Publications by authors named "Rafel Campo"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparable quality of bowel preparation with single-day versus three-day low-residue diet: Randomized controlled trial.

Dig Endosc 2020 Oct 5. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Gastroenterology Department, Institut d'Investigació i Innovació Parc Taulí I3PT, Parc Taulí Hospital Universitari, Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Aims: There is controversy about the length of low-residue diet (LRD) for colonoscopy preparation. The aim of the study was to compare one-day vs. three-day LRD associated to standard laxative treatment for achieving an adequate colonoscopy preparation in average risk subjects with positive fecal immunochemical test undergoing screening colonoscopy.

Methods: A non-inferiority, randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was performed in the setting of average risk colorectal cancer screening program. Participants were randomized to receive 1-day vs. 3-day LRD in addition to standard polyethilenglicol treatment. Adequacy of preparation was evaluated using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). Primary outcome was achieving a BBPS ≥ 2 in all colon segments. Analysis was performed for a non-inferiority margin of 5%, a 95% statistical power and one-sided 0.05 significance level.

Results: A total of 855 patients were randomized. Adequate bowel preparation was similar between groups: 97.9% of patients in the 1-day LRD group vs 96.9% in the 3-day LRD group achieved the primary outcome (P-value for non-inferiority < 0.001). The percentage of patients with BBPS scores ≥ 8 was superior in the 1-day LRD group (254 vs 221 in the 3-day LRD group, P = 0.032). The 1-day regimen was better tolerated than the 3-day diet. 47.7% (vs 28.7%, P < 0.05) of patients rated the 1-day LRD as very easy to follow.

Conclusion: The 1-day LRD is non-inferior to 3-day LRD for achieving an adequate colon cleansing before average risk screening colonoscopy and it is better tolerated.
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October 2020

Endoscopist's Judgment Is as Useful as Risk Scores for Predicting Outcome in Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: A Multicenter Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Feb 3;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Hospital de Sabadell, Corporació Sanitària Universitària Parc Taulí, 08208 Sabadell, Spain.

Guidelines recommend using prognostic scales for risk stratification in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It remains unclear whether risk scores offer greater accuracy than clinical evaluation. Compare the diagnostic accuracy of the endoscopist's judgment against different risk-scoring systems (Rockall, Glasgow-Blatchford, Baylor and the Cedars-Sinai scores) for predicting outcomes in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). Between February 2006 and April 2010 we prospectively recruited 401 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding; 225 received endoscopic treatment. The endoscopist recorded his/her subjective assessment ("endoscopist judgment") of the risk of rebleeding and death immediately after endoscopy for each patient. Independent evaluators calculated the different scores. Area under the receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for rebleeding and mortality. : The areas under ROC curve of the endoscopist's clinical judgment for rebleeding (0.67-0.75) and mortality (0.84-0.9) were similar or even superior to the different risk scores in both the whole group and in patients receiving endoscopic therapy. The accuracy of the currently available risk scores for predicting rebleeding and mortality in PUB patients was moderate and not superior to the endoscopist's judgment. More precise prognostic scales are needed.
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February 2020

Prediction of advanced colonic neoplasm in symptomatic patients: a scoring system to prioritize colonoscopy (COLONOFIT study).

BMC Cancer 2019 Jul 25;19(1):734. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Fast-track colonoscopy to detect patients with colorectal cancer based on high-risk symptoms is associated with low sensitivity and specificity. The aim was to derive a predictive score of advanced colonic neoplasia in symptomatic patients in fast-track programs.

Methods: All patients referred for fast-track colonoscopy were evaluated. Faecal immunological haemoglobin test (3 samples; positive> 4 μg Hb/g), and a survey to register clinical variables of interest were performed. Colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma were considered as advanced colonic neoplasia. A sample size of 600 and 500 individuals were calculated for each phase 1 and phase 2 of the study, respectively (Phase 1, derivation and Phase 2, validation cohort). A Bayesian logistic regression analysis was used to derive a predictive score.

