Publications by authors named "Rafał Kowalczyk"

45 Publications

Open kidney cancer surgery and perioperative cardiac arrhythmias.

Cent European J Urol 2020 2;73(4):432-439. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

First Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Although cardiac arrhythmias during anesthesia are often observed, the literature focuses mainly on cardio-thoracic surgery. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of arrhythmias appearing in the perioperative period in patients undergoing urological surgery and furthermore to define whether combining general with epidural anesthesia prevents them.

Material And Methods: The study included 50 adults, without a prior cardiac or arrhythmia history, undergoing an open kidney cancer surgery, who were randomly allocated to receive either general or combined epidural/general anesthesia. A Holter monitor was applied the evening before the surgery, tracing continuously for a period of 24 hours (7PM-7PM). ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02988219.

Results: There was no statistical difference in the arrhythmia occurrence between the randomization groups. Among 65.21% the following arrhythmias were observed: 27 - bradycardia, 4 - sinus pause, 6 - ventricular extrasystoles (>1000/24 hours), 3 - supraventricular extrasystoles (>200/24 hours). The patients with arrhythmia were older and often with hypertension (p <0.01). A longer surgery duration predisposed to arrhythmia appearance (122.5 vs. 99 minutes), (p <0.01). The temperature measured at the beginning and at the end of the surgery was significantly lower among the participants with arrhythmia (p = 0.02, p = 0.01). The gender, body mass index (BMI), laboratory tests and the intake of intravenous fluids did not influence the occurrence of arrhythmia.

Conclusions: Perioperative cardiac arrhythmias (usually sinus arrhythmias) are common during an open kidney surgery and occur regardless of the anesthetic technique and usually do not require any treatment. Age, hypertension, long operation time or low body temperature predispose the patient to perioperative cardiac arrhythmias during surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2020.1734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848839PMC
November 2020

Multispecies reservoir of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (Cestoda: Diphyllobothridae) in carnivore communities in north-eastern Poland.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Nov 10;13(1):560. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Stoczek 1, 17-230, Białowieża, Poland.

Background: Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is a diphylobothriid tapeworm with a complex life-cycle including definitive, intermediate and paratenic (transport) hosts. Multiple routes of parasite transmission often make it impossible to determine what type of host a specific infected animal is considered to be. Spargana larvae cause sparganosis, a severe food- and water-borne disease mainly found in Asia. In Poland, Spirometra sp. was reported in large carnivores in Białowieża Primeval Forest for the first time in the 1940s and was recently confirmed as S. erinaceieuropaei in several mammals and snakes using molecular methods.

Methods: In total, 583 carcasses of 9 carnivore species were necropsied between 2013 and 2019 in north-eastern (NE) Poland. The larvae of S. erinaceieuropaei (spargana) were isolated from subcutaneous tissue, counted, and preserved for genetic analyses. We calculated the prevalence and intensity of infection. To assess spatial variation in S. erinaceieuropaei infection probability in NE Poland, we applied a generalized additive model (GAM) with binomial error distribution. To confirm the species affiliation of isolated larvae, we amplified a partial fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (240 bp in length).

Results: Spirometra larvae were found in the subcutaneous tissue of 172 animals of 7 species and confirmed genetically as S. erinaceieuropaei. The overall prevalence in all studied hosts was 29.5% with a mean infection intensity of 14.1 ± 33.8 larvae per individual. Native European badgers and invasive raccoon dogs were characterized by the highest prevalence. An analysis of parasite spread showed a spatially diversified probability of infection with the highest values occurring in the biodiversity hot spot, Białowieża Primeval Forest.

Conclusions: Our study revealed that various mammal species (both native and non-native) can serve as S. erinaceieuropaei reservoirs. The frequency and level of infection may differ between selected hosts and likely depend on host diversity and habitat structure in a given area. Further studies are needed to assess the distribution of the parasite throughout Europe and the environmental and biological factors influencing infection severity in wild mammals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04431-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654582PMC
November 2020

Sex-biased polyparasitism in moose () based on molecular analysis of faecal samples.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Dec 22;13:171-177. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Zoology and Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Bialystok, Ciołkowskiego 1J st, 15-245, Białystok, Poland.

