Publications by authors named "Rafael F Coelho"

65 Publications

Opioids and premature biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a randomised prospective clinical trial.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Anaesthesia, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina (HCFMUSP) da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Serviços Médicos de Anestesia (SMA), São Paulo, Brazil; Anaesthesia Department, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent neoplasms in male patients, and surgery is the main treatment. Opioids can have immune modulating effects, but their relation to cancer recurrence is unclear. We evaluated whether opioids used during prostatectomy can affect biochemical recurrence-free survival.

Methods: We randomised 146 patients with prostate cancer scheduled for prostatectomy into opioid-free anaesthesia or opioid-based anaesthesia groups. Baseline characteristics, perioperative data, and level of prostate-specific antigen every 6 months for 2 yr after surgery were recorded. Prostate-specific antigen >0.2 ng ml was considered biochemical recurrence. A survival analysis compared time with biochemical recurrence between the groups, and a Cox regression was modelled to evaluate which variables affect biochemical recurrence-free survival.

Results: We observed 31 biochemical recurrence events: 17 in the opioid-free anaesthesia group and 14 in the opioid-based anaesthesia group. Biochemical recurrence-free survival was not statistically different between groups (P=0.54). Cox regression revealed that biochemical recurrence-free survival was shorter in cases of obesity (hazard ratio [HR] 1.63, confidence interval [CI] 0.16-3.10; p=0.03), high D'Amico risk (HR 1.58, CI 0.35-2.81; P=0.012), laparoscopic surgery (HR 1.6, CI 0.38-2.84; P=0.01), stage 3 tumour pathology (HR 1.60, CI 0.20-299) and N1 status (HR 1.34, CI 0.28-2.41), and positive surgical margins (HR 1.37, CI 0.50-2.24; P=0.002). The anaesthesia technique did not affect time to biochemical recurrence (HR -1.03, CI -2.65-0.49; P=0.18).

Conclusions: Intraoperative opioid use did not modify biochemical recurrence rates and biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with intermediate and high D'Amico risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03212456.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2021.01.031DOI Listing
March 2021

Tranexamic acid in patients with complex stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

BJU Int 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Urology, Hospital das Clínicas, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of single-dose tranexamic acid on the blood transfusion rate and outcomes of patients with complex kidney stones who have undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Material And Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 192 patients with complex kidney stone (Guy's Stone Scores III-IV) were prospectively enrolled and randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive either one dose of tranexamic acid (1 g) or a placebo at the time of anesthetic induction for PCNL. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence rate of perioperative blood transfusion. The secondary outcome measures included blood loss, operative time, stone-free rate (SFR), and complications. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02966236.

Results: The overall risk of receiving a blood transfusion was reduced in the tranexamic acid group (2.2% vs 10.4%, relative risk: 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.76; P = 0.033, number-needed-to-treat: 12). Patients randomized to the tranexamic acid group showed higher immediate and three-month SFR compared with those in the placebo group (29% vs 14.7%, odds ratio [95% CI]: 2.37 [1.15-4.87], P = 0.019, and 46.2% vs 28.1%, odds ratio [95% CI]: 2.20 [1.20-4.02], P = 0.011, respectively). Faster hemoglobin recovery was demonstrated by patients in the tranexamic group (mean, 21.3 days, P = 0.001). No statistical differences were found in operative time and complications between groups.

Conclusions: Tranexamic acid administration is safe and reduces the need for blood transfusion by five times in patients with complex kidney stones undergoing PCNL. Moreover, tranexamic acid may contributes to better stone clearance rate and faster hemoglobin recovery without increasing complications. A single dose of tranexamic acid at the time of anesthetic induction could be considered standard clinical practice for patients with complex kidney stones undergoing PCNL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15378DOI Listing
February 2021

Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy: The state of art.

Asian J Urol 2021 Jan 3;8(1):27-37. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Sao Paulo State Cancer Institute, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To perform a narrative review about the role of robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (R-RPLND) in the management of testicular cancer.

Methods: A PubMed search for all relevant publications regarding the R-RPLND series up until August 2019 was performed. The largest series were identified, and weighted means calculated for outcomes using the number of patients included in each study as the weighting factor.

Results: Fifty-six articles of R-RPLND were identified and eight series with more than 10 patients in each were included. The weighted mean age was 31.12 years; primary and post chemotherapy R-RPLND were performed in 50.59% and 49.41% of patients. The clinical stage was I, II and III in 47.20%, 39.57% and 13.23% of patients. A modified R-RPLND template was used in 78.02% of patients, while 21.98% underwent bilateral full template. The weighted mean node yield, operative time and estimated blood loss were, respectively, 22.15 nodes, 277.35 min and 131.94 mL. The weighted mean length of hospital stay was 2 days and antegrade ejaculation was preserved in 92.12% of patients. Major post-operative complications (Clavien III or IV) occurred in 5.34%. Positive pathological nodes were detected in 24.54%, while the recurrence free survival was 95.77% with a follow-up of 21.81 months.

Conclusion: R-RPLND has proven to be a reproducible and safe approach in experienced centers; short-term oncologic outcomes are similar to the open approach with less morbidity and shorter convalescence related to its minimal invasiveness. However, longer follow-up and new trials comparing head-to-head both techniques are expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajur.2020.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859427PMC
January 2021

Extended Versus Limited Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection During Radical Prostatectomy for Intermediate- and High-risk Prostate Cancer: Early Oncological Outcomes from a Randomized Phase 3 Trial.

