Publications by authors named "Rafiqul Islam"

97 Publications

Living with arsenic in the environment: An examination of current awareness of farmers in the Bengal basin using hybrid feature selection and machine learning.

Environ Int 2021 Mar 27;153:106529. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, S102TN, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

High levels of arsenic in drinking water and food materials continue to pose a global health challenge. Over 127 million people alone in Bangladesh (BD) and West Bengal (WB) state of India are exposed to elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water. Despite decades of research and outreach, arsenic awareness in communities continue to be low. Specifically, very few studies reported arsenic awareness among low-income farming communities. A comprehensive approach to assess arsenic awareness is a key step in identifying research and development priorities so that appropriate stakeholder engagement may be designed to tackle arsenic menace. In this study, we developed a comprehensive arsenic awareness index (CAAI) and identified key awareness drivers (KADs) of arsenic to help evaluate farmers' preferences in dealing with arsenic in the environment. The CAAI and KADs were developed using a questionnaire survey in conjunction with ten machine learning (ML) models coupled with a hybrid feature selection approach. Two questionnaire surveys comprising of 73 questions covering health, water and community, and food were conducted in arsenic-affected areas of WB and BD. Comparison of CAAIs showed that the BD farmers were generally more arsenic-aware (CAAI = 7.7) than WB farmers (CAAI = 6.8). Interestingly, the reverse was true for the awareness linked to arsenic in the food chain. Application of hybrid feature selection identified 15 KADs, which included factors related to stakeholder interventions and cropping practices instead of commonly perceived factors such as age, gender and income. Among ML algorithms, classification and regression trees and single C5.0 tree could estimate CAAIs with an average accuracy of 84%. Both communities agreed on policy changes on water testing and clean water supply. The CAAI and KADs combination revealed a contrasting arsenic awareness between the two farming communities, albeit their cultural similarities. Specifically, our study shows the need for increasing awareness of risks through the food chain in BD, whereas awareness campaigns should be strengthened to raise overall awareness in WB possibly through media channels as deemed effective in BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106529DOI Listing
March 2021

Improvement of enzymatic bioxylitol production from sawdust hemicellulose: optimization of parameters.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Mar 16:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

Enzymatic production of bioxylitol from lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) provides a promising alternative to both chemical and fermentative routes. This study aimed to assess the impacts of catalytic variables on bioxylitol production from wood sawdust using xylose reductase (XR) enzyme and to optimize the bioprocess. Enzyme-based xylitol production was carried out in batch cultivation under various experimental conditions to obtain maximum xylitol yield and productivity. The response surface methodology (RSM) was followed to fine-tune the most significant variables such as reaction time, temperature, and pH, which influence the synthesis of bioxylitol from sawdust hydrolysate and to optimize them. The optimum time, temperature, and pH became were 12.25 h, 35 °C, and 6.5, respectively, with initial xylose 18.8 g/L, NADPH 2.83 g/L, XR 0.027 U/mg, and agitation 100 rpm. The maximum xylitol production was attained at 16.28 g/L with a yield and productivity of 86.6% () and 1.33 g/L·h, respectively. Optimization of catalytic parameters using sequential strategies resulted in 1.55-fold improvement in overall xylitol production. This study explores a novel strategy for using sawdust hemicellulose in bioxylitol production by enzyme technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2021.1897840DOI Listing
March 2021

Trends and projections of under-5 mortality in Bangladesh including the effects of maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and use of healthcare services.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(2):e0246210. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Public Health & Statistics, College of Nursing, Midwifery and Healthcare, University of West London, Brentford, United Kingdom.

Objective: This study examines trends and puts forward projections of under-5 mortality (U5M) in Bangladesh and identifies the effects of maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and use of healthcare services.

Methods: Data from seven waves of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (1994-2014) were analyzed for trends and projections of U5M and a Chi-square (χ2) test was used to identify if there was any association with maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and use of healthcare services. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the effects of fertility behaviors and healthcare usage on the occurrence of U5M adjusting with confounders.

Results: U5M declined from 82.5 to 41.0 per 1000 livebirths during 1994-2014 and is projected to further reduce to 17.6 per 1000 livebirths by 2030. The study identified a noticeable regional variation in U5M with maternal high-risk fertility behaviours including age at birth <18 years (aOR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.23-2.76) and birth interval <24 months (aOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.37) found to be significant determinants. There was a 39-53% decline in this rate of mortality among women that had used antenatal care services at least four times (aOR, 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27-0.97), delivery care (aOR, 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.95), and had received postnatal care (aOR, 0.61, 95% CI: 0.41-0.91) in their last birth. Cesarean section was found to be associated with a 51% reduction in U5M (aOR, 0.49, 95% CI: 0.29-0.82) compared to its non-use.