Results: 1495 patients were included. Age (OR, 21), maximum faecal-Hb value (OR, 2.3), and number of positive samples (OR, 28) presented the highest ORs predictive of advanced colonic neoplasia. The additional significant predictive variables adjusted for age and faecal-Hb variables in Phase 1 were previous colonoscopy (last 5 years) and smoking (no, ex/active). With these variables a predictive score of advanced colonic neoplasia was derived. Applied to Phase 2, patients with a Score > 20 had an advanced colonic neoplasia probability of 66% (colorectal cancer, 32%), while those with a Score ≤ 10, a probability of 10% (colorectal cancer, 1%). Prioritizing patients with Score > 10, 49.4% of patients would be referred for fast-track colonoscopy, diagnosing 98.3% of colorectal cancers and 77% of advanced adenomas.

Conclusions: A scoring system was derived and validated to prioritize fast-track colonoscopies according to risk, which was efficient, simple, and robust.
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July 2019

Effect of aspirin on the diagnostic accuracy of the faecal immunochemical test for colorectal advanced neoplasia.

United European Gastroenterol J 2018 Feb 21;6(1):123-130. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Gastroenterology Department, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Ourense, Ourense, Spain.

Background: Aspirin (ASA) is a drug that can cause gastrointestinal lesions and symptoms. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most prevalent type of cancer in Western countries. We assessed the effect of aspirin on the diagnostic accuracy of the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for CRC and/or advanced neoplasia (AN) in patients undergoing colonoscopy for gastrointestinal symptoms.

Methods: We conducted a prospective multicentre observational study of diagnostic tests that included patients with gastrointestinal symptoms undergoing colonoscopy between March 2012 and 2014 (the COLONPREDICT study). Symptoms were assessed and a FIT and blood tests assessing haemoglobin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were performed.

Results: The study included 3052 patients: A total of 2567 did not take aspirin (non-user group) and 485 (16%) took aspirin (user group). Continuous treatment with ASA did not change the AUC (0.88, 0.82;  = 0.06), sensitivity (92%, 88%;  = 0.5) or specificity (71%, 67%;  = 0.2) of the FIT for CRC detection. Similarly, we found no differences in the AUC (0.81, 0.79;  = 0.6), sensitivity (74%, 75.5%;  = 0.3) or specificity (76%, 73.6%;  = 0.3) for AN detection. Patients with an aspirin use of ≥ 300 mg/day had a lower prevalence of AN and the sensitivity, specificity and AUC for AN for these patients were 54%, 68% and 0.66, significantly lower than for the non-user group ( = 0.03).

Conclusions: Aspirin does not modify the diagnostic accuracy of FIT for CRC and/or AN in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Aspirin use of ≥ 300 mg/day decreases the accuracy of the test.
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February 2018

The fecal hemoglobin concentration, age and sex test score: Development and external validation of a simple prediction tool for colorectal cancer detection in symptomatic patients.

Int J Cancer 2017 May 6;140(10):2201-2211. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Centre for Research into Cancer Prevention and Screening, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Prediction models for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection in symptomatic patients, based on easily obtainable variables such as fecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb), age and sex, may simplify CRC diagnosis. We developed, and then externally validated, a multivariable prediction model, the FAST Score, with data from five diagnostic test accuracy studies that evaluated quantitative fecal immunochemical tests in symptomatic patients referred for colonoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of the Score in derivation and validation cohorts was compared statistically with the area under the curve (AUC) and the Chi-square test. 1,572 and 3,976 patients were examined in these cohorts, respectively. For CRC, the odds ratio (OR) of the variables included in the Score were: age (years): 1.03 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.02-1.05), male sex: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and f-Hb (0-<20 µg Hb/g feces): 2.0 (95% CI: 0.7-5.5), (20-<200 µg Hb/g): 16.8 (95% CI: 6.6-42.0), ≥200 µg Hb/g: 65.7 (95% CI: 26.3-164.1). The AUC for CRC detection was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.90) in the derivation and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90-093; p = 0.005) in the validation cohort. At the two Score thresholds with 90% (4.50) and 99% (2.12) sensitivity for CRC, the Score had equivalent sensitivity, although the specificity was higher in the validation cohort (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the validation cohort was divided into three groups: high (21.4% of the cohort, positive predictive value-PPV: 21.7%), intermediate (59.8%, PPV: 0.9%) and low (18.8%, PPV: 0.0%) risk for CRC. The FAST Score is an easy to calculate prediction tool, highly accurate for CRC detection in symptomatic patients.
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May 2017

Development and external validation of a faecal immunochemical test-based prediction model for colorectal cancer detection in symptomatic patients.