Eur Urol 2020 Dec 5. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The role of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (EPLND) in the surgical management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients remains controversial, mainly because of a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Objective: To determine whether EPLND has better oncological outcomes than limited PLND (LPLND.

Design, Setting And Participants: This was a prospective, single-center phase 3 trial in patients with intermediate- or high-risk clinically localized PCa.

Intervention: Randomization (1:1) to LPLND (obturator nodes) or EPLND (obturator, external iliac, internal iliac, common iliac, and presacral nodes) bilaterally.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS). Secondary outcomes were metastasis-free survival (MFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and histopathological findings. The trial was designed to show a minimal 15% advantage in 5-yr BRFS by EPLND.

Results And Limitations: In total, 300 patients were randomized from May 2012 to December 2016 (150 LPLND and 150 EPLND). The median BRFS was 61.4 mo in the LPLND group and not reached in the EPLND group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-1.32; p =  0.6). Median MFS was not reached in either group (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.17-1.8; p =  0.3). CSS data were not available because no patient died from PCa before the cutoff date. In exploratory subgroup analysis, patients with preoperative biopsy International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade groups 3-5 who were allocated to EPLND had better BRFS (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74, interaction p =  0.007). The short follow-up and surgeon heterogeneity are limitations to this study.

Conclusion: This RCT confirms that EPLND provides better pathological staging, while differences in early oncological outcomes were not demonstrated. Our subgroup analysis suggests a potential BCRFS benefit in patients diagnosed with ISUP grade groups 3-5; however, these findings should be considered hypothesis-generating and further RCTs with larger cohorts and longer follow up are necessary to better define the role of EPLND during RP.

Patient Summary: In this study, we investigated early outcomes in prostate cancer patients undergoing prostatectomy according to the anatomic extent of lymph node resection. We found that extended removal of lymph nodes did not reduce biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in the expected range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.11.040DOI Listing
December 2020

Androgen deprivation therapy improves the in vitro capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to receive cholesterol and other lipids in patients with prostate carcinoma.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Jun 10;19(1):133. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Instituto de Coracao, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used in the treatment of testosterone-dependent prostate carcinomas. ADT often increases plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The aim was to test whether ADT changes the transfer of lipids to HDL, an important aspect of this metabolism and HDL protective functions, and related parameters.

Methods: Sixteen volunteers with advanced prostate carcinoma submitted to pharmacological ADT or orchiectomy had plasma collected shortly before and after 6 months of ADT. In vitro transfer of lipids to HDL was performed by incubating plasma with donor emulsion containing radioactive lipids by 1 h at 37 °C. After chemical precipitation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein, the radioactivity of HDL fraction was counted.

Results: ADT reduced testosterone to nearly undetectable levels and markedly diminished PSA. ADT increased the body weight but glycemia, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol, HDL lipid composition and CETP concentration were unchanged. However, ADT increased the plasma unesterified cholesterol concentration (48 ± 12 vs 56 ± 12 mg/dL, p = 0.019) and LCAT concentration (7.15 ± 1.81 vs 8.01 ± 1.55μg/mL, p = 0.020). Transfer of unesterified (7.32 ± 1.09 vs 8.18 ± 1.52%, p < 0.05) and esterified cholesterol (6.15 ± 0.69 vs 6.94 ± 1.29%, p < 0.01) and of triglycerides (6.37 ± 0.43 vs 7.18 ± 0.91%, p < 0.001) to HDL were increased after ADT. Phospholipid transfer was unchanged.

Conclusion: Increase in transfer of unesterified and esterified cholesterol protects against cardiovascular disease, as shown previously, and increased LCAT favors cholesterol esterification and facilitates the reverse cholesterol transport. Thus, our results suggest that ADT may offer anti-atherosclerosis protection by improving HDL functional properties. This could counteract, at least partially, the eventual worse effects on plasma lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01305-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285573PMC
June 2020

COVID-19 and urology: a comprehensive review of the literature.

BJU Int 2020 06 12;125(6):E7-E14. Epub 2020 May 12.

Urology Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Objective: To discuss the impact of COVID-19 on global health, particularly on urological practice and to review some of the available recommendations reported in the literature.

Material And Methods: In the current narrative review the PubMed database was searched to identify all the related reports discussing the impact of COVID-19 on the urological field.

Results: The COVID-19 pandemic is the latest and biggest global health threat. Medical and surgical priorities have changed dramatically to cope with the current challenge. These changes include postponements of all elective outpatient visits and surgical procedures to save facilities and resources for urgent cases and patients with COVID-19 patients. This review discuss some of the related changes in urology.

Conclusions: Over the coming weeks, healthcare workers including urologists will be facing increasingly difficult challenges, and consequently, they should adopt triage strategy to avoid wasting of medical resources and they should endorse sufficient protection policies to guard against infection when dealing with COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15071DOI Listing
June 2020

Editorial Comment: Effect of pelvimetric diameters on success of surgery in patients submitted to robot-assisted perineal radical prostatectomy.