Conclusion: The Sustainable Development Goals require a U5M rate of 25 per 1000 livebirths to be achieved by 2030. This study suggests that with the current trend of reduction, Bangladesh will achieve this target before the deadline. This study also found that maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and non-use of maternal healthcare services are very prevalent in some regions of Bangladesh and have increased the occurrence of U5M in those areas. This suggests therefore, that policies and programmes designed to reduce the pregnancy rates of women that are at risk and to encourage an increase in the use of maternal healthcare services are needed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246210PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861360PMC
February 2021

2020 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: BAV Guidance, CLSI H62, Biotherapeutics Stability, Parallelism Testing, CyTOF and Regulatory Feedback ( - Recommendations on Biotherapeutics Stability, PK LBA Regulated Bioanalysis, Biomarkers Assays, Cytometry Validation & Innovation - Regulatory Agencies' Inputs on Bioanalysis, Biomarkers, Immunogenicity, Gene & Cell Therapy and Vaccine).

Bioanalysis 2021 Mar 29;13(5):295-361. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

The 14 edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (14 WRIB) was held virtually on June 15-29, 2020 with an attendance of over 1000 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. The 14 WRIB included three Main Workshops, seven Specialized Workshops that together spanned 11 days in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy and vaccine. Moreover, a comprehensive vaccine assays track; an enhanced cytometry track and updated Industry/Regulators consensus on BMV of biotherapeutics by LCMS were special features in 2020. As in previous years, this year's WRIB continued to gather a wide diversity of international industry opinion leaders and regulatory authority experts working on both small and large molecules to facilitate sharing and discussions focused on improving quality, increasing regulatory compliance and achieving scientific excellence on bioanalytical issues. This 2020 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the Global Bioanalytical Community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2020 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication covers the recommendations on (Part 2A) BAV, PK LBA, Flow Cytometry Validation and Cytometry Innovation and (Part 2B) Regulatory Input. Part 1 (Innovation in Small Molecules, Hybrid LBA/LCMS & Regulated Bioanalysis), Part 3 (Vaccine, Gene/Cell Therapy, NAb Harmonization and Immunogenicity) are published in volume 13 of Bioanalysis, issues 4, and 6 (2021), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2021-0005DOI Listing
March 2021

Influence of height on blood pressure and hypertension among Bangladeshi adults.

Int J Cardiol Hypertens 2020 Jun 29;5:100028. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Background: Recent studies have reported that height is inversely associated with blood pressure and hypertension. However, there is lack of comprehensive findings from Bangladesh in this regard.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between height and blood pressure in a Bangladeshi population.

Setting: Rural and urban sites from seven divisions of Bangladesh.

Participants: Participants were 7932 males and females (aged ≥35 years) evaluated in the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Participants (n = 7647) who had complete height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) measurements and non-missing medication history, were included in the analysis.

Methods: Hypertension was defined as an SBP over 140 mmHg or/and a DBP over 90 mmHg, or current use of antihypertensive medication. Difference between SBP and DBP was calculated to get pulse pressure (PP). Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used.

Results: PP decreased linearly with increasing height among males (-0.11, P < 0.05) and females (-0.19, P < 0.05) after adjusting for age, BMI, living region, type of occupation, wealth index, and highest level of education. SBP decreased linearly with increasing height among only females (-0.14, P < 0.05), after adjusting for age, BMI, living region, type of occupation, wealth index, and highest level of education. No association was found between quartiles of height and prevalence of hypertension.

Conclusions: Height was found to be inversely associated with pulse pressure in both sexes. Studies with longitudinal design are needed to investigate the association between shortness with blood pressure and hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchy.2020.100028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803027PMC
June 2020

Prevalence, risk factors, and interventions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in South Asia: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 Jan 11;10(1):20. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly contributing to the disease burden in South Asia. This review will summarize the prevalence and risk factors of COPD in South Asia and the interventions regarding COPD that have been introduced in South Asian countries.

Method: This scoping review will primarily follow Arksey and O'Malley's six steps of scoping review methodology. Additionally, it will follow the recent upgradation of the scoping review methodology by Levac et al., and the Joanna Briggs Institute. Research questions were already identified at the beginning of the proposed scoping review. Electronic databases will be searched (PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest) using search terms. Studies will be screened independently by two reviewers through a two-stage screening process using pre-developed inclusion criteria for this scoping review. Eligible studies will be abstracted and charted in a standardised form. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) will be used to report the result. Additionally, feedback from South Asia's experienced COPD researchers on the final literature list will be collected for gap identification in literature search. Two independent reviewers will assess the quality of each included study's design using the Joanna Briggs Institute's tool.