BMC Med 2016 08 31;14(1):128. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Gastroenterology Department, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Ourense, Rua Ramón Puga 52-54, 32005, Ourense, Spain.

Background: Risk prediction models for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection in symptomatic patients based on available biomarkers may improve CRC diagnosis. Our aim was to develop, compare with the NICE referral criteria and externally validate a CRC prediction model, COLONPREDICT, based on clinical and laboratory variables.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included consecutive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms referred for colonoscopy between March 2012 and September 2013 in a derivation cohort and between March 2014 and March 2015 in a validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, we assessed symptoms and the NICE referral criteria, and determined levels of faecal haemoglobin and calprotectin, blood haemoglobin, and serum carcinoembryonic antigen before performing an anorectal examination and a colonoscopy. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the model with diagnostic accuracy with CRC detection as the main outcome.

Results: We included 1572 patients in the derivation cohort and 1481 in the validation cohorts, with a 13.6 % and 9.1 % CRC prevalence respectively. The final prediction model included 11 variables: age (years) (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), male gender (OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.5-3.4), faecal haemoglobin ≥20 μg/g (OR 17.0, 95 % CI 10.0-28.6), blood haemoglobin <10 g/dL (OR 4.8, 95 % CI 2.2-10.3), blood haemoglobin 10-12 g/dL (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-3.0), carcinoembryonic antigen ≥3 ng/mL (OR 4.5, 95 % CI 3.0-6.8), acetylsalicylic acid treatment (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.2-0.7), previous colonoscopy (OR 0.1, 95 % CI 0.06-0.2), rectal mass (OR 14.8, 95 % CI 5.3-41.0), benign anorectal lesion (OR 0.3, 95 % CI 0.2-0.4), rectal bleeding (OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.4-3.4) and change in bowel habit (OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.1-2.5). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.92 (95 % CI 0.91-0.94), higher than the NICE referral criteria (AUC 0.59, 95 % CI 0.55-0.63; p < 0.001). On the basis of the thresholds with 90 % (5.6) and 99 % (3.5) sensitivity, we divided the derivation cohort into three risk groups for CRC detection: high (30.9 % of the cohort, positive predictive value [PPV] 40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.7-45.9 %), intermediate (29.5 %, PPV 4.4 %, 95 % CI 2.8-6.8 %) and low (39.5 %, PPV 0.2 %, 95 % CI 0.0-1.1 %). The discriminatory ability was equivalent in the validation cohort (AUC 0.92, 95 % CI 0.90-0.94; p = 0.7).

Conclusions: COLONPREDICT is a highly accurate prediction model for CRC detection.
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August 2016

Occult H. pylori infection partially explains 'false-positive' results of (13)C-urea breath test.

United European Gastroenterol J 2015 Oct;3(5):437-42

Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; Spanish Network for the Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RD06/0018), Sevilla, Spain ; Infectious Diseases Department, Corporació Sanitària i Universitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Spain.

Background: In a previous study, UBiT-100 mg, (Otsuka, Spain), a commercial (13)C-urea breath test omitting citric acid pre-treatment, had a high rate of false-positive results; however, it is possible that UBiT detected low-density 'occult' infection missed by other routine reference tests. We aimed to validate previous results in a new cohort and to rule out the possibility that false-positive UBiT were due to an 'occult' infection missed by reference tests.

Methods: Dyspeptic patients (n = 272) were prospectively enrolled and UBiT was performed, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by combining culture, histology and rapid urease test results. We calculated UBiT sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (with 95% CI). In addition, we evaluated 'occult' H. pylori infection using two previously-validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for urease A (UreA) and 16 S sequences in gastric biopsies. We included 44 patients with a false-positive UBiT, and two control groups of 25 patients each, that were positive and negative for all H. pylori tests.

Results: UBiT showed a false-positive rate of 17%, with a specificity of 83%. All the positive controls and 12 of 44 patients (27%) with false-positive UBiT were positive for all two PCR tests; by contrast, none of our negative controls had two positive PCR tests.

