Publications by authors named "Raffaele Cerino"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preferential amplification of a human mitochondrial DNA deletion in vitro and in vivo.

Sci Rep 2018 01 29;8(1):1799. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, Basel, CH-4056, Switzerland.

We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts to yield cell lines containing varying degrees of heteroplasmy for a m.13514 A > G mtDNA point mutation (2 lines) and for a ~6 kb single, large scale mtDNA deletion (3 lines). Long term culture of the iPSCs containing a single, large-scale mtDNA deletion showed consistent increase in mtDNA deletion levels with time. Higher levels of mtDNA heteroplasmy correlated with increased respiratory deficiency. To determine what changes occurred in deletion level during differentiation, teratomas comprising all three embryonic germ layers were generated from low (20%) and intermediate heteroplasmy (55%) mtDNA deletion clones. Regardless of whether iPSCs harbouring low or intermediate mtDNA heteroplasmy were used, the final levels of heteroplasmy in all teratoma germ layers increased to a similar high level (>60%). Thus, during human stem cell division, cells not only tolerate high mtDNA deletion loads but seem to preferentially replicate deleted mtDNA genomes. This has implications for the involvement of mtDNA deletions in both disease and ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20064-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789095PMC
January 2018

Stendomycin selectively inhibits TIM23-dependent mitochondrial protein import.

Nat Chem Biol 2017 Dec 9;13(12):1239-1244. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Tim17 and Tim23 are the main subunits of the TIM23 complex, one of the two major essential mitochondrial inner-membrane protein translocon machineries (TIMs). No chemical probes that specifically inhibit TIM23-dependent protein import were known to exist. Here we show that the natural product stendomycin, produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus, is a potent and specific inhibitor of the TIM23 complex in yeast and mammalian cells. Furthermore, stendomycin-mediated blockage of the TIM23 complex does not alter normal processing of the major regulatory mitophagy kinase PINK1, but TIM23 is required to stabilize PINK1 on the outside of mitochondria to initiate mitophagy upon membrane depolarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.2493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945950PMC
December 2017

High-resolution chemical dissection of a model eukaryote reveals targets, pathways and gene functions.

Microbiol Res 2014 Feb-Mar;169(2-3):107-20. Epub 2013 Dec 1.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Due to evolutionary conservation of biology, experimental knowledge captured from genetic studies in eukaryotic model organisms provides insight into human cellular pathways and ultimately physiology. Yeast chemogenomic profiling is a powerful approach for annotating cellular responses to small molecules. Using an optimized platform, we provide the relative sensitivities of the heterozygous and homozygous deletion collections for nearly 1800 biologically active compounds. The data quality enables unique insights into pathways that are sensitive and resistant to a given perturbation, as demonstrated with both known and novel compounds. We present examples of novel compounds that inhibit the therapeutically relevant fatty acid synthase and desaturase (Fas1p and Ole1p), and demonstrate how the individual profiles facilitate hypothesis-driven experiments to delineate compound mechanism of action. Importantly, the scale and diversity of tested compounds yields a dataset where the number of modulated pathways approaches saturation. This resource can be used to map novel biological connections, and also identify functions for unannotated genes. We validated hypotheses generated by global two-way hierarchical clustering of profiles for (i) novel compounds with a similar mechanism of action acting upon microtubules or vacuolar ATPases, and (ii) an un-annotated ORF, YIL060w, that plays a role in respiration in the mitochondria. Finally, we identify and characterize background mutations in the widely used yeast deletion collection which should improve the interpretation of past and future screens throughout the community. This comprehensive resource of cellular responses enables the expansion of our understanding of eukaryotic pathway biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2013.11.004DOI Listing
September 2014

Low TCR avidity and lack of tumor cell recognition in CD8(+) T cells primed with the CEA-analogue CAP1-6D peptide.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2007 Dec 13;56(12):1979-91. Epub 2007 Jun 13.

Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133, Milan, Italy.