Discussion: The proposed scoping review will map the evidence on COPD in South Asia through literature review, and it will focus on prevalence, risk factors, and interventions. This review will contribute to the advancement of research on COPD and will be beneficial for policy-makers, public health specialists, and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01556-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798320PMC
January 2021

[Rhabdomyosarcoma of the common bile duct mimicking choledochal cyst: a rare cause of obstructive jaundice].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2020 Dec;22(12):1338-1343

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Science and Paraclinical Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Extrahepatic biliary tract tumors are rare and among them rhabdomyosarcoma is most common. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue malignant musculoskeletal tumor and is a very rare malignancy of the common bile duct in children. It usually presents as obstructive jaundice and/or pruritus. If there is no local invasion to the adjacent tissues, the radiological appearance of the tumor lesion is like a choledochal cyst. So the diagnosis is usually made at surgery or by preoperative biopsy. It is important to diagnose early and differentiate it from choledochal cyst and start treatment as early as possible for long time survival of the patient. This case report presented a case of a 10-year-old boy with recurrent onset of obstructive jaundice and fever preoperatively who was diagnosed as choledochal cyst and postoperatively as embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the common bile duct. After surgical resection and postoperative chemotherapy, the child had a good prognosis. So it is crucial to know that this rare tumor can mimic congenital choledochal cyst and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735933PMC
December 2020

Evaluation of shade matching of a novel supra-nano filled esthetic resin composite employing structural color using simplified simulated clinical cavities.

J Esthet Restor Dent 2020 Nov 14. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Division of Oral Health Science, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate the shade matching ability of a novel supra-nano filled esthetic resin composite employing structural color technology using simplified simulated clinical cavities. Filler morphology and light transmittance characteristics were also evaluated.

Materials And Methods: One-hundred and twenty frames of resin composite were built in A1, A2, A3, and A4 shades to simulate Class I cavities (diameter = 4 mm, height = 2 mm). For each shaded frame, cavities were filled with three different types of filler containing resin composites (n = 10): supra-nano filled (SN filled) resin composite, microhybrid filled (MH filled) resin composite, and clustered-nano filled (CN filled) resin composite. Color parameters were calculated using CIELAB (△E ) and CIEDE2000 (△E ). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test (α = .05). Filler morphology and light transmittance characteristics were measured to explore the role of structural color on shade matching.

Results: △E and △E of SN filled resin composite were significantly lower in A2, A3, and A4 shades (P < .05).

Conclusions: The SN filled resin composite showed better shade matching with A2, A3, and A4 shades of resin composite frames compared to MH filled resin composite, and CN filled resin composite.

Clinical Significance: Universal-shade resin composites, which were expected to match nearly all shades, simplify the restorative procedure. Resin composite, which contained spherical supra-nano filler particles, could contribute most to its shade matching by stimulating structural color. Structural color technology may provide additional benefits for shade matching of resin composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12671DOI Listing
November 2020

Arsenic dynamics in paddy soil under traditional manuring practices in Bangladesh.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 27;268(Pt A):115821. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, BT9 5DL, UK.

Fertilization with organic matter (farm yard manure and/or rice straw) is thought to enhance arsenic (As) mobilization into soil porewaters, with subsequent As assimilation by rice roots leading to enhanced translocation to the grain. Here, interlinked experiments (field manuring and soil batch culture) were conducted to find the effect of organic matter at a field application rate practiced in Bangladesh (5 t/ha) on As mobilization in soil for paddies impacted by As contaminated groundwater irrigation, a widespread phenomenon in Bangladesh where the experiments were conducted. Total As concentration in a paddy soil (Sonargaon) ranged from 21.9 to 8.1 mg/kg down the soil profile and strongly correlated with TOC content. Arsenic, Fe, Mn, and DOC release into soil solution, and As speciation, are intimately linked to OM amendment, soil depth and temporal variation. Organic matter amendments lead to increased mobilization of As into both soil porewaters and standing surface waters. The As speciation in the porewater was dominated by inorganic As (As) (arsenite and arsenate), with traces amounts of methylated species (DMA and MMA) only being found with OM amendment. It was noted in field trials that OM fertilization greatly enhanced As mobility to surface waters, which may have major implications for the fate of As in paddy agronomic ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115821DOI Listing
January 2021

Blood Uric Acid Prediction With Machine Learning: Model Development and Performance Comparison.

JMIR Med Inform 2020 Oct 8;8(10):e18331. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Advanced Information Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: Uric acid is associated with noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, vascular dementia, and hypertension. Therefore, uric acid is considered to be a risk factor for the development of noncommunicable diseases. Most studies on uric acid have been performed in developed countries, and the application of machine-learning approaches in uric acid prediction in developing countries is rare. Different machine-learning algorithms will work differently on different types of data in various diseases; therefore, a different investigation is needed for different types of data to identify the most accurate algorithms. Specifically, no study has yet focused on the urban corporate population in Bangladesh, despite the high risk of developing noncommunicable diseases for this population.