Conclusions: UBiT suffers from a high rate of false-positive results and sub-optimal specificity, and the protocol skipping citric acid pre-treatment should be revised; however, low-density 'occult' H. pylori infection that was undetectable by conventional tests accounted for around 25% of the 'false-positive' results.
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October 2015

Hemospray treatment is effective for lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

Endoscopy 2014 Jan 11;46(1):75-8. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is diverse in origin and can be substantial, requiring urgent hemostasis. Hemospray is a promising novel hemostatic agent for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). It has been claimed in a small series that the use of Hemospray is also feasible in LGIB. We aimed to expand our knowledge of the application of Hemospray for the treatment of LGIB in a wider range of conditions to further define the optimal patient population for this new therapeutic modality. We analyzed the outcomes of nine unselected consecutive patients with active LGIB treated with Hemospray in two major hospitals in Europe. Initial hemostasis was achieved after Hemospray application in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients (22%) who were on acetyl salicylic acid and presented with spurting bleeds. These preliminary data show that Hemospray can be effective in the management of LGIB, but suggest cautious use for patients on antithrombotic therapy and spurting bleeds.
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January 2014

In-hospital mortality after stomach cancer surgery in Spain and relationship with hospital volume of interventions.

BMC Public Health 2009 Aug 27;9:312. Epub 2009 Aug 27.

Cancer Screening Office/Epidemiology, UDIAT-Diagnostic Centre, Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí-Institut Universitari (UAB), Parc Taulí s/n, Sabadell, Spain.

Background: There is no consensus about the possible relation between in-hospital mortality in surgery for gastric cancer and the hospital annual volume of interventions. The objectives were to identify factors associated to greater in-hospital mortality for surgery in gastric cancer and to analyze the possible independent relation between hospital annual volume and in-hospital mortality.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients discharged after surgery for stomach cancer during 2001-2002 in four regions of Spain using the Minimum Basic Data Set for Hospital Discharges. The overall and specific in-hospital mortality rates were estimated according to patient and hospital characteristics. We adjusted a logistic regression model in order to calculate the in-hospital mortality according to hospital volume.

Results: There were 3241 discharges in 144 hospitals. In-hospital mortality was 10.3% (95% CI 9.3-11.4). A statistically significant relation was observed among age, type of admission, volume, and mortality, as well as diverse secondary diagnoses or the type of intervention. Hospital annual volume was associated to Charlson score, type of admission, region, length of stay and number of secondary diagnoses registered at discharge. In the adjusted model, increased age and urgent admission were associated to increased in-hospital mortality. Likewise, partial gastrectomy (Billroth I and II) and simple excision of lymphatic structure were associated with a lower probability of in-hospital mortality. No independent association was found between hospital volume and in-hospital mortality

Conclusion: Despite the limitations of our study, our results corroborate the existence of patient, clinical, and intervention factors associated to greater hospital mortality, although we found no clear association between the volume of cases treated at a centre and hospital mortality.
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August 2009

Accuracy of diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori: a reappraisal.

Clin Infect Dis 2009 May;48(10):1385-91

Digestive Diseases Department, Hospital de Sabadell, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Despite many changes, no large studies comparing the different diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori have been performed in the past 10 years. In this time, monoclonal stool antigen immunoassays and in-office 13C-urea breath tests (UBTs) have appeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and noninvasive tests in a large series of dyspeptic patients.

Methods: A total of 199 dyspeptic patients who had not previously been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled. Noninvasive analyses included a commercial infrared-based UBT and a commercially available stool test. Biopsy-based tests included histological examination and a rapid urease test. A patient was considered to be infected when at least 2 test results were positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The test results were compared using the McNemar test.

Results: Rates of positive test results were similar (54%) for the rapid urease test, histopathological examination, and the stool test. By contrast, 75% of UBT results were positive, and the UBT was associated with a very low specificity (60%). For this reason, the delta cutoff value for the UBT was recalculated as 8.5%. Sensitivities and specificities with this new cutoff value were 95% and 100%, respectively, for the rapid urease test; 94% and 99%, respectively, for histopathological examination; 90% and 93%, respectively, for the stool test; and 90% and 90%, respectively, for the UBT.

Conclusions: Histological examination and rapid urease testing showed excellent diagnostic reliability. The stool test seems to be a good, noninvasive alternative to endoscopy-based tests. By contrast, the infrared-based UBT evaluated in our study showed a lower than expected performance, which was partially corrected when the cutoff value for the test was recalculated.
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May 2009

Variation among endoscopy units in the achievement of the standards of colonoscopic performance indicators.