Simultaneous infection with multiple parasite species in an individual host is often observed in wild populations. The understanding of parasite species distribution across populations of wild animals is of basic and applied importance, because parasites can have pronounced effects on the dynamics of host population. Here, we quantified prevalence and endoparasite species richness in moose and explored sex-biased polyparasitism using diagnostic PCR method coupled with DNA sequencing of moose faecal samples from the Biebrza River valley, North-Eastern Poland. This is the largest moose population in Central Europe that has not been harvested for almost 20 years. We also evaluated the appropriate quantity of faeces for detecting DNA of parasite species. Faecal samples were screened for molecular markers of 10 different species of endoparasites. Endoparasite prevalence was high in the studied population. Almost all of the samples (98%) tested positive for at least one parasite species, and we found polyparasitism in the majority of the tested individuals. The number of different parasite species found in a single individual ranged from 0 to 9. The parasite species richness was significantly higher in male than in female individuals. The most prevalent were liver fluke and gastrointestinal nematodes sp. Of the ten endoparasite species detected, only the prevalence of the tapeworm was significantly higher in males than in females. Additionally, we identified co-occurrence associations of parasite species, which tended to be random, but we noted some evidence of both positive and negative associations. Our findings promote applications of molecular methods for parasite species identification from non-invasively collected faecal samples in management and scientific study of moose population, which should include investigation of parasite status, and in health monitoring programs for other wild cervids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591323PMC
December 2020

[Hypotension - a complication of subarachnoid anesthesia especially dangerous in patients aged].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2020 Jun;48(285):215-220

Medical University of Warsaw, Poland: Departament of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.

Demographic data clearly show the progressive aging of societies. Problems and specificity of anaesthesia in the elderly becomes a particularly important issue in this context. Spinal anesthesia is a method often used to anesthetize elderly patients, and hypotension is one of its most common early complications. Untreated or improperly treated hypotension increases the risk of perioperative complications such as myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or acute renal failure. The prevention of hypotension consists of intravenous fluid therapy and pre-emptive use of vasoconstrictor drugs. Among vasoconstrictors, ephedrine and phenylephrine are commonly used to treat hypotension due to spinal anaesthesia. Both drugs are available in Poland. Issues related to their use in the treatment of hypotension caused by spinal anaesthesia in the elderly, including the features of both drugs, their method of administration and dosage based on the literature and own experience are the subject of this study. It should be noted, however, that most studies in the use of ephedrine and phenylephrine as a targeted treatment for hypotension concern the obstetric patient population while the elderly population is underrepresented and the results are inconclusive.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2020

The level of habitat patchiness influences movement strategy of moose in Eastern Poland.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(3):e0230521. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Mammal Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

Spatio-temporal variation in resource availability leads to a variety of animal movement strategies. In the case of ungulates, temporally unpredictable landscapes are associated with nomadism, while high predictability in the resource distribution favours migratory or sedentary behaviours depending on the spatial and temporal scale of landscape dynamics. As most of the surveys on moose (Alces alces) movement behaviours in Europe have been conducted on Scandinavian populations, little is known about the movement strategies of moose at the southern edge of the species' range. We expected that decreasing habitat patchiness in central Europe would be associated with the prevalence of migratory behaviours. To verify this hypothesis, we analysed 32 moose fitted with GPS collars from two study areas in eastern Poland which differed in a level of habitat patchiness. We classified moose movements using the net squared displacement method. As presumed, lower patchiness in the Biebrza study site was associated with the predominance of individuals migrating short-distance, while in more patchy landscape of Polesie, resident moose dominated. At the individual level, the propensity of moose to migrate decreased with increasing abundance of forest habitats in their summer ranges. In addition, the parameters (migration distance, timing and duration) for migratory individuals varied substantially between individuals and years. Yet, in spring individual moose expressed a consistent migration timing across years. There was little synchronization of migration timing between individuals from the same population both in spring and autumn, which may have been related to mild weather conditions. We observed that moose postponed their migrations and started movement toward summer ranges at a similar time window in years when spring was delayed due to harsh weather. Hence, in light of global warming, we presume further changes in animal movements will arise.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230521PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082038PMC
June 2020

Patterns of parasite eggs, oocysts and larvae shedding by moose in the Biebrza marshland (NE Poland).