The use of "altered peptide ligands" (APL), epitopes designed for exerting increased immunogenicity as compared with native determinants, represents nowadays one of the most utilized strategies for overcoming immune tolerance to self-antigens and boosting anti-tumor T cell-mediated immune responses. However, the actual ability of APL-primed T cells to cross-recognize natural epitopes expressed by tumor cells remains a crucial concern. In the present study, we show that CAP1-6D, a superagonist analogue of a carcinoembriyonic antigen (CEA)-derived HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope widely used in clinical setting, reproducibly promotes the generation of low-affinity CD8(+) T cells lacking the ability to recognized CEA-expressing colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells. Short-term T cell cultures, obtained by priming peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A*0201(+) healthy donors or CRC patients with CAP1-6D, were indeed found to heterogeneously cross-react with saturating concentrations of the native peptide CAP1, but to fail constantly lysing or recognizing through IFN- gamma release CEA(+)CRC cells. Characterization of anti-CAP1-6D T cell avidity, gained through peptide titration, CD8-dependency assay, and staining with mutated tetramers (D227K/T228A), revealed that anti-CAP1-6D T cells exerted a differential interaction with the two CEA epitopes, i.e., displaying high affinity/CD8-independency toward the APL and low affinity/CD8-dependency toward the native CAP1 peptide. Our data demonstrate that the efficient detection of self-antigen expressed by tumors could be a feature of high avidity CD8-independent T cells, and underline the need for extensive analysis of tumor cross-recognition prior to any clinical usage of APL as anti-cancer vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-007-0342-zDOI Listing
December 2007

Scavenger receptor class B type I and hepatitis C virus infection of primary tupaia hepatocytes.

J Virol 2005 May;79(9):5774-85

Dept. of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis worldwide. The study of early steps during HCV infection has been hampered by the lack of suitable in vitro or in vivo models. Primary Tupaia hepatocytes (PTH) have been shown to be susceptible to HCV infection in vitro and in vivo. Human scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) represents an HCV receptor candidate mediating the cellular binding of E2 glycoprotein to HepG2 hepatoma cells. However, the function of SR-BI for viral infection of hepatocytes is unknown. In this study, we used PTH to assess the functional role of SR-BI as a putative HCV receptor. Sequence analysis of cloned tupaia SR-BI revealed a high homology between tupaia and human SR-BI. Transfection of CHO cells with human or tupaia SR-BI but not mouse SR-BI cDNA resulted in cellular E2 binding, suggesting that E2-binding domains between human and tupaia SR-BI are highly conserved. Preincubation of PTH with anti-SR-BI antibodies resulted in marked inhibition of E2 or HCV-like particle binding. However, anti-SR-BI antibodies were not able to block HCV infection of PTH. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SR-BI represents an important cell surface molecule for the binding of the HCV envelope to hepatocytes and suggest that other or additional cell surface molecules are required for the initiation of HCV infection. Furthermore, the structural and functional similarities between human and tupaia SR-BI indicate that PTH represent a useful model system to characterize the molecular interaction of the HCV envelope and SR-BI on primary hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.79.9.5774-5785.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1082724PMC
May 2005

The human scavenger receptor class B type I is a novel candidate receptor for the hepatitis C virus.

EMBO J 2002 Oct;21(19):5017-25

Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare P.Angeletti (IRBM), Via Pontina Km 30.600, 00040 Pomezia (Rome), Italy.

We discovered that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2 binds to human hepatoma cell lines independently of the previously proposed HCV receptor CD81. Comparative binding studies using recombinant E2 from the most prevalent 1a and 1b genotypes revealed that E2 recognition by hepatoma cells is independent from the viral isolate, while E2-CD81 interaction is isolate specific. Binding of soluble E2 to human hepatoma cells was impaired by deletion of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), but the wild-type phenotype was recovered by introducing a compensatory mutation reported previously to rescue infectivity of an HVR1-deleted HCV infectious clone. We have identified the receptor responsible for E2 binding to human hepatic cells as the human scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). E2-SR-BI interaction is very selective since neither mouse SR-BI nor the closely related human scavenger receptor CD36, were able to bind E2. Finally, E2 recognition by SR-BI was competed out in an isolate-specific manner both on the hepatoma cell line and on the human SR-BI-transfected cell line by an anti-HVR1 monoclonal antibody.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC129051PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/emboj/cdf529DOI Listing
October 2002