Hepatogastroenterology 2008 Sep-Oct;55(86-87):1594-9

Group of Hospitals Hospiten, Tenerife, Spain.

Background/aims: To assess the achievement of quality standards of colonoscopy at six endoscopy units.

Methodology: Three indicators were used to assess the quality of 1056 colonoscopies performed at six hospitals: cecal intubation; adequate colon cleansing; and removal and recovery of all detected polyps. Analyses were performed on the total number of colonoscopies and on colonoscopies in which polyps were actually detected. The accomplishment of each indicator and a global compound index of all three indicators, named the Problem Rate, were analyzed. Results from each endoscopy unit were compared to previously established standards.

Results: Adequate colon cleansing was the most frequent problem for quality in all centers; adequate colon preparation was 67% (range 50 to 84%). The cecum was reached in 84% of all colonoscopies (range 76 to 90%). 75% of all patients (range 28. 79%) had all polyps excised and recovered. All centers had rates below standard for one or several indicators (p<0.01, all cases). Two of the participant hospitals had an overall problem rate above the estimated standard (p<0.01).

Conclusions: There is a significant variation in the achievement of quality standards of colonoscopy between endoscopy units. Colon cleansing is the most frequent quality problem for colonoscopy.
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January 2009

Prevalence and factors related to hepatitis B and C in inflammatory bowel disease patients in Spain: a nationwide, multicenter study.

Am J Gastroenterol 2009 Jan;104(1):57-63

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Mútua de Terrassa, Fundació per la Recerca Mútua de Terrassa, Plaça Dr Robert no. 5, Catalonia, Spain.

Objectives: Limited information suggests the existence of a high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This knowledge is relevant because the viruses may reactivate under immunosuppressive therapy. The objectives of this study are to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in IBD, in a nationwide study, and to evaluate associated risk factors.

Methods: This cross-sectional multicenter study included 2,076 IBD patients, consecutively recruited in 17 Spanish hospitals. Factors related to IBD (severity, invasive procedures, etc.) and to infection (transfusions, drug abuse, etc.) were registered. Independent risk factors for viral infection were evaluated using logistic regression analysis.

Results: Present and/or past HBV and HCV infection was found in 9.7% of patients of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) (UC: HBsAg 0.8%, anti-HBc 8%, anti-HCV 1.3%; CD: HBsAg 0.6%, anti-HBc 7.1%, anti-HCV 2.3 %). Effective vaccination (anti-HBs, without anti-HBc) was present in 12% of patients. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06; P=0.000), family history of hepatitis (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.3-4.74; P=0.006) and moderate-to-severe IBD disease (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.02-6.15; P=0.046) were significantly related to HBV, whereas transfusions (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.2-5.87; P=0.015) and antibiotic use (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.1-6.3; P=0.03) were significantly related to HCV. The significance for transfusions was lost if they were administered after 1991, when HCV markers became mandatory in blood banks.

Conclusions: Prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in IBD is similar to that of the general population of reference and lower than that in previously published series. This fact, in addition to the lack of association with invasive procedures, suggests the existence of adequate preventive measures in centers attending to these patients. The low percentage of effective vaccination makes it mandatory to intensify B virus vaccination in IBD.
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January 2009

[Patient satisfaction in gastrointestinal endoscopy: results of a multicenter study].

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008 Nov;31(9):566-71

Group of Hospitals Hospiten, Tenerife, España.

Background And Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the main quality problems perceived by patients in gastrointestinal endoscopy through a satisfaction survey.

Patients And Methods: A total of 321 patients from five gastrointestinal endoscopy units were included. Telephone interviews using a previously validated questionnaire on several aspects related to the procedure were carried out. Pareto analyses were performed to pinpoint the most common aspects among the vital few causes at each medical center. Based on the questionnaire, the satisfaction indicators were calculated for each center: the overall satisfaction score (the sum of the responses to the eight questions) and the rate of perceived problems (number of questions with a negative response divided by the number of questions asked).