Int Braz J Urol 2020 May-Jun;46(3):434-435

Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2019.0413.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7088502PMC
July 2020

Oncologic Outcomes in Young Adults With Kidney Cancer Treated During the Targeted Therapy Era.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 04 1;18(2):e134-e144. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Urologic Oncology, Faculdade de Medicina Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Urologic Oncology, Instituto do Câncer do Estado do São Paulo ICESP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the outcomes of young adults with kidney cancer treated during the targeted therapy era and evaluate the impact of young age on survival.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed the records from 445 patients younger than 55 years with kidney cancer at a single institution from 2006 to 2017. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the impact of clinical and pathologic variables on all-cause mortality.

Results: Overall, 104 (23%) patients 40 years or younger were compared with 341 (77%) patients who were 41 to 55 years old. Younger patients presented with more advanced stages of the disease, including metastasis at diagnosis, positive lymph nodes, venous tumor thrombus and had more non-clear cell tumors (54% vs. 30%; P < .001). Young adults had significantly worse OS at 2 and 5 years (67% vs. 82% and 53% vs. 69%, respectively). Younger patients with metastatic disease received targeted agents less often compared with the older group (64% vs. 75%). There was no difference in recurrence-free survival across patients with localized disease. Independent prognostic factors associated with increased mortality were metastasis at diagnosis, pT2 or greater, and age younger than 40 years (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.6; P = .03).

Conclusion: Patients younger than 40 years with kidney tumors treated during the targeted therapy era have worse OS compared with older adults. Young age is an independent predictor of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2019.09.012DOI Listing
April 2020

Robot-assisted extended pelvic lymph node dissection in prostate cancer. When and how?

Arch Esp Urol 2019 04;72(3):257-265

Divisão de Urologia. Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo ICESP. São Paulo. Brazil.

Objective: To review the literature evaluating the role of the extended pelvic lymph node dissectione PLND during robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in the management of PCa patients, as well as the preoperative clinic pathologic factors that predict lymph node metastases (LNM). The technique and current outcomes of robotic ePLND will be presented.

Methods: Medline®/Pubmed® were searched up to august 2018 to find comparative studies of different anatomic limits of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during RARP, open or pure laparoscopic surgery that reported number of nodes retrieved, oncologic outcomes and complications. The search was complemented to identify studies that evaluated diagnostic images and factors that predict LNM. Overall, 44 articles were included for full text review.

Results: There is not an imaging technique with an acceptable performance to select patients for PLND, the decision to perform a PLND is based on clinical characteristics described on validated nomograms. Median lymph node yield at RARP range from 5 to 21 depending on the extent of PLND, positivity rate of LN as high as 37% depending on the risk stratification of patients. Robot-assisted can be carried out to any extent with lymph node yields and safety concerns comparable to the open approach.

Conclusion: Extended pelvic lymph node dissection is recommended to be performed at the time of RARP in intermediate and high-risk patients and cannot be replaced by other modalities. A benefit in terms of oncologic outcomes remains to be established. The robot assisted approach offers shorter length of hospital stay, lower transfusion rates and comparable outcomes compared to other surgical approaches.
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April 2019

Predictive factors for prolonged hospital stay after retropubic radical prostatectomy in a high-volume teaching center.

Int Braz J Urol 2018 Nov-Dec;44(6):1089-1105

Divisão de Urologia, Instituto do Câncer de Estado de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

Objective: To evaluate the length hospital stay and predictors of prolonged hospitalization after RRP performed in a high-surgical volume teaching institution, and analyze the rate of unplanned visits to the office, emergency care, hospital readmissions and perioperative complications rates.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a standardized database for patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing RRP in our institution between January/2010 - January/2012. A logistic regression model including preoperative variables was initially built in order to determine the factors that predict prolonged hospital stay before the surgical procedure; subsequently, a second model including both pre and intraoperative variables was analyzed.

Results: 1011 patients underwent RRP at our institution were evaluated. The median hospital stay was 2 days, and 217 (21.5%) patients had prolonged hospitalization. Predictors of prolonged hospital stay among the preoperative variables were ICC (OR. 1.40 p=0.003), age (OR 1.050 p<0.001), ASA score of 3 (OR. 3.260 p<0.001), prostate volume on USG-TR (OR, 1.005 p=0.038) and African-American race (OR 2.235 p=0.004); among intra and postoperative factors, operative time (OR 1.007 p=0.022) and the presence of any complications (OR 2.013 p=0.009) or major complications (OR 2.357 p=0.01) were also correlated independently with prolonged hospital stay. The complication rate was 14.5%.

Conclusions: The independent predictors of prolonged hospitalization among preoperative variables were CCI, age, ASA score of 3, prostate volume on USG-TR and African-American race; amongst intra and postoperative factors, operative time, presence of any complications and major complications were correlated independently with prolonged hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2017.0339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442193PMC
February 2019

Robot - assisted laparoscopic local recurrence resection after radical prostatectomy.

Int Braz J Urol 2019 Jan-Feb;45(1):192

Serviço de Urologia, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Introduction And Objective: Local prostate cancer recurrence is usually treated with salvage radiation (sRDT) with or without adjuvant therapy. However, surgical resection could be an option. We aim to present the surgical technique for robot - assisted laparoscopic resection prostate cancer local recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) and sRDT in 2 cases.