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Apr 21;11:191-197. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology PAS, Twarda 51/55, 00-818, Warsaw, Poland.

The study analyses patterns of endoparasite eggs, oocysts and larvae shedding by moose from the relict population in the Biebrza marshland, NE Poland, which has grown to be one of the largest in Central Europe since the ban on hunting imposed in 2001. The analysis identified 10 species or groups of parasites among 230 faecal moose samples collected over 16 consequent months. The most prevalent were the eggs of Trichostrongylidae, spp., , and the larvae of sp. Four parasite species were more prevalent in males, indicating male-biased parasitism, and the studied moose population exhibited a female-skewed sex ratio. eggs and Protostrongylid larvae were more prevalent during winter, which indicated their resistance to harsh weather conditions. The prevalence of and sp. increased during the growing season, as did the number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) of , possibly due to the availability of water sources. Higher mean monthly temperature was also found to have a positive effect on the excretion of Trichostrongylidae and spp. eggs. In addition, the time of infection and the specificity of the parasite life cycle, being sensitive to certain climatic conditions, also appeared to have a strong influence on eggs, oocysts and larvae shedding in this non-harvested moose population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047143PMC
April 2020

Widespread male sex bias in mammal fossil and museum collections.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 09 3;116(38):19019-19024. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia;

A recent study of mammoth subfossil remains has demonstrated the potential of using relatively low-coverage high-throughput DNA sequencing to genetically sex specimens, revealing a strong male-biased sex ratio [P. Pečnerová et al., 27, 3505-3510.e3 (2017)]. Similar patterns were predicted for steppe bison, based on their analogous female herd-based structure. We genetically sexed subfossil remains of 186 Holarctic bison ( spp.), and also 91 brown bears (), which are not female herd-based, and found that ∼75% of both groups were male, very close to the ratio observed in mammoths (72%). This large deviation from a 1:1 ratio was unexpected, but we found no evidence for sex differences with respect to DNA preservation, sample age, material type, or overall spatial distribution. We further examined ratios of male and female specimens from 4 large museum mammal collections and found a strong male bias, observable in almost all mammalian orders. We suggest that, in mammals at least, 1) wider male geographic ranges can lead to considerably increased chances of detection in fossil studies, and 2) sexual dimorphic behavior or appearance can facilitate a considerable sex bias in fossil and modern collections, on a previously unacknowledged scale. This finding has major implications for a wide range of studies of fossil and museum material.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1903275116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754617PMC
September 2019

Large-scale mitogenomic analysis of the phylogeography of the Late Pleistocene cave bear.

Sci Rep 2019 08 15;9(1):10700. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) is one of the Late Pleistocene megafauna species that faced extinction at the end of the last ice age. Although it is represented by one of the largest fossil records in Europe and has been subject to several interdisciplinary studies including palaeogenetic research, its fate remains highly controversial. Here, we used a combination of hybridisation capture and next generation sequencing to reconstruct 59 new complete cave bear mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) from 14 sites in Western, Central and Eastern Europe. In a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, we compared them to 64 published cave bear mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the population dynamics and phylogeography during the Late Pleistocene. We found five major mitochondrial DNA lineages resulting in a noticeably more complex biogeography of the European lineages during the last 50,000 years than previously assumed. Furthermore, our calculated effective female population sizes suggest a drastic cave bear population decline starting around 40,000 years ago at the onset of the Aurignacian, coinciding with the spread of anatomically modern humans in Europe. Thus, our study supports a potential significant human role in the general extinction and local extirpation of the European cave bear and illuminates the fate of this megafauna species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47073-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695494PMC
August 2019