Results: The most frequent aspects among the vital few were waiting time for an appointment and discomfort during the examination, since both factors were included in the vital few in four of the five medical centers. Significant differences were found among centers in the overall satisfaction score (questionnaire score) (p < 0.001) and for the rate of perceived problems (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: According to the patients, the most problematic aspects were waiting time until the day of the appointment and discomfort during the examination. Perceived quality differed among the participating centers.
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November 2008

Remission on thiopurinic immunomodulators normalizes quality of life and psychological status in patients with Crohn's disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006 Aug;12(8):692-6

Unitat de Malalties Digestives, Hospital de Sabadell, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Thiopurinic immunomodulators are effective for maintaining symptom remission in Crohn's disease. Little is known, however, about their effect on patients' quality of life or psychological well-being. The present study aimed to determine whether remission induced by thiopurinic immunomodulators returns levels of quality of life and psychological well-being to normal.

Materials And Methods: A case-control study was performed. Cases were 33 patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and in stable remission for at least 6 months. Sixty-six healthy individuals matched 2:1 by age and sex and 14 patients with active Crohn's disease were included as control groups. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form (SF-36) questionnaire, and the respective Hamilton rating scales were used for anxiety and depression. ANOVA with Bonferroni's correction was used for multiple comparisons.

Results: SF-36 global scores were 85 in the study group, 85 in healthy controls (P = 1), and 58.6 in patients with active disease (P < 0.001 for the comparison with the other 2 groups). The differences between values were 0 (95% CI -4-4), 26.4 (95% CI 20-32), and 26.4 (95% CI 19-33), respectively. The respective anxiety and depression scores were 6.5, 5.5, and 16.2 and 3.7, 3.3, and 10.9. No significant differences were observed in any of the SF-36 domains between case and control groups, whereas in patients with active disease, all domains were significantly worse.

Conclusions: Thiopurinic immunomodulator-induced remission restores normal levels of quality of life and psychological well-being in Crohn's disease patients.
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August 2006

Pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor and hypercalcemia.

Eur J Intern Med 2004 Aug;15(5):328

Endocrinology Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

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August 2004

A randomized study of the safety of outpatient care for patients with bleeding peptic ulcer treated by endoscopic injection.

Gastrointest Endosc 2004 Jul;60(1):15-21

Endoscopy Unit, UDIAT-CD, Hospital de Sabadell, Corporació Parc Taulí, Insitut Universitari Parc Taulí, UAB, Sabadell, Spain.

Background: Outpatient management is safe for patients with non-variceal upper-GI bleeding who are at low risk of recurrent bleeding and death. However, outpatient care cannot be offered to many patients because of the presence of risk factors (severe comorbid disorders, major endoscopic stigmata of bleeding, significant hemorrhage). The present study assessed the safety of outpatient management for selected high-risk patients with bleeding peptic ulcer.

Methods: Patients hospitalized with upper-GI bleeding because of peptic ulcer with a non-bleeding vessel were eligible for inclusion in the study. Inclusion criteria were the following: ulcer size less than 15 mm, absence of hypovolemia, no associated severe disease, and appropriate family support. After endoscopic therapy (injection of epinephrine and polidocanol), patients were randomized to outpatient or hospital care. Patients remained in the emergency ward for a minimum of 6 hours before discharge, during which time omeprazole was administered intravenously. Outpatients were contacted by telephone daily during the first 3 days; a 24-hour telephone hotline was provided for any queries. For both groups, outpatient visits were scheduled at 7 to 10 and 30 days after discharge.

Results: A total of 82 patients were included: 40 were randomized to outpatient care and 42 to hospital care. Clinical and endoscopic variables were similar in both groups. The rate of recurrent bleeding was similar in both groups (4.8% outpatient, 5% hospital). There was no morbidity or mortality in either group at 30 days. Seven patients (17%) randomized to outpatient care received blood transfusion compared with 14 (38%) in the hospital care group (p=0.06). Mean cost of care per patient was significantly lower for the outpatient vs. the hospital group (970 US dollars vs. 1595 US dollars; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Selected patients with bleeding peptic ulcer can be safely managed as outpatients after endoscopic therapy. This policy conserves health care resources without compromising standards of care.
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July 2004

Addition of a second endoscopic treatment following epinephrine injection improves outcome in high-risk bleeding ulcers.

Gastroenterology 2004 Feb;126(2):441-50

Unitat de Malaties Digestives, Hospital de Sabadell/UDIAT, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain.