Patients And Method: First case depicts a 70 year - old man who underwent RP in 2001 and sRDT in 2004. Following adjuvant therapy, patient had biochemical recurrence. MRI showed a solid mass in the prostatic fossa close to vesicourethral anastomosis, measuring 2.1 cm and PET / CT revealed hyper caption significant uptake in the prostatic fossa. Second case is a 59 year - old man who underwent RP in 2010 and sRDT in 2011. Again, patient presented with biochemical recurrence. PET / CT showed hyper caption in the prostatic fossa. Biopsy conformed a prostate adenocarcinoma. Both patients underwent robot - assisted extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection and local recurrence resection. A standard 4 robotic arms port placement was utilized.

Results: Both procedures were uneventfully performed in less than 3 hours and there were no complications. Pathological examination showed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 and 8 in the first and second case, respectively; surgical margins and lymph nodes were negative. After 6 months of follow-up, continence was not affected and both patients presented with PSA < 0.15 ng / mL.

Conclusion: Robot - assisted laparoscopic resection of prostate cancer local recurrence after RP and sRDT detected by PSMA PET / CT seems to be safe in experienced hands. It may postpone adjuvant therapy in selected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2017.0503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442126PMC
June 2019

Nerve-sparing in salvage robot-assisted prostatectomy: surgical technique, oncological and functional outcomes at a single high-volume institution.

BJU Int 2018 11 14;122(5):837-844. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Global Robotic Institute, Florida Hospital, Celebration, FL, USA.

Objective: To show the feasibility, oncological and functional outcomes of neurovascular bundle (NVB) preservation during salvage robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

Patients And Methods: In the present institutional review board-approved retrospective analysis, between January 2008 and March 2016, 80 patients underwent salvage RARP, performed by a single surgeon (V.P), because of local recurrence after primary treatment. These patients were categorized into two groups depending on the degree of nerve-sparing (NS) performed: a good-NS group (≥50% of NVB preservation) and a poor-NS group (<50% of NVB preservation). A standard transperitoneal six-port technique, using the DaVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), was performed, and either an anterograde or a retrograde approach was used for NVB preservation. Validated questionnaires were used preoperatively (Sexual Health Inventory for Men [SHIM] and American Urological Association scores). Potency after salvage RARP was defined as the ability to achieve a successful erection with penetration >50% of the time, while full continence after salvage RARPwas defined as 0 pads used. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival and predictive estimations, and regression models were used to identify the predictors of potency, continence and biochemical failure (BCF).

Results: The potency rate at 12 months was higher in the good-NS group (25.6% vs 4.3%; P = 0.036) regardless of previous SHIM score, and good NS tended to be predictive of potency after salvage RARP (P = 0.065). The full continence rate at 12 months and BCF rate were similar in the two groups, and non-radiation primary treatment was the only predictor of continence at 12 months after salvage RARP (P = 0.033).

Conclusions: Our data support the feasibility and safety of NVB preservation for salvage RARP conducted in select patients in a high-volume institution and the subsequent better recovery of adequate erections for intercourse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14517DOI Listing
November 2018

Corrigendum re: "Influence of Modified Posterior Reconstruction of the Rhabdosphincter on Early Recovery of Continence and Anastomotic Leakage Rates after Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy" [Eur Urol 2011;59:72-80].

Eur Urol 2018 08 19;74(2):e56. Epub 2018 May 19.

Global Robotics Institute, Florida Hospital Celebration Health, Celebration, FL, USA; University of Central Florida School of Medicine, Orlando, FL, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.05.007DOI Listing
August 2018

The role of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan in biochemical recurrence after primary treatment for prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2018 Oct 17;70(5):462-478. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Urology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Introduction: Recurrence after primary treatment of prostate cancer is one of the major challenges facing urologists. Biochemical recurrence is not rare and occurs in up to one third of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Management of biochemical recurrence is tailored according to the site and the burden of recurrence. Therefore, developing an imaging technique to early detect recurrent lesions represents an urgent need. Positron emission tomography (PET) of 68Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) is an emerging imaging modality that seems to be a promising tool with capability to localize recurrent prostate cancer. A systematic review of literature was done to evaluate the role of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan in patients with recurrent prostate cancer after primary radical treatment.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic and comprehensive review of literature was performed in September 2017 analyzing the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. The following key terms were used for the search "PSMA," "prostate-specific membrane antigen," "positron emission tomography," "PET," "recurrent," "prostate cancer," "prostate neoplasm," "prostate malignancy," and "68Ga." Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool.

Evidence Synthesis: Thirty-seven articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis of this systematic review. Of the 37 articles selected for analysis only four studies were prospective. The overall detection rate of 68Ga-PSMA PET scan ranged from 47% up to 96.6%. The main advantage of this imaging technique is its relatively high detection rates at low serum PSA levels below 0.5 ng/mL (ranging from 11.1% to 75%). Higher serum PSA level was strongly associated with increased positivity on 68Ga-PSMA PET scan. 68Ga-PSMA PET scan was found superior to conventional imaging techniques (CT and MRI) in this setting of patients and even it seems to outperform choline-based PET scan. This technique provided significant changes in the therapeutic management of 28.6-87.1% of patients.

