Publications by authors named "Radhika Aramandla"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Integrated Analysis of the Pancreas and Islets Reveals Unexpected Findings in Human Male With Type 1 Diabetes.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Dec 29;5(12):bvab162. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Clinical and pathologic heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes is increasingly being recognized. Findings in the islets and pancreas of a 22-year-old male with 8 years of type 1 diabetes were discordant with expected results and clinical history (islet autoantibodies negative, hemoglobin A1c 11.9%) and led to comprehensive investigation to define the functional, molecular, genetic, and architectural features of the islets and pancreas to understand the cause of the donor's diabetes. Examination of the donor's pancreatic tissue found substantial but reduced β-cell mass with some islets devoid of β cells (29.3% of 311 islets) while other islets had many β cells. Surprisingly, isolated islets from the donor pancreas had substantial insulin secretion, which is uncommon for type 1 diabetes of this duration. Targeted and whole-genome sequencing and analysis did not uncover monogenic causes of diabetes but did identify high-risk human leukocyte antigen haplotypes and a genetic risk score suggestive of type 1 diabetes. Further review of pancreatic tissue found islet inflammation and some previously described α-cell molecular features seen in type 1 diabetes. By integrating analysis of isolated islets, histological evaluation of the pancreas, and genetic information, we concluded that the donor's clinical insulin deficiency was most likely the result autoimmune-mediated β-cell loss but that the constellation of findings was not typical for type 1 diabetes. This report highlights the pathologic and functional heterogeneity that can be present in type 1 diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvab162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8633619PMC
December 2021

Combinatorial transcription factor profiles predict mature and functional human islet α and β cells.

JCI Insight 2021 09 22;6(18). Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Islet-enriched transcription factors (TFs) exert broad control over cellular processes in pancreatic α and β cells, and changes in their expression are associated with developmental state and diabetes. However, the implications of heterogeneity in TF expression across islet cell populations are not well understood. To define this TF heterogeneity and its consequences for cellular function, we profiled more than 40,000 cells from normal human islets by single-cell RNA-Seq and stratified α and β cells based on combinatorial TF expression. Subpopulations of islet cells coexpressing ARX/MAFB (α cells) and MAFA/MAFB (β cells) exhibited greater expression of key genes related to glucose sensing and hormone secretion relative to subpopulations expressing only one or neither TF. Moreover, all subpopulations were identified in native pancreatic tissue from multiple donors. By Patch-Seq, MAFA/MAFB-coexpressing β cells showed enhanced electrophysiological activity. Thus, these results indicate that combinatorial TF expression in islet α and β cells predicts highly functional, mature subpopulations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.151621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492318PMC
September 2021

Coordinated interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in the islet microenvironment promote β cell regeneration.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Apr 6;6(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Endogenous β cell regeneration could alleviate diabetes, but proliferative stimuli within the islet microenvironment are incompletely understood. We previously found that β cell recovery following hypervascularization-induced β cell loss involves interactions with endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages (MΦs). Here we show that proliferative ECs modulate MΦ infiltration and phenotype during β cell loss, and recruited MΦs are essential for β cell recovery. Furthermore, VEGFR2 inactivation in quiescent ECs accelerates islet vascular regression during β cell recovery and leads to increased β cell proliferation without changes in MΦ phenotype or number. Transcriptome analysis of β cells, ECs, and MΦs reveals that β cell proliferation coincides with elevated expression of extracellular matrix remodeling molecules and growth factors likely driving activation of proliferative signaling pathways in β cells. Collectively, these findings suggest a new β cell regeneration paradigm whereby coordinated interactions between intra-islet MΦs, ECs, and extracellular matrix mediate β cell self-renewal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00129-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024255PMC
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 Are Expressed in the Microvasculature and Ducts of Human Pancreas but Are Not Enriched in β Cells.

Cell Metab 2020 12 13;32(6):1028-1040.e4. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212, USA; Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

Isolated reports of new-onset diabetes in individuals with COVID-19 have led to the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 is directly cytotoxic to pancreatic islet β cells. This would require binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into β cells via co-expression of its canonical cell entry factors, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2); however, their expression in human pancreas has not been clearly defined. We analyzed six transcriptional datasets of primary human islet cells and found that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were not co-expressed in single β cells. In pancreatic sections, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 protein was not detected in β cells from donors with and without diabetes. Instead, ACE2 protein was expressed in islet and exocrine tissue microvasculature and in a subset of pancreatic ducts, whereas TMPRSS2 protein was restricted to ductal cells. These findings reduce the likelihood that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects β cells in vivo through ACE2 and TMPRSS2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664344PMC
December 2020

SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are Expressed in the Pancreas but are Not Enriched in Islet Endocrine Cells.