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a model for predicting blood uric acid values based on basic health checkup test results, dietary information, and sociodemographic characteristics using machine-learning algorithms. The prediction of health checkup test measurements can be very helpful to reduce health management costs.

Methods: Various machine-learning approaches were used in this study because clinical input data are not completely independent and exhibit complex interactions. Conventional statistical models have limitations to consider these complex interactions, whereas machine learning can consider all possible interactions among input data. We used boosted decision tree regression, decision forest regression, Bayesian linear regression, and linear regression to predict personalized blood uric acid based on basic health checkup test results, dietary information, and sociodemographic characteristics. We evaluated the performance of these five widely used machine-learning models using data collected from 271 employees in the Grameen Bank complex of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Results: The mean uric acid level was 6.63 mg/dL, indicating a borderline result for the majority of the sample (normal range <7.0 mg/dL). Therefore, these individuals should be monitoring their uric acid regularly. The boosted decision tree regression model showed the best performance among the models tested based on the root mean squared error of 0.03, which is also better than that of any previously reported model.

Conclusions: A uric acid prediction model was developed based on personal characteristics, dietary information, and some basic health checkup measurements. This model will be useful for improving awareness among high-risk individuals and populations, which can help to save medical costs. A future study could include additional features (eg, work stress, daily physical activity, alcohol intake, eating red meat) in improving prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582147PMC
October 2020

Redesigning Portable Health Clinic Platform as a Remote Healthcare System to Tackle COVID-19 Pandemic Situation in Unreached Communities.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 30;17(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Advanced Information Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

Medical staff carry an inordinate risk of infection from patients, and many doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers are affected by COVID-19 worldwide. The unreached communities with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as chronic cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, or renal diseases became more vulnerable during this pandemic situation. In both cases, Remote Healthcare Systems (RHS) may help minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. This study used the WHO guidelines and Design Science Research (DSR) framework to redesign the Portable Health Clinic (PHC), an RHS, for the containment of the spread of COVID-19 as well as proposed corona logic (C-Logic) for the main symptoms of COVID-19. Using the distributed service platform of PHC, a trained healthcare worker with appropriate testing kits can screen high-risk individuals and can help optimize triage to medical services. PHC with its new triage algorithm (C-Logic) classifies the patients according to whether the patient needs to move to a clinic for a PCR test. Through modified PHC service, we can help people to boost their knowledge, attitude (feelings/beliefs), and self-efficacy to execute preventing measures. Our initial examination of the suitability of the PHC and its associated technologies as a key contributor to public health responses is designed to "flatten the curve", particularly among unreached high-risk NCD populations in developing countries. Theoretically, this study contributes to design science research by introducing a modified healthcare providing model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370203PMC
June 2020

Personal Health Record (PHR) System in Portable Health Clinic.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Jun;270:1347-1348

Medical Information Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Japan.

Personal Health Record (PHR) is not just the collection of personal health data but also a personal healthcare and disease management tool for the individual patient as well as a communication tool with the medical staff. Moreover, recently PHR has been considered an indispensable tool for patient engagement in the area of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and has gained importance. Like many other developing countries, the growth of NCDs is very high in Bangladesh. Portable Health Clinic (PHC) system has been developed there with a focus on NCDs and PHR is there from the beginning. This study for the standardization of PHR system of PHC with the reference of the PHR proposed by Japanese Clinical Societies could be a reference work for the national PHR system development in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200435DOI Listing
June 2020

Rapid and robust bioanalytical assays are critical for SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic and vaccine development and beyond.

Bioanalysis 2020 09 26;12(17):1199-1203. Epub 2020 May 26.

Bioanalytical Sciences, Celerion Inc. 621 Rose St, Lincoln, NE 68502, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2020-0116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255425PMC
September 2020

A Predictive Model for Height Tracking in an Adult Male Population in Bangladesh to Reduce Input Errors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 10;17(5). Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Advanced Information Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

The advancement of ICT and affordability of medical sensors enable healthcare data to be obtained remotely. Remote healthcare data is erroneous in nature. Detection of errors for remote healthcare data has not been significantly studied. This research aims to design and develop a software system to detect and reduce such healthcare data errors. Enormous research efforts produced error detection algorithms, however, the detection is done at the server side after a substantial amount of data is archived. Errors can be efficiently reduced if the suspicious data can be detected at the source. We took the approach to predict acceptable range of anthropometric data of each patient. We analyzed 40,391 records to monitor the growth patterns. We plotted the anthropometric items e.g., Height, Weight, BMI, Waist and Hip size for males and females. The plots show some patterns based on different age groups. This paper reports one parameter, height of males. We found three groups that can be classified with similar growth patterns: Age group 20-49, no significant change; Age group 50-64, slightly decremented pattern; and Age group 65-100, a drastic height loss. The acceptable range can change over time. The system estimates the updated trend from new health records.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084907PMC
March 2020

Variable Smear Layer and Adhesive Application: The Pursuit of Clinical Relevance in Bond Strength Testing.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Oct 29;20(21). Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586, Japan.