Conclusions: After biochemical recurrence, the primary goal is to locate the recurrent lesions' site. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT seems to be effective in identifying recurrence localization also for very low levels of PSA (<0.5 ng/mL) thus permitting to choose the best therapeutic strategy as early as possible. However, data available cannot be considered exhaustive and prospective randomized trials are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.18.03081-3DOI Listing
October 2018

Ureteroileal bypass: a new technic to treat ureteroenteric strictures in urinary diversion.

Int Braz J Urol 2018 May-Jun;44(3):624-628

Divisão de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Objective: To present our technique of ureteroileal bypass to treat uretero-enteric strictures in urinary diversion.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and forty-one medical records were reviewed from patients submitted to radical cystectomy to treat muscle-invasive bladder cancer between 2013 and 2015. Twelve (8.5%) patients developed uretero-enteric anastomotic stricture during follow-up. Five patients were treated with endoscopic dilatation and double J placement. Four were treated surgically with standard terminal-lateral implantation. Three patients with uretero-enteric anastomotic stricture were treated at our institution by "ureteroileal bypass", one of them was treated with robotic surgery.

Results: All patients had the diagnosis of uretero-enteric anastomotic stricture via computerized tomography and DTPA renal scan. Time between cystectomy and diagnosis of uretero-enteric anastomotic stricture varied from five months to three years. Mean operative time was 120±17.9 minutes (98 to 142 min) and hospital stay was 3.3±0.62 days (3 to 4 days). Mean follow-up was 24±39.5 months (6 to 72 months). During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic and presented improvement in ureterohydronephrosis. Serum creatinine of all patients had been stable.

Conclusions: Latero-lateral ureter re-implantation is feasible by open or even robotic surgery with positive results, reasonable operation time, and without complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2017.0014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996801PMC
July 2018

Low serum testosterone is a predictor of high-grade disease in patients with prostate cancer.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2017 Aug;63(8):704-710

Full Professor of Urology, FMUSP, and Head of the Urologic Oncology Group at Icesp, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the relation between serum total testosterone (TT) and prostate cancer (PCa) grade and the effect of race and demographic characteristics on such association.

Method: We analyzed 695 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), of whom 423 had serum TT collected. Patients were classified as having hypogonadism or eugonadism based on two thresholds of testosterone: threshold 1 (300 ng/dL) and threshold 2 (250 ng/dL). We evaluated the relation between TT levels and a Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7 in RP specimens. Outcomes were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses, accounting for race and other demographic predictors.

Results: Out of 423 patients, 37.8% had hypogonadism based on the threshold 1 and 23.9% based on the threshold 2. Patients with hypogonadism, in both thresholds, had a higher chance of GS ≥ 7 (OR 1.79, p=0.02 and OR 2.08, p=0.012, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, TT, body mass index (BMI) and race, low TT (p=0.023) and age (p=0.002) were found to be independent risk factors for GS ≥ 7. Among Black individuals, low serum TT was a stronger predictor of high-grade disease compared to White men (p=0.02).

Conclusion: Hypogonadism is independently associated to higher GS in localized PCa. The effect of this association is significantly more pronounced among Black men and could partly explain aggressive characteristics of PCa found in this race.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.63.08.704DOI Listing
August 2017

A novel tool for predicting extracapsular extension during graded partial nerve sparing in radical prostatectomy.

BJU Int 2018 03 22;121(3):373-382. Epub 2017 Oct 22.

Department of Urology, Ospedale Policlinico e Nuovo Ospedale Civile S. Agostino Estense Modena, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: To create a statistical tool for the estimation of extracapsular extension (ECE) level of prostate cancer and determine the nerve-sparing (NS) approach that can be safely performed during radical prostatectomy (RP).

Patients And Methods: A total of 11 794 lobes, from 6 360 patients who underwent robot-assisted RP between 2008 and 2016 were evaluated. Clinicopathological features were included in a statistical algorithm for the prediction of the maximum ECE width. Five multivariable logistic models were estimated for: presence of ECE and ECE width of >1, >2, >3, and >4 mm. A five-zone decision rule based on a lower and upper threshold is proposed. Using a graphical interface, surgeons can view patient's pre-treatment characteristics and a curve showing the estimated probabilities for ECE amount together with the areas identified by the decision rule.

Results: Of the 6 360 patients, 1 803 (28.4%) were affected by non-organ-confined disease. ECE was present in 1 351 lobes (11.4%) and extended beyond the capsule for >1, >2, >3, and >4 mm in 498 (4.2%), 261 (2.2%), 148 (1.3%), 99 (0.8%) cases, respectively. ECE width was up to 15 mm (interquartile range 1.00-2.00). The five logistic models showed good predictive performance, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was: 0.81 for ECE, and 0.84, 0.85, 0.88, and 0.90 for ECE width of >1, >2, >3, and >4 mm, respectively.

Conclusion: This novel tool predicts with good accuracy the presence and amount of ECE. Furthermore, the graphical interface available at www.prece.it can support surgeons in patient counselling and preoperative planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14026DOI Listing
March 2018

The influence of previous robotic experience in the initial learning curve of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

Int Braz J Urol 2017 Sep-Oct;43(5):871-879

Divisão de Urologia, Universidade de São Paulo Escola Médica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Introduction: This study analyzed the impact of the experience with Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (RALP) on the initial experience with Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP) by examining perioperative results and early outcomes of 110 patients. LRPs were performed by two ro-botic fellowship trained surgeons with daily practice in RALP.