Background & Aims: Endoscopic therapy reduces the rebleeding rate, the need for surgery, and the mortality in patients with peptic ulcer and active bleeding or visible vessel. Injection of epinephrine is the most popular therapeutic method. Guidelines disagree on the need for a second hemostatic procedure immediately after epinephrine; although it seems to reduce further bleeding, its effects on morbidity, surgery rates, and mortality remain unclear. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether the addition of a second procedure improves hemostatic efficacy and/or patient outcomes after epinephrine injection.

Methods: An extensive search for randomized trials comparing epinephrine alone vs. epinephrine plus a second method was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE and in the abstracts of the AGA Congresses between 1990 and 2002. Selected articles were included in a meta-analysis.

Results: Sixteen studies including 1673 patients met inclusion criteria. Adding a second procedure reduced the further bleeding rate from 18.4% to 10.6% (Peto odds ratio 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.69) and emergency surgery from 11.3% to 7.6% (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.90). Mortality fell from 5.1% to 2.6% (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31-0.84). Subanalysis showed that the risk of further bleeding decreased regardless of which second procedure was applied. In addition, the risk was reduced in all subgroups, although reduction was more evident in high-risk patients and when no scheduled follow-up endoscopies were performed.

Conclusions: Additional endoscopic treatment after epinephrine injection reduces further bleeding, need for surgery, and mortality in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer.
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February 2004

Usefulness of endoscopic band ligation for bleeding small bowel vascular lesions.

Gastrointest Endosc 2003 Aug;58(2):274-9

Endoscopy Unit, UDIAT-CD, Corporació Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Spain.

Background: The optimal therapy for bleeding small bowel vascular lesions is controversial. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic band ligation in this clinical condition.

Methods: Fourteen patients bleeding from angiodysplasia and 4 bleeding from Dieulafoy's lesions located in the small bowel were included in this pilot study. Endoscopic band ligation was performed by using less than 200 mBar negative pressure in suctioning the target lesion into the ligation cap just before band release. Mean follow-up was 18 months (range 6-31 months).

Observations: Endoscopic band ligation achieved hemostasis in a single session in all patients. No adverse events occurred except for mild abdominal pain in two patients. Mortality was null, and no patient required further blood transfusion during the 40 days after endoscopic band ligation. No patient with Dieulafoy's lesion had further bleeding, whereas bleeding recurred in 6 of 14 (43%) patients with angiodysplasia during long-term follow-up.

Conclusions: Endoscopic band ligation is safe and effective for treatment of acutely bleeding small bowel vascular lesions. Although endoscopic band ligation is definitive therapy for Dieulafoy's lesion, long-term efficacy in the treatment of GI bleeding from angiodysplasia is limited.
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August 2003

[Testing a new in-office test for determination of faecal Helicobacter pylori antigen].

Med Clin (Barc) 2002 Feb;118(4):126-9

Laboratorio de Microbiología, Corporació Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Spain.

Background: To date, the search for an in-office reliable test for Helicobacter pylori infection has been unsuccessful. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a new immunocromatographic in-office test using monoclonal antibodies to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori antigen in faeces (Stick H. pyl, Operon S.A. Zaragoza). We compared its reliability and reproducibility to the currently available test (HpSA, EIA, Premier Platinum HpSA, Meridian Diagnosis Inc, Cincinnati, Ohio).

Patients And Method: 71 consecutive dyspeptic patients were enrolled. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain of antral biopsy. Patients with a positive result in the two tests were considered as infected and those with a negative result in both tests were regarded as not infected. Faecal Helicobacter pylori antigen was tested twice by means of HpSA. Four consecutive determinations of Stick H. pyl were also performed. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of each determination. Concordance between determinations was estimated by the kappa statistics.

Results: Forty-eight of 68 patients were infected by Helicobacter pylori. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 89-96%, 60-70% 85-88% and 74-87%, respectively, for Stick H. pyl and 70-75%, 60-85%, 85-92% and 55-80%, respectively, for HpSA. Correlation coefficients were 0.82-0.93 for Stick H. pyl and 0.57 for HpSA.

Conclusions: The new Stick H. pyl test shows excellent sensitivity and reproducibility for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Its reliability appears to be far better than that of HpSA.
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February 2002