The removal or modification of smear layers that cover the dentin is critical to allow the penetration of adhesive molecules and to ensure a strong bond between resin and dentin. Aiming to establish a model for clinically-relevant dentin-bond testing, we evaluated the effects of smear layers created by abrasives having similar coarseness (180-grit SiC paper; fine-grit diamond bur) and application modes (single application; double application) on the microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) of two currently available universal adhesives (G-Premio Bond; Scotchbond Universal Adhesive) and a two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil Megabond 2). Sixty extracted human third molars were used for the μTBS test. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ( = 0.05). Fracture modes were determined using stereomicroscopy. An additional 24 third molars were prepared for observation of the resin-dentin interface by TEM and adhesive-smear layer interaction by SEM. μTBS was significantly affected by the adhesives and their application modes ( < 0.001), implying that the double application of universal adhesives should be recommended to improve their performance. The effect of smear layers was not significant ( > 0.05), indicating that 180-grit SiC papers could be used to prepare dentin as a substitute for fine-grit diamond burs for dentin-bond testing in laboratory settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861976PMC
October 2019

A Three-dimensional Thymic Culture System to Generate Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Tumor Antigen-specific Thymic Emigrants.

J Vis Exp 2019 08 9(150). Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH; Center for Cell-Based Therapy, National Cancer Institute, NIH.

The inheritance of pre-rearranged T cell receptors (TCRs) and their epigenetic rejuvenation make induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T cells a promising source for adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). However, classical in vitro methods for producing regenerated T cells from iPSC result in either innate-like or terminally differentiated T cells, which are phenotypically and functionally distinct from naïve T cells. Recently, a novel three-dimensional (3D) thymic culture system was developed to generate a homogenous subset of CD8αβ antigen-specific T cells with a naïve T cell-like functional phenotype, including the capacity for proliferation, memory formation, and tumor suppression in vivo. This protocol avoids aberrant developmental fates, allowing for the generation of clinically relevant iPSC-derived T cells, designated as iPSC-derived thymic emigrants (iTE), while also providing a potent tool to elucidate the subsequent functions necessary for T cell maturation after thymic selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/58672DOI Listing
August 2019

Portable Health Clinic: An Advanced Tele-Healthcare System for Unreached Communities.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2019 Aug;264:616-619

Medical Information Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

The Portable Health Clinic (PHC) system endeavors to take healthcare facilities along with remote doctors' consultancy to the doorsteps of the unreached people using an advanced telemedicine system. Thus, the necessity of having physical healthcare peripheries specially in the developing countries can be mitigated. The PHC system promotes preventive healthcare by encouraging regular health checkups so that diseases can be prevented as well as their severity can be mitigated, leading to a reduction on healthcare expenses. Thus, the number of patients along with excessive workload on existing healthcare human resources can be minimized. The current project in rural Bangladesh alone has served more than 41,000 people so far by the PHC system and a simple analysis of this data shows some significant findings on regional health status. A simple expansion of this program, covering a wider service area, can produce a big data to reflect the whole country's health profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI190296DOI Listing
August 2019

Assay validation and clinical performance of chronic inflammatory and chemokine biomarkers of NASH fibrosis.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(7):e0217263. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Services, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, United States of America.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease that can lead to cirrhosis, liver transplant, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. While liver biopsy remains the reference standard for disease diagnosis, analytical and clinical development of non-invasive soluble biomarkers of NASH are of great importance to advance the field. To this end, we performed analytical and clinical validation on a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines implicated hepatic inflammation; IL-6, CRP, TNFα, MCP-1, MIP-1β, eotaxin, VCAM-1. Biomarker assays were validated for accuracy and precision. Clinical performance was evaluated in a random sample of 52 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD/NASH. Patients were categorized into three groups according to their fibrosis stage; advanced (F3-F4), mild (F1-2) and no (F0) fibrosis. Serum IL-6 was increased in patients with advanced fibrosis (2.71 pg/mL; 1.26 pg/mL; 1.39 pg/mL p<0.01) compared to patients with mild or no fibrosis respectively. While, there was no significant difference noted in CRP, TNFα, MCP-1, MIP-1β, eotaxin among the three groups, VCAM-1 levels were increased by 55% (p<0.01) and 40% (p<0.05) in the advanced cohort compared to the mild and no fibrosis groups respectively. VCAM-1 also displayed good clinical performance as a biomarker of advanced fibrosis with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.87. The VCAM-1 assay demonstrated robust accuracy and precision, and VCAM-1 outperformed IL-6, CRP, TNFα, and the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1β, and eotaxin as a biomarker of advanced fibrosis in NASH. Addition of biomarkers such as IL-6 and VCAM-1 to panels may yield increased sensitivity and specificity for staging of NASH.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217263PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6619600PMC
February 2020

Impact of Routine Counseling on Breastfeeding Status in Hospitalized Infants Below 6 Months: Observation From a Large Diarrheal Disease Hospital in Bangladesh.