Patients And Methods: 110 LRP were performed to treat aleatory selected patients. The patients were divided into 4 groups for prospective analyses. A transperitoneal approach that simulates the RALP technique was used.

Results: The median operative time was 163 minutes (110-240), and this time significantly decreased through case 40, when the time plateaued (p=0.0007). The median blood loss was 250mL. No patients required blood transfusion. There were no life-threatening complications or deaths. Minor complications were uniformly distributed along the series (P=0.6401). The overall positive surgical margins (PSM) rate was 28.2% (20% in pT2 and 43.6% in pT3). PSM was in the prostate apex in 61.3% of cases. At the 12-month follow-up, 88% of men were continent (0-1 pad).

Conclusions: The present study shows that there are multiple learning curves for LRP. The shallowest learning curve was seen for the operative time. Surgeons transitioning between the RALP and LRP techniques were considered competent based on the low perioperative complication rate, absence of major complications, and lack of blood transfusions. This study shows that a learning curve still exists and that there are factors that must be considered by surgeons transitioning between the two techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2016.0526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5678518PMC
November 2017

Robot - assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in testicular tumor.

Int Braz J Urol 2017 Jan-Feb;43(1):171

Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), SP, Brasil.

Introduction And Objective: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is indicated for patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) with residual disease after chemotherapy. Although the gold standard approach is still the open surgery, few cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND have been described. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND.

Patient And Method: A 30 year-old asymptomatic man presented with left testicular swelling for 2 months. Physical examination revealed an enlarged and hard left testis. Alpha-fetoprotein (>1000ng/mL) and beta-HCG (>24.000U/L) were increased. Beta-HCG increased to >112.000U/L in less than one month. The patient underwent a left orchiectomy. Pathological examination showed a mixed NSGCT (50% embryonal carcinoma; 30% teratoma; 10% yolk sac; 10% choriocarcinoma). Computed tomography scan revealed a large tumor mass close to the left renal hilum (10x4x4cm) and others enlarged paracaval and paraortic lymph nodes (T2N3M1S3-stage III). Patient was submitted to 4 cycles of BEP with satisfactory response. Residual mass was suggestive of teratoma. Based on these findings, he was submitted to a robot-assisted RPLND.

Results: RPLND was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 3.5 hours. Blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. Pathological examination showed a pure teratoma. After 6 months of follow-up, patient is asymptomatic with an alpha-fetoprotein of 2.9ng/mL and an undetectable beta-HCG.

Conclusion: Robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND is a feasible procedure with acceptable morbidity even for post chemotherapy patients when performed by an experienced surgeon.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5293403PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2015.0436DOI Listing
July 2017

Salvage robotic prostatectomy for radio recurrent prostate cancer: technical challenges and outcome analysis.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2017 02 31;69(1):26-37. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia -

Introduction: The published data on salvage robot assisted radical prostatectomy (sRARP) is limited. Our aim was to perform a systematic review of the literature on sRARP after radiation failure in patients with prostate cancer and systematically analyse the available evidence for operative and oncological outcomes.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane library and ScienceDirect databases was performed in June 2016 using medical subject headings and free-text protocol. The search was conducted by applying the following search terms: salvage therapy, salvage, prostatectomy and robotics.

Evidence Synthesis: We report on ten case series including 197 men undergoing sRARP after varying modalities of radiotherapy. Over two thirds are recurrence free at the time of follow-up but with continence rates of only 60% and potency rates of only 26%. Complications requiring intervention are few at 16% though higher than primary RARP.

Conclusions: sRARP is increasingly acceptable as a treatment modality to be offered to men who fail initial radiation treatment but should be accompanied by appropriate counselling regarding the potential functional outcomes and complications. Series with longer follow up will be helpful to assess the durability of oncological outcomes while improvements in patient selection and adaption of meticulous surgical technique around the apex could improve continence rates. The concept of concomitant extended PLND remains an issue for debate and the experience with this approach at the time of sRARP and its benefit need further scrutiny.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.16.02797-1DOI Listing
February 2017

Value of 3-Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and targeted biopsy for improved risk stratification in patients considered for active surveillance.

BJU Int 2017 04 3;119(4):535-542. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Department of Urology, Instituto do Cancer, Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate and transrectal ultrasonography guided biopsy (TRUS-Bx) with visual estimation in early risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS).

Patients And Methods: Patients with low-risk, low-grade, localised prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled and submitted to a 3-T 16-channel cardiac surface coil mpMRI of the prostate and confirmatory biopsy (CBx), which included a standard biopsy (SBx) and visual estimation-guided TRUS-Bx. Cancer-suspicious regions were defined using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scores. Reclassification occurred if CBx confirmed the presence of a Gleason score ≥7, greater than three positive fragments, or ≥50% involvement of any core. The performance of mpMRI for the prediction of CBx results was assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to study relationships between age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA density (PSAD), number of positive cores in the initial biopsy, and mpMRI grade on CBx reclassification. Our report is consistent with the Standards of Reporting for MRI-targeted Biopsy Studies (START) guidelines.