Adapt or die-Response of large herbivores to environmental changes in Europe during the Holocene.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 09 12;25(9):2915-2930. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

Climate warming and human landscape transformation during the Holocene resulted in environmental changes for wild animals. The last remnants of the European Pleistocene megafauna that survived into the Holocene were particularly vulnerable to changes in habitat. To track the response of habitat use and foraging of large herbivores to natural and anthropogenic changes in environmental conditions during the Holocene, we investigated carbon (δ C) and nitrogen (δ N) stable isotope composition in bone collagen of moose (Alces alces), European bison (Bison bonasus) and aurochs (Bos primigenius) in Central and Eastern Europe. We found strong variations in isotope compositions in the studied species throughout the Holocene and diverse responses to changing environmental conditions. All three species showed significant changes in their δ C values reflecting a shift of foraging habitats from more open in the Early and pre-Neolithic Holocene to more forest during the Neolithic and Late Holocene. This shift was strongest in European bison, suggesting higher plasticity, more limited in moose, and the least in aurochs. Significant increases of δ N values in European bison and moose are evidence of a diet change towards more grazing, but may also reflect increased nitrogen in soils following deglaciation and global temperature increases. Among the factors explaining the observed isotope variations were time (age of samples), longitude and elevation in European bison, and time, longitude and forest cover in aurochs. None of the analysed factors explained isotope variations in moose. Our results demonstrate the strong influence of natural (forest expansion) and anthropogenic (deforestation and human pressure) changes on the foraging ecology of large herbivores, with forests playing a major role as a refugial habitat since the Neolithic, particularly for European bison and aurochs. We propose that high flexibility in foraging strategy was the key for survival of large herbivores in the changing environmental conditions of the Holocene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14733DOI Listing
September 2019

Effective mitigation of conservation conflicts and participatory governance: reflections on Kuboń et al.

Conserv Biol 2019 08 26;33(4):962-965. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Forest Biology, Wrocław University, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335, Wrocław, Poland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13332DOI Listing
August 2019

The first case of genetically confirmed sparganosis (Spirometra erinaceieuropaei) in European reptiles.

Parasitol Res 2018 Nov 15;117(11):3659-3662. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 17-230, Białowieża, Poland.

Sparganosis is a zoonosis caused by the spargana (larvae) of Spirometra sp. (Diphyllobothriidae). Reptiles are particularly important vectors for the transmission of this parasite in Asia; however, their role in sparganosis spread in European wildlife is unrecognized. We investigated the infection of reptiles with Spirometra sp. in NE Poland, where several mammalian hosts have been identified recently and in the past. Of the 59 dead reptiles, plerocercoids were found in two grass snakes (Natrix natrix) from the Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF). The Spirometra erinaceieuropaei species was genetically confirmed using the evolutionary conserved nuclear 18S rRNA gene, and then compared to GenBank deposits. The sequences were identical to previously investigated Spirometra sp. found in Eurasian badger and wild boar from BPF. Our finding is the first genetically confirmed record of Spirometra sp. in reptiles in Europe. Since reptiles are often a component of mammalian diet, they can be a source of Spirometra tapeworm infection in European wildlife; however, further studies are needed to investigate the prevalence of infection in reptiles and other non-mammalian hosts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-6079-0DOI Listing
November 2018

Human and the beast-Flight and aggressive responses of European bison to human disturbance.