Glob Pediatr Health 2019 13;6:2333794X19854942. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Nutrition and Clinical Services Division (NCSD), International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

. Breastfeeding counseling (BFC) plays a crucial role in improving infant and young child feeding practices. To evaluate the impact of activities of BFC unit (BFCU) on breastfeeding practices of infants who were hospitalized for diarrheal illness through their regular counseling, assistance and support, and motivation. . In this retrospective chart analysis conducted at Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b using an electronic database, data were collected from mothers of infants younger than 6 months of age who visited the BFCU from 2011 to 2015. . Among a total of 3420 infants enrolled during study period, 429 (12.5%) were predominantly breastfed, 2457 (71.8%) partially breastfed, 531 (15.5%) non-breastfed, and 3 (0.1%) exclusively breastfed (EBF) at home. Through counseling of BFCU (following 24-hour recall technique), 2212 (65%) infants became EBF and 1186 (35%) failed to be EBF during discharge. Logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential covariates, such as maternal age <18 years and receiving breast milk with other liquid at home, revealed that infants having severe underweight, maternal perception of "baby does not suck," and "there is not enough milk" were less likely to be associated with EBF during discharge. Among 531 non-breastfed infants, 455 (85.7%) became partial breastfeeding and only 23 (4.3%) became EBF. . Counseling of mothers even during acute illness of infants in the hospital can help promote breastfeeding. Therefore, there is great importance of robust counseling on breastfeeding practices and may help establish re-lactation of acutely ill babies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2333794X19854942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572883PMC
June 2019

Linguatula serrata, a food-borne zoonotic parasite, in livestock in Bangladesh: Some pathologic and epidemiologic aspects.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 08 7;13:135-140. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Parasitology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan. Electronic address:

Food-borne parasitic zoonoses are major threats to human health and only next to the 'big three' such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Linguatula serrata is a food-borne zoonotic pentastomid that affects a wide range of animals including humans. Dogs and other carnivores are the final hosts while most herbivores, including domestic ruminants serve as intermediate hosts. Here, the study was conducted on some epidemiologic and pathologic aspects of L. serrata infection in cattle and goats through a slaughterhouse based survey. A total of 302 samples, consisting of 257 mesenteric, 26 hepatic and 19 pulmonary lymph nodes (LNs) of cattle and goats were collected. Out of 302 LNs, 136 (45.0%) were infected with the nymphal stage of L. serrata (50.7% of cattle and 31.0% of goats). Significantly, a higher (P = 0.002) rate of infection was detected in cattle. Sex, but not seasons, is a prominent determinant of the infection. The infection was mostly detected in the mesenteric LNs (MLNs) (50.9%) but the parasite was also detected in the hepatic (3.9%) and pulmonary (21.1%) LNs. Grossly, the affected LNs were enlarged, edematous and soft. Cut surface of the LNs showed spongy appearance, and sometimes nymphs were found to crawl out. Histopathological studies revealed severe damage in parenchyma of LNs, characterized by the loss of typical pattern of lymphatic follicles and trabecule. Massive infiltration with eosinophils was detected. Collectively, the data suggest that L. serrata infection is endemic in food animals and has significant pathological impacts on livestock, and people of the country are at high risk to linguatulosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.06.001DOI Listing
August 2018

Modifying the Parboiling of Rice to Remove Inorganic Arsenic, While Fortifying with Calcium.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 05 17;53(9):5249-5255. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute for Global Food Security , Queen's University Belfast , David Keir Building, Malone Road , Belfast BT9 5BN , Northern Ireland.

Using village-based rice processing plants in rural Bangladesh, this study considered how parboiling rice could be altered to reduce the content of the carcinogen inorganic arsenic. Parboiling is normally conducted with rough rice (i.e., where the husk is intact) that is soaked overnight at ambient temperatures, and then either steamed or boiled for ∼10 min, followed by drying. Across 13 geographically dispersed facilities it was found that a simple alteration parboiling wholegrain, instead of rough rice, decreased the inorganic arsenic content by 25% ( P = 0.002) in the final polished grain. Also, parboiling wholegrain had little impact on milling quality of the final polished rice. The wholegrain parboiling approach caused statistically significant median enrichment of calcium, by 213%; and a reduction in potassium, by 40%; with all other nutrient elements tested being unaffected. Milled parboiled rough rice had an enriched inorganic arsenic compared to nonparboiled milled rice, but parboiling of wholegrain rice did not enrich inorganic arsenic in the final milled product. Polished rice produced from the parboiling of both rough and wholegrain rice significantly reduced cadmium compared to nonparboiled polished rice, by 25%. This study also identified that trimethylarsine oxide and tretramethylarsonium are widely elevated in the husk and bran of rice and, therefore, gives new insights into the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in paddy ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06548DOI Listing
May 2019

Adaptation of commercial biomarker kits and proposal for 'drug development kits' to support bioanalysis: call for action.

