciprofloxacin) and endothermic sorption (for acetaminophen). The role of ionic strength, cations and anions on pharmaceuticals sorption were evaluated. H-bonding, π-π-interactions and pore diffusion were major contributors to pharmaceutical sorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111218DOI Listing
May 2021

Long-term albumin infusion in decompensated cirrhosis: A review of current literature.

World J Hepatol 2021 Apr;13(4):421-432

Department ofGastroenterology and Hepatology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore 529889, Singapore.

Decompensated cirrhosis is characterized by chronic inflammation and severe portal hypertension leading to systemic circulatory dysfunction. Albumin infusion has been widely used in decompensated cirrhosis in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, large-volume paracentesis and hepatorenal syndrome. Emerging data suggest long-term albumin infusion has both oncotic and non-oncotic properties which may improve the clinical outcomes in decompensated cirrhosis patients. We review the current literature on both the established and potential role of albumin, and specifically address the controversies of long-term albumin infusion in decompensated cirrhosis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v13.i4.421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080546PMC
April 2021

Heterogeneous vanadium-catalyzed oxidative cleavage of olefins for sustainable synthesis of carboxylic acids.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun;57(44):5430-5433

Chemical Technology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176 061, India. and Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201 002, India.

The development of green and sustainable processes to synthesize active pharmaceutical ingredients and key starting materials is a priority for the pharmaceutical industry. A green and sustainable protocol for the oxidative cleavage of olefins to produce pharmaceutically and biologically valuable carboxylic acids is achieved. The developed protocol involves 70% aq. TBHP as an oxidant over a heterogeneous vanadium catalyst system. Notably, the synthesis of industrially important azelaic acid from various renewable vegetable oils is accomplished. The catalyst could be recycled for up to 5 cycles without significant loss in yield and the protocol was successfully demonstrated at the gram-scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01742jDOI Listing
June 2021

Genetic interactions among Brca1, Brca2, Palb2, and Trp53 in mammary tumor development.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Apr 23;7(1):45. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 cause a high risk of breast cancer. Here, we conducted parallel conditional knockout (CKO) of Brca1, Palb2, and Brca2, individually and in combination, along with one copy of Trp53, in the mammary gland of nulliparous female mice. We observed a functional equivalence of the three genes in their basic tumor-suppressive activity, a linear epistasis of Palb2 and Brca2, but complementary roles of Brca1 and Palb2 in mammary tumor suppression, as combined ablation of either Palb2 or Brca2 with Brca1 led to delayed tumor formation. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed both similarities and differences between Brca1 and Palb2 or Brca2 null tumors. Analyses of mouse mammary glands and cultured human cells showed that combined loss of BRCA1 and PALB2 led to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased apoptosis, implicating oxidative stress in the delayed tumor development in Brca1;Palb2 double CKO mice. The functional complementarity between BRCA1 and PALB2/BRCA2 and the role of ROS in tumorigenesis require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00253-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065161PMC
April 2021

Scabbard trachea in medullary thyroid cancer.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 23;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Surgical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-242352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074536PMC
April 2021

Potassium and Sodium Salt Stress Characterization in the Yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 11;87(13):e0310020. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Biotechnology requires efficient microbial cell factories. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a vital cell factory, but more diverse cell factories are essential for the sustainable use of natural resources. Here, we benchmarked nonconventional yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Rhodotorula toruloides against S. cerevisiae strains CEN.PK and W303 for their responses to potassium and sodium salt stress. We found an inverse relationship between the maximum growth rate and the median cell volume that was responsive to salt stress. The supplementation of K to CEN.PK cultures reduced Na toxicity and increased the specific growth rate 4-fold. The higher K and Na concentrations impaired ethanol and acetate metabolism in CEN.PK and acetate metabolism in W303. In R. toruloides cultures, these salt supplementations induced a trade-off between glucose utilization and cellular aggregate formation. Their combined use increased the beta-carotene yield by 60% compared with that of the reference. Neural network-based image analysis of exponential-phase cultures showed that the vacuole-to-cell volume ratio increased with increased cell volume for W303 and K. marxianus but not for CEN.PK and R. toruloides in response to salt stress. Our results provide insights into common salt stress responses in yeasts and will help design efficient bioprocesses. Characterization of microbial cell factories under industrially relevant conditions is crucial for designing efficient bioprocesses. Salt stress, typical in industrial bioprocesses, impinges upon cell volume and affects productivity. This study presents an open-source neural network-based analysis method to evaluate volumetric changes using yeast optical microscopy images. It allows quantification of cell and vacuole volumes relevant to cellular physiology. On applying salt stress in yeasts, we found that the combined use of K and Na improves the cellular fitness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK and increases the beta-carotene productivity in Rhodotorula toruloides, a commercially important antioxidant and a valuable additive in foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03100-20DOI Listing
June 2021