PLoS One 2018 1;13(8):e0200635. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

Large mammals are often a source of conflict, and consequently there has been increasing interest in close encounters with them. Knowledge of wildlife responses to human disturbance is crucial for the management of increasing and expanding populations of large animals. We investigated flight initiation distance (FID) and aggressive responses of the European bison-the largest terrestrial mammal of Europe-to human disturbance in the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland). When encountered by humans, bison usually flee. Aggression was observed in only 0.4% of approach attempts. Mean FID was 77±46 m and was influenced by habitat, sex, and supplementary feeding intensity. Females showed greater timidity than males, FID was lower in forest than in open habitats, and supplementary feeding caused a drop in FID. In 84.5% of all documented aggression cases, bison attacks were provoked by humans approaching too close to the bison or by deliberate scaring them. Males were more aggressive than females, and attacked mainly during the rut, while females attacked during the winter and calving. Bison attacked in built-up areas significantly more often than expected. The mean critical distance of attacks was 21±2 m. Most attacks took the form of a short chase preceded by warning signs. Goring was observed in 22.7% of all aggression cases and no fatalities were recorded. Our study shows that bison are not dangerous animals and only manifest aggression in response to prolonged disturbance at close ranges. The education of people and recommendations for minimum approach distances should ensure a low rate of disturbance and safety when encountering large mammals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200635PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070204PMC
January 2019

Increased Parasitic Load in Captive-Released European Bison (Bison bonasus) has Important Implications for Reintroduction Programs.

Ecohealth 2018 06 16;15(2):467-471. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Stoczek 1, 17-230, Białowieża, Poland.

Captive-bred animals, widely used in reintroduction programmes, are often immunologically naïve and more susceptible to pathogens. We analysed infection of invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in captive-bred European bison (Bison bonasus) released to the wild in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Mean A. sidemi infection intensity of released bison (29,137 nematodes) was over threefold higher than in wild bison (8756). It indicates a rapid acquisition and increase in the infection intensity in previously dewormed bison released from captivity. Thus, reintroduction programmes should consider the impact of pathogens and involve controlled exposure of captive animals to specific parasites prior to release.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-018-1327-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132417PMC
June 2018

Białowieża Forest: Logging data lacking.

Science 2018 02;359(6376):646

Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat0295DOI Listing
February 2018

Stable isotope signatures of large herbivore foraging habitats across Europe.

PLoS One 2018 2;13(1):e0190723. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

We investigated how do environmental and climatic factors, but also management, affect the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope composition in bone collagen of the two largest contemporary herbivores: European bison (Bison bonasus) and moose (Alces alces) across Europe. We also analysed how different scenarios of population recovery- reintroduction in bison and natural recovery in moose influenced feeding habitats and diet of these two species and compared isotopic signatures of modern populations of bison and moose (living in human-altered landscapes) with those occurring in early Holocene. We found that δ13C of modern bison and moose decreased with increasing forest cover. Decreasing forest cover, increasing mean annual temperature and feeding on farm crops caused an increase in δ15N in bison, while no factor significantly affected δ15N in moose. We showed significant differences in δ13C and δ15N among modern bison populations, in contrast to moose populations. Variation in both isotopes in bison resulted from inter-population differences, while in moose it was mainly an effect of intra-population variation. Almost all modern bison populations differed in δ13C and δ15N from early Holocene bison. Such differences were not observed in moose. It indicates refugee status of European bison. Our results yielded evidence that habitat structure, management and a different history of population recovery have a strong influence on foraging behaviour of large herbivores reflected in stable isotope signatures. Influence of forest structure on carbon isotope signatures of studied herbivores supports the "canopy effect" hypothesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190723PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5749876PMC
February 2018

Iliac Fascia Compartment Block and Analgesic Consumption in Patients Operated on for Hip Fracture.

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2017 Oct;19(5):451-459

Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny I Klinika Anestezjologii i Intensywnej Terapii.

Background: Fractures of the proximal femur in elderly patients are a challenge for orthopedics, anesthe-sio-logy and geriatrics. Early mobilization reduces postoperative mortality among these patients. Effective anal-gesia is necessary to achieve this goal.