Bioanalysis 2018 Jun;10(12):945-955

Celerion, Inc., Global Bioanalytical Services, 621 Rose Street, Lincoln, NE 68502 USA.

There has been an increased use of commercial kits for biomarker measurement, commensurate with the increased demand for biomarkers in drug development. However, in most cases these kits do not meet the quality attributes for use in regulated environment. The process for adaptation of these kits can be frustrating, time consuming and resource intensive. In addition, a lack of harmonized guidance for the validation of biomarker poses a significant challenge in the adaptation of kits in a regulated environment. The purpose of this perspective is to propose a tiered approach to commercial drug development kits with clearly defined quality attributes and to demonstrate how these kits can be adapted to perform analytical validation in a regulated environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2017-0254DOI Listing
June 2018

Cystatin C Is a More Reliable Biomarker for Determining eGFR to Support Drug Development Studies.

J Clin Pharmacol 2018 10 18;58(10):1239-1247. Epub 2018 May 18.

Global Bioanalytical Services, Celerion, Lincoln, NE, USA.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is routinely used as a surrogate endpoint for the development of investigational drugs in clinical trials. GFR and staging of chronic kidney disease are typically assessed by measuring the concentration of endogenous serum biomarkers such as albumin and creatinine. However, creatinine is subject to high biological variability, and levels of creatinine do not rise until nearly 50% of kidney function is damaged, leading to inaccurate chronic kidney disease staging and false negatives. A newer biomarker for GFR, cystatin C, has been shown to be subject to less biological interference and more sensitive to early declines in kidney function. Cystatin C has also been shown to outperform creatinine as an indicator of true GFR and to add information about the occurrence of acute kidney injury. Comparison studies of cystatin C and creatinine continue to demonstrate its increased accuracy and sensitivity for changes in true GFR. While challenges remain for use of cystatin C, international agencies and working groups continue to validate cystatin C as a biomarker and accompanying GFR estimating equations for diagnostic and drug development use. In this review, we summarize these comparison studies, regulatory and industry guidelines, and clinical trial case studies for use of cystatin C in drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1132DOI Listing
October 2018

Polyethylene glycol functionalized carbon nanotubes/gelatin-chitosan nanocomposite: An approach for significant drug release.

Bioact Mater 2018 Sep 4;3(3):236-244. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

This research work blooms the new idea of developing a safe and controlled drug releasing matrix using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In aqueous solution, uniform and highly stable dispersion of MWCNTs was obtained after secondary functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) which was studied by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Solution casting method was used to prepare MWCNTs/gelatin-chitosan nanocomposite films and the effect of MWCNTs on physico-mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated. Incorporation of MWCNTs into the porous gelatin-chitosan matrix showed interesting stiffness and dampness along with developed microfibrillar structures within the pore walls intended at being used in tissue engineering of bone or cartilage. A common antibiotic drug, ciprofloxacin was incorporated into nanocomposite matrix. The evaluation of the effect of MWCNTs on drug release rate by dissolution test and antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed. Sharp release of the drug was found at early stages (∼1 h), but the rate was reduced afterwards, showing a sustained release. It was observed that for all microorganisms, the antibacterial activities of drug loaded MWCNTs/gelatin-chitosan nanocomposites were higher than that of drug loaded gelatin-chitosan composite films containing no MWCNTs. Comparative statistical studies by ANOVA techniques also showed remarkable difference between the antibacterial activities, exhibited by MWCNTs-incorporated and non-incorporated composite films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2018.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935779PMC
September 2018

Elevated Trimethylarsine Oxide and Inorganic Arsenic in Northern Hemisphere Summer Monsoonal Wet Deposition.

Environ Sci Technol 2017 Nov 17;51(21):12210-12218. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University Belfast , David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN, Northern Ireland.

For arsenic speciation, the inputs for wet deposition are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and inorganic arsenic are the dominant species in monsoonal wet deposition in the summer Indian subcontinent, Bangladesh, with inorganic arsenic dominating, accounting for ∼80% of total arsenic in this medium. Lower concentrations of both species were found in monsoonal wet deposition in the winter Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka. The only other species present was dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), but this was usually below limits of detection (LoD). We hypothesize that TMAO and inorganic arsenic in monsoonal wet deposition are predominantly of marine origin. For TMAO, the potential source is the atmospheric oxidation of marine derived trimethylarsine. For inorganic arsenic, our evidence suggests entrainment of water column inorganic arsenic into atmospheric particulates. These conclusions are based on weather trajectory analysis and on the strong correlations with known wet deposition marine derived elements: boron, iodine, and selenium. The finding that TMAO and inorganic arsenic are widely present and elevated in monsoonal wet deposition identifies major knowledge gaps that need to be addressed regarding the understanding of arsenic's global cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b04356DOI Listing
November 2017

Depressed polymorphonuclear cell functions in periparturient cows that develop postpartum reproductive diseases.