Results: In all, 105 patients were available for analysis in the study. From this cohort, 42 (40%) had PI-RADS 1, 2, or 3 lesions and 63 (60%) had only grade 4 or 5 lesions. Overall, 87 patients underwent visual estimation TRUS-Bx. Reclassification among patients with PI-RADS 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 was 0%, 23.1%, 9.1%, 74.5%, and 100%, respectively. Overall, mpMRI sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for disease reclassification were 92.5%, 76%, 81%, and 90.5%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, only PSAD and mpMRI remained significant for reclassification (P < 0.05). In the cross-tabulation, SBx would have missed 15 significant cases detected by targeted biopsy, but SBx did detect five cases of significant cancer not detected by targeted biopsy alone.

Conclusion: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is a significant tool for predicting cancer severity reclassification on CBx among AS candidates. The reclassification rate on CBx is particularly high in the group of patients who have PI-RADS grades 4 or 5 lesions. Despite the usefulness of visual-guided biopsy, it still remains highly recommended to retrieve standard fragments during CBx in order to avoid missing significant tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.13624DOI Listing
April 2017

Safety of selective nerve sparing in high risk prostate cancer during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

J Robot Surg 2017 Jun 19;11(2):129-138. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Department of Urology, University of Central Florida College of Medicine and Global Robotics Institute, Florida Hospital-Celebration Health, Kissimmee, FL, USA.

D'Amico high risk prostate cancer is associated with higher incidence of extra prostatic disease. It is recommended to avoid nerve sparing in high risk patients to avoid residual cancer. We report our intermediate term oncologic and functional outcomes in patients with preoperative D'Amico high risk prostate cancer, who underwent selective nerve sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Between Jan 2008 till June 2013, 557 patients underwent RARP for D'Amico high risk prostate cancer. The criteria for nerve sparing were as follows-complete: non palpable disease with <3 cores involvement on prostate biopsy; partial: non palpable disease with <4 cores involvement on prostate biopsy; none: clinically palpable disease with ≥4 cores involvement on prostate biopsy and intraoperative visual cues of locally advanced disease (loss of dissection planes, focal bulge of prostatic capsule). Degree of nerve sparing (NS) was graded intraoperatively by the surgeon independently at either side as side specific margins were assessed to predict subjectivity of the intraoperative judgment. Various data were collected and analyzed. Of 557 patients who underwent RARP 140 underwent complete (group 1), 358 patients underwent partial (group 2), and 59 patients underwent non-nerve-sparing procedure (group 3). There were no difference in preoperative characteristic between the groups (p = 0.678), but group 3 had higher Gleason score sum (p = 0.001), positive cores on biopsy (p = 0.001) and higher t stage (p = 0.001). Postoperatively Extra prostatic extension (p = 0.001), seminal vesicle invasion (p = 0.001), and tumor volume (p < 0.001) were higher in Group 3. Side specific positive surgical margins (PSMs) rates were higher for non-nerve-sparing compared to partial and complete nerve sparing RARP (p < 0.001; overall PSMs = 25.2 %). On univariate and multivariate analysis, nerve sparing did not affect PSMs (p > 0.05). The overall biochemical recurrence (BCR) rate at mean follow-up of 24.3 months was 19.21 %. The continence rate at 3 month was significantly higher in complete NS group in comparison to non-NS group (p = 0.020), however, this difference was not statistically significant at 1 year. Similarly, mean time to continence was significantly lower in complete NS group in comparison to non-NS group (p = 0.030). The potency rate was significantly higher and mean time to potency was significantly lower in complete NS group in comparison to non-NS group (p = 0.010 and 0.020, respectively). In high risk prostate cancer patients, selective nerve sparing during RARP, using the preoperative clinical variables (clinical stage and positive cores on biopsy) and surgeon's intraoperative perception, could provide reasonable intermediate term oncologic, functional outcomes (continence and potency) with acceptable perioperative morbidity and positive surgical margins rate. Use of these preoperative factors and surgeon's intraoperative judgment can appropriately evaluate high risk prostate cancer patients for nerve sparing RARP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11701-016-0627-3DOI Listing
June 2017

Predictive factors and oncological outcomes of persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen in patients following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

J Robot Surg 2017 Mar 31;11(1):37-45. Epub 2016 May 31.

Department of Urology, Florida Hospital-Celebration Health, University of Central Florida College of Medicine and Global Robotics Institute, Orlando, FL, USA.