Material And Methods: A retrospective analysis of perioperative medical records of 78. patients undergoing surgical treatment of proximal femur fractures was performed. Group 1 (n=35)consisted of patients who were treated with pharmacologic analgesia only (systemic analgesics) and Group 2 (n=43) involved patients who re-ceived a preoperative fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) and pharmacologic analgesia. FICB was per-formed under ultrasound guidance, and systemic analgesics were administered according to a standardized pro-to-col. Demographics, anesthesia and operation data as well as the dosage of analgesics used on postoperative day 0 were collected for the study.

Results: Patients with antecedent iliac fascia blockade required fewer analgesic interventions (3 vs. 11, p <0.0001) and showed significantly less need for analgesics than non-block patients. No complications were observed after performing FICB.

Conclusion: The iliac fascia compartment block produces effective postoperative analgesia and reduces postoperative opioid consumption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0010.5825DOI Listing
October 2017

Brønsted-base-catalyzed remote cascade reactivity of 2,4-dienones - asymmetric synthesis of tetrahydrothiophenes.

Org Biomol Chem 2017 Nov;15(45):9566-9569

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź, Poland.

This study demonstrates that the remote cascade functionalization of 2,4-dienones can be realized by employing Brønsted base catalysis. The developed cascade involving 1,6-addition followed by the intramolecular aldol reaction provides a straightforward access to polysubstituted tetrahydrothiophene derivatives of biological and synthetic importance. Target products, bearing three contiguous stereocenters including one quaternary, have been obtained with excellent yields (up to 98%) and with good to high stereocontrol (>20 : 1 dr, up to 97 : 3 er) with the reaction cascade being promoted by a simple and readily available cinchona alkaloid cinchonine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7ob02397aDOI Listing
November 2017

Potent covalent inhibitors of bacterial urease identified by activity-reactivity profiling.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 03 12;27(6):1346-1350. Epub 2017 Feb 12.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address:

Covalent enzyme inhibitors constitute a highly important group of biologically active compounds, with numerous drugs available on the market. Although the discovery of inhibitors of urease, a urea hydrolyzing enzyme crucial for the survival of some human pathogens, is a field of medicinal chemistry that has grown in recent years, covalent urease inhibitors have been rarely investigated until now. Forty Michael acceptor-type compounds were screened for their inhibitory activities against bacterial urease, and several structures exhibited high potency in the nanomolar range. The correlation between chemical reactivity towards thiols and inhibitory potency indicated the most valuable compound - acetylenedicarboxylic acid, with K=42.5nM and logk=-2.14. Molecular modelling studies revealed that acetylenedicarboxylic acid is the first example of highly effective mode of binding based on simultaneous bonding to a cysteine residue and interaction with nickel ions present in the active site. Activity-reactivity profiling of reversible covalent enzyme inhibitors is a general method for the identification of valuable drug candidates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.02.022DOI Listing
March 2017

Tricyclic Quaternary Ammonium Salts Derived from Cinchona Alkaloids.

J Org Chem 2016 12 23;81(24):12489-12493. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Wrocław University of Technology , 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.

Tricyclic systems with quaternary bridgehead nitrogen atoms are rare but an interesting class of compounds. Chiral quinuclidine derivative salts with fused five and six-membered rings (X-ray) were obtained via modification of Cinchona alkaloids. The ease of ring formation was dependent on its size, while even mild activation sufficed to close the five membered ring. On the other hand the systems with fused benzene and a six-membered ring formed atropisomers separated by a barrier of ca. 15 kcal/mol, whose interconversion was studied by DFT and NMR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.6b02348DOI Listing
December 2016

Influence of management and biological factors on the parasitic invasions in the wild-spread of blood-sucking nematode in European bison ().