Vet Res Commun 2017 Sep 1;41(3):201-209. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Division of Veterinary Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, UP, 243122, India.

The study was planned to see if there is any important and significant changes in the PMN function in cows suffering from postpartum reproductive diseases (PRD). Blood sampling was done from 41 pregnant cows on 15 days prepartum (-15d), calving day (0d), 15 days (15d) and 30 days (30d) postpartum and thorough gynaecological examination was performed on 0d, 15d, 30d and 45d for diagnosis of PRD like retained placenta (RP), clinical metritis (CM), clinical endometritis (CE) and delayed involution of uterus (DIU). The heparinised blood was used for isolation of PMN leukocytes for estimation of superoxide (SO), hydrogen peroxide (HO) and enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in each group of cows. The SO production (ΔOD) was greater for normal (0.19 ± 0.05) than cows suffering from RP (-0.12 ± 0.09), CM (-0.15 ± 0.13) and CE (-0.07 ± 0.05) at -15d. The mean value was greater for normal cows (0.12) than the cows with PRD (0.05 to 0.9) at 30d. The HO production was greater for normal than cows with PRD at all sampling days and significantly greater than cows with RP and CE at 15d (p < 0.01) and 30d (P < 0.05). The MPO activity (μmol/1 × 10) was greater for normal (18.77 ± 1.27) than for RP (12.52 ± 2.57) and CM (11.31 ± 3.30) cows on 0d. The depressed capability of the PMN from the cows with PRD to produce SO, HO and MPO during the periparturient period indicated their association with the development of RP, CM and CE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-017-9691-zDOI Listing
September 2017

BanglaLekha-Isolated: A multi-purpose comprehensive dataset of Handwritten Bangla Isolated characters.

Data Brief 2017 Jun 29;12:103-107. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

BanglaLekha-Isolated, a Bangla handwritten isolated character dataset is presented in this article. This dataset contains 84 different characters comprising of 50 Bangla basic characters, 10 Bangla numerals and 24 selected compound characters. 2000 handwriting samples for each of the 84 characters were collected, digitized and pre-processed. After discarding mistakes and scribbles, 1,66,105 handwritten character images were included in the final dataset. The dataset also includes labels indicating the age and the gender of the subjects from whom the samples were collected. This dataset could be used not only for optical handwriting recognition research but also to explore the influence of gender and age on handwriting. The dataset is publicly available at https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/hf6sf8zrkc/2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.03.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5382023PMC
June 2017

2016 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on biomarker assay validation (BAV): (Part 2 - Hybrid LBA/LCMS and input from regulatory agencies).

Bioanalysis 2016 Dec;8(23):2457-2474

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland.

The 2016 10th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (10 WRIB) took place in Orlando, Florida with participation of close to 700 professionals from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, weeklong event - A Full Immersion Week of Bioanalysis including Biomarkers and Immunogenicity. As usual, it is specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small and large molecules involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, and LBA approaches, with the focus on biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2016 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. This White Paper is published in 3 parts due to length. This part (Part 2) discusses the recommendations for Hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory inputs from major global health authorities. Parts 1 (small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity) have been published in the Bioanalysis journal, issues 22 and 23, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2016-4988DOI Listing
December 2016

Chemical reaction optimization for solving shortest common supersequence problem.

Comput Biol Chem 2016 Oct 31;64:82-93. Epub 2016 May 31.

Computer Science and Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Shortest common supersequence (SCS) is a classical NP-hard problem, where a string to be constructed that is the supersequence of a given string set. The SCS problem has an enormous application of data compression, query optimization in the database and different bioinformatics activities. Due to NP-hardness, the exact algorithms fail to compute SCS for larger instances. Many heuristics and meta-heuristics approaches were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a meta-heuristics approach based on chemical reaction optimization, CRO_SCS that is designed inspired by the nature of the chemical reactions. For different optimization problems like 0-1 knapsack, quadratic assignment, global numeric optimization problems CRO algorithm shows very good performance. We have redesigned the reaction operators and a new reform function to solve the SCS problem. The outcomes of the proposed CRO_SCS algorithm are compared with those of the enhanced beam search (IBS_SCS), deposition and reduction (DR), ant colony optimization (ACO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms. The length of supersequence, execution time and standard deviation of all related algorithms show that CRO_SCS gives better results on the average than all other algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2016.05.004DOI Listing
October 2016