Our aim was to evaluate factors associated with persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biochemical recurrence following robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). The study population (N = 5300) consisted of consecutive patients who underwent RARP for localized prostate cancer by a single surgeon (VP) from January 2008 through July 2013. A query of our Institutional Review Board-approved registry identified 162 men with persistently elevated PSA (group A), defined as PSA level ≥0.1 ng/ml at 6 weeks after surgery, who were compared with rest of the cohort group having undetectable PSA, group B (<0.1 ng/ml). A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the significant association between various variables and the following: (1) persistently elevated PSA, (2) BCR (PSA value ≥0.2 ng/ml) on follow-up in the persistent PSA group. On multivariate analysis, only the following parameters were significantly associated with persistent PSA after RARP-preoperative [PSA >10 ng/ml (p = 0.01), Gleason Score ≥8 (p = 0.001) and clinical stage(p = 0.001)]; postoperative [pathologic stage (p = 0.001), extraprostatic extension (EPE, p = 0.01), lymph node positivity (p = 0.001), positive surgical margin (PSM, p = 0.02), Gleason score (p = 0.01) and tumor volume percent (p < 0.001)]. The mean follow-up was 38.1 months. The BCR was significantly higher in group A as compared to group B(52.47 vs 7.9 %) respectively; p = 0.01). The mean time to BCR was significantly lesser in group A as compared to group B(8.9 vs 21.1 months respectively; p = 0.01). The BCR-free survival rates at 1 year and 3 years were significantly lower statistically in the persistent PSA group in comparison to other groups (69.7 vs 97.3 % and 48.5 vs 92.1 %, respectively; p = 0.01). On multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with persistent PSA on follow-up, preoperative PSA >10 ng/ml, postoperative Gleason score ≥8, postoperative stage ≥pT3, positive pelvic lymph nodes, PSM >3 mm and post-RARP PSA doubling time (DT) <10 months (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with BCR. In patients after RARP, factors associated with aggressive disease (high preoperative PSA, Gleason score ≥8, stage ≥T3, PSM, high tumor volume percent and EPE) predict PSA persistence. Although these patients with persistent PSA after RARP are more likely to have BCR and that too earlier than those patients with undetectable PSA after RARP, a significant proportion of these patients (47.53 %) remain free of BCR. This subset of patients is associated with these favorable parameters (preoperative PSA <10 ng/ml, post-RARP PSA DT ≥10 months, postoperative Gleason score <8, pathologic stage 
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11701-016-0606-8DOI Listing
March 2017

Robotic Salvage Lymph Node Dissection After Radical Prostatectomy.

Int Braz J Urol 2015 Jul-Aug;41(4):819; discussion 820

Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Introduction And Objective: Radical prostatectomy is a first-line treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, in some cases, biochemical recurrence associated with imaging-detected nodal metastases may happen. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for salvage lymph node dissection after radical prostatectomy.

Materials And Methods: A 70 year-old asymptomatic man presented with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 7.45 ng/mL. Digital rectal examination was normal and trans-rectal prostate biopsy revealed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 (3+4). Pre-operative computed tomography scan and bone scintigraphy showed no metastatic disease. In other service, the patient underwent a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy plus obturador lymphadenectomy. Pathologic examination showed a pT3aN0 tumor. After 6 months of follow-up, serum PSA was 1.45 ng/mL. Further investigation with 11C--Choline PET/CT revealed only a 2-cm lymph node close to the left internal iliac artery. The patient was counseled for salvage lymph node dissection.

Results: Salvage lymph node dissection was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 1.5 hour, blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. After 12 months of follow-up, his PSA was undetectable with no other adjuvant therapy.

Conclusion: Robotic salvage pelvic lymph node dissection is an effective option for treatment of patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and only pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by C11-Choline PET/CT.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757015PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2014.0614DOI Listing
March 2016

Continence outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in patients with adverse urinary continence risk factors.

BJU Int 2015 Nov 11;116(5):764-70. Epub 2015 May 11.

Department of Urology, University of Central Florida College of Medicine and Global Robotics Institute, Florida Hospital-Celebration Health, Celebration, FL, USA.

Objective: To analyse the continence outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in suboptimal patients that have challenging continence recovery factors such as enlarged prostates, elderly patients, higher body mass index (BMI), salvage prostatectomy, and bladder neck procedures before RARP.

Patients And Methods: From January 2008 through November 2012, 4,023 patients underwent RARP by a single surgeon at our institution. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 3,362 men who had minimum of 1-year follow-up. This cohort of patients was stratified into six groups: Group I, aged ≥70 years (451 patients); Group II, BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) (197); Group III, prior bladder neck procedures (103); Group IV, prostate weight ≥80 g (280); and Group V, salvage prostatectomy (41). Group VI consisted of patients (2 447) with none of these risk factors. Continence outcomes at follow-up were analysed for all groups.

Results: The continence rate at 1 year and mean (sd) time to continence in different groups were: for patients aged ≥70 years, 85.6% and 3.2 (4.5) months; BMI of ≥35 kg/m(2) , 87.8% and 3.1 (4.5) months; prior bladder neck treatment, 82.4% and 3.4 (4.7) months; prostate weight of ≥80 g, 85.8% and 3.3 (4.4) months; salvage procedures, 51.3% and 6.6 (8.3) months; and in Group VI (none of the risk factors), 95.1% and 2.4 (3.2) months. The continence rate was significantly higher in group VI compared with the salvage group (group V) at the different follow-up intervals (P < 0.001). When compared with the other groups (I-IV), the continence rate, although higher, was not statistically significant at the different intervals in group VI (no risk). The mean time to continence was significantly lower in group VI compared with the other groups (I-V; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study has shown that selected risk factors adversely affect the time to return of continence after RARP, yet aside from salvage patients, there was no statistically significant difference demonstrated between the adverse-risk groups included. Patients undergoing salvage RP had significantly lower continence rates at the various intervals compared with the other groups. Patients with the risk factors identified should be counselled concerning expectations for achieving urinary continence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.13106DOI Listing
November 2015