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2016 Dec 29;5(3):286-294. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

The full course of new parasite introductions in wild animals is difficult to accurately trace. We documented and analysed the invasive blood-sucking nematode (Trichostrongylidae) introduction and spread in European bison () from the initial phase of its progression. In the Polish part of the Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF) the parasite was first found in 2000. From 2002 to 2015, 165 culled bison were investigated. The prevalence and intensity of Schulz, 1933 infection increased over the following years, reaching 100% of investigated bison four years after introduction and a maximal median intensity of 8200 nematodes per animal in the winter of 2008/2009. Afterwards, a significant decline of median infection intensity was observed to the minimum value of 410 nematodes per animal. Between 2011 and 2014 prevalence varied from 89 to 100%. Among the factors analysed, the number of years since introduction, herd size, age and sex proved to significantly influence infection intensity. A higher infection intensity was recorded in sub-adults compared to juveniles and adults. Males had significantly lower infection intensity than females, but this was the case for adults only. The highest infection intensities were recorded in the biggest bison herds, where the winter supplementary feeding of bison is intense. Moreover, the longer the parasite was present in the host population, the more important herd size became as a factor. Our study indicates that it is not solely biological factors that determine the spread of a newly detected parasite in wildlife, but that management practices can also have a strong influence. This is especially important in endangered species under intensive human care as the management practices may pose a threat to the species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2016.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065049PMC
December 2016

Early cave art and ancient DNA record the origin of European bison.

Nat Commun 2016 10 18;7:13158. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.

The two living species of bison (European and American) are among the few terrestrial megafauna to have survived the late Pleistocene extinctions. Despite the extensive bovid fossil record in Eurasia, the evolutionary history of the European bison (or wisent, Bison bonasus) before the Holocene (<11.7 thousand years ago (kya)) remains a mystery. We use complete ancient mitochondrial genomes and genome-wide nuclear DNA surveys to reveal that the wisent is the product of hybridization between the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus) and ancestors of modern cattle (aurochs, Bos primigenius) before 120 kya, and contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry. Although undetected within the fossil record, ancestors of the wisent have alternated ecological dominance with steppe bison in association with major environmental shifts since at least 55 kya. Early cave artists recorded distinct morphological forms consistent with these replacement events, around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21-18 kya).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5071849PMC
October 2016

Click-Dimerized Cinchona Alkaloids.

J Org Chem 2016 09 12;81(17):8029-34. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology , Wyspiańskiego 27, Wrocław 50-370, Poland.

A series of Cinchona alkaloid-derived dimers were obtained in high yields in copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar "click" cycloaddition using bis(TMS)butadiyne and other bivalent alkynes. The products with bitriazole linkers were effective ligands for asymmetric copper-catalyzed Michael addition. It was shown that the presence of such linker was responsible for effective chirality transfer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.6b01403DOI Listing
September 2016

Deciphering the Wisent Demographic and Adaptive Histories from Individual Whole-Genome Sequences.

Mol Biol Evol 2016 11 19;33(11):2801-2814. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

GABI, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France INTERTRYP, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier, France

As the largest European herbivore, the wisent (Bison bonasus) is emblematic of the continent wildlife but has unclear origins. Here, we infer its demographic and adaptive histories from two individual whole-genome sequences via a detailed comparative analysis with bovine genomes. We estimate that the wisent and bovine species diverged from 1.7 × 10 to 850,000 years before present (YBP) through a speciation process involving an extended period of limited gene flow. Our data further support the occurrence of more recent secondary contacts, posterior to the Bos taurus and Bos indicus divergence (∼150,000 YBP), between the wisent and (European) taurine cattle lineages. Although the wisent and bovine population sizes experienced a similar sharp decline since the Last Glacial Maximum, we find that the wisent demography remained more fluctuating during the Pleistocene. This is in agreement with a scenario in which wisents responded to successive glaciations by habitat fragmentation rather than southward and eastward migration as for the bovine ancestors. We finally detect 423 genes under positive selection between the wisent and bovine lineages, which shed a new light on the genome response to different living conditions (temperature, available food resource, and pathogen exposure) and on the key gene functions altered by the domestication process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5062319PMC
November 2016

Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

PLoS One 2016 11;11(4):e0153098. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle, Luxembourg.

The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153098PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827816PMC
August 2016

Does kinship affect spatial organization in a small and isolated population of a solitary felid: The Eurasian lynx?

Integr Zool 2016 Sep;11(5):334-49

Laboratory of Genetics, Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Social organization in wild carnivores is mostly determined by patterns of family bonds, which may shape the degree of relatedness among individuals in the population. We studied kinship in a small and isolated population of a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to evaluate its effect on spatial distribution of individuals. We investigated the relationship between spatial location and pair-wise kinship among 28 lynx individuals identified in 2004-2011 by telemetry, non-invasive sampling and genotyping with the use of 12 autosomal microsatellites in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. The average relatedness of the lynx population was relatively low (Lynch and Ritland's R = 0.03). Females were significantly more related to each other than males with other males. The inferred pedigree showed that the population was dominated by only 2 familial groups. We did not find significant correlations between the relatedness and the extent of home range overlap or the straight-line distances between the home ranges' central points. These results suggest that the dynamics of kinship in this solitary felid may not differ from the random mating processes described in social carnivores. Although the chances of random mating could be limited to a few resident males and females, the presence of unrelated floaters may provide a "breeding buffer" that may prevent an increase of relatedness and likely inbreeding in the population. This system is likely to fail in preserving genetic diversity in small, highly isolated populations; therefore, restoring habitat connectivity is crucial to ensure sufficient immigration from neighboring populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12182DOI Listing
September 2016

A new occurrence of Eimeria alces (Apicomplexa: Eimeridae) in elk (Alces alces) in East Poland.

Ann Parasitol 2014 ;60(4):277-9

A total of 114 elk faecal samples from the Polesie National Park and adjacent forest districts were examined in 2013 and 2014. Three samples were positive. The positive samples were from the village of Wereszczyn, the Sobibor forest district, and the Polesie National Park and Forest district, Parczew. Morphometric examination revealed that the oocysts belong to the species Eimeria alces. This is the second identification of the parasite in elk in Poland and the fifth worldwide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2015

European bison as a refugee species? Evidence from isotopic data on Early Holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern Europe.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(2):e0115090. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Mammal Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences, Gen. Waszkiewicza 1c, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland.

According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores--aurochs (Bos primigenius), moose (Alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)--from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer) and of moose (browser). Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0115090PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4324907PMC
January 2016

Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

PLoS One 2014 31;9(12):e115160. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0115160PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4281111PMC
September 2015

Transfusion-related acute lung injury in a patient diagnosed with hypofibrinogenemia after a cesarean section--case report and review of the literature.

Ginekol Pol 2014 Aug;85(8):635-8

Background: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare, but potentially fatal, complication of blood product transfusion, manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome. In most cases, TRALI is associated with massive transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelets.

Case Report: A 38-year-old-woman at 40 weeks gestation was admitted to hospital with spontaneous labor contractions. A cesarean section was performed due to feto-pelvic disproportion and a male infant (Apgar 10) was delivered. After 37 hours low hemoglobin level and growing subfascial hematoma were detected. Urgent relaparotomy was carried out. The blood loss was over 1500 ml and a massive transfusion (6 units of red cell concentrate, 8 units of fresh frozen plasma and 6 units of cryoprecipitate) was necessary. The patient developed symptoms of acute respiratory distress 10 hours after relaparotomy. No pathological findings were shown in echocardiography and ECG. Chest CT revealed pulmonary edema. Low fibrinogen levels were observed in laboratory tests, decreasing in time after transfusion of the blood products to 1.0/L. Oxygen therapy with facial mask was initiated, furosemide was administered and continued for three days until symptom resolution. A series of hematological tests performed after the patient was discharged from hospital confirmed the diagnosis of TRALI and congenital hypofibrinogenemia.

Conclusion: Congenital hypofibrinogenemia may be responsible for the development of subfascial hematoma, a complication of cesarean section, necessitating relaparotomy. The following massive transfusion of blood products resulted in a potentially fatal complication in a form of TRALI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17772/gp/1786DOI Listing
August 2014