bioRxiv 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Reports of new-onset diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis in individuals with COVID-19 have led to the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is directly cytotoxic to pancreatic islet β cells. This would require binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host β cells via cell surface co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the putative receptor and effector protease, respectively. To define ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the human pancreas, we examined six transcriptional datasets from primary human islet cells and assessed protein expression by immunofluorescence in pancreata from donors with and without diabetes. and transcripts were low or undetectable in pancreatic islet endocrine cells as determined by bulk or single cell RNA sequencing, and neither protein was detected in α or β cells from these donors. Instead, ACE2 protein was expressed in the islet and exocrine tissue microvasculature and also found in a subset of pancreatic ducts, whereas TMPRSS2 protein was restricted to ductal cells. The absence of significant ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expression in islet endocrine cells reduces the likelihood that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects pancreatic islet β cells through these cell entry proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.31.275719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587777PMC
October 2020

Integrated human pseudoislet system and microfluidic platform demonstrate differences in GPCR signaling in islet cells.

JCI Insight 2020 05 21;5(10). Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Pancreatic islets secrete insulin from β cells and glucagon from α cells, and dysregulated secretion of these hormones is a central component of diabetes. Thus, an improved understanding of the pathways governing coordinated β and α cell hormone secretion will provide insight into islet dysfunction in diabetes. However, the 3D multicellular islet architecture, essential for coordinated islet function, presents experimental challenges for mechanistic studies of intracellular signaling pathways in primary islet cells. Here, we developed an integrated approach to study the function of primary human islet cells using genetically modified pseudoislets that resemble native islets across multiple parameters. Further, we developed a microperifusion system that allowed synchronous acquisition of GCaMP6f biosensor signal and hormone secretory profiles. We demonstrate the utility of this experimental approach by studying the effects of Gi and Gq GPCR pathways on insulin and glucagon secretion by expressing the designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) hM4Di or hM3Dq. Activation of Gi signaling reduced insulin and glucagon secretion, while activation of Gq signaling stimulated glucagon secretion but had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on insulin secretion, which occur through changes in intracellular Ca2+. The experimental approach of combining pseudoislets with a microfluidic system allowed the coregistration of intracellular signaling dynamics and hormone secretion and demonstrated differences in GPCR signaling pathways between human β and α cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259531PMC
May 2020

Tacrolimus- and sirolimus-induced human β cell dysfunction is reversible and preventable.

JCI Insight 2020 01 16;5(1). Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, and.

Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common and significant complication related to immunosuppressive agents required to prevent organ or cell transplant rejection. To elucidate the effects of 2 commonly used agents, the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) and the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus (SIR), on islet function and test whether these effects could be reversed or prevented, we investigated human islets transplanted into immunodeficient mice treated with TAC or SIR at clinically relevant levels. Both TAC and SIR impaired insulin secretion in fasted and/or stimulated conditions. Treatment with TAC or SIR increased amyloid deposition and islet macrophages, disrupted insulin granule formation, and induced broad transcriptional dysregulation related to peptide processing, ion/calcium flux, and the extracellular matrix; however, it did not affect regulation of β cell mass. Interestingly, these β cell abnormalities reversed after withdrawal of drug treatment. Furthermore, cotreatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist completely prevented TAC-induced β cell dysfunction and partially prevented SIR-induced β cell dysfunction. These results highlight the importance of both calcineurin and mTOR signaling in normal human β cell function in vivo and suggest that modulation of these pathways may prevent or ameliorate PTDM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.130770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7030815PMC
January 2020

Human islets expressing HNF1A variant have defective β cell transcriptional regulatory networks.

J Clin Invest 2019 01 3;129(1):246-251. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Using an integrated approach to characterize the pancreatic tissue and isolated islets from a 33-year-old with 17 years of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we found that donor islets contained β cells without insulitis and lacked glucose-stimulated insulin secretion despite a normal insulin response to cAMP-evoked stimulation. With these unexpected findings for T1D, we sequenced the donor DNA and found a pathogenic heterozygous variant in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF1A). In one of the first studies of human pancreatic islets with a disease-causing HNF1A variant associated with the most common form of monogenic diabetes, we found that HNF1A dysfunction leads to insulin-insufficient diabetes reminiscent of T1D by impacting the regulatory processes critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and suggest a rationale for a therapeutic alternative to current treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI121994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307934PMC
January 2019

Ectonucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-3 Antibody Targets Adult Human Pancreatic β Cells for In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis.

Cell Metab 2019 03 15;29(3):745-754.e4. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of cell-surface markers specific to human pancreatic β cells would allow in vivo analysis and imaging. Here we introduce a biomarker, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-3 (NTPDase3), that is expressed on the cell surface of essentially all adult human β cells, including those from individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. NTPDase3 is expressed dynamically during postnatal human pancreas development, appearing first in acinar cells at birth, but several months later its expression declines in acinar cells while concurrently emerging in islet β cells. Given its specificity and membrane localization, we utilized an NTPDase3 antibody for purification of live human β cells as confirmed by transcriptional profiling, and, in addition, for in vivo imaging of transplanted human β cells. Thus, NTPDase3 is a cell-surface biomarker of adult human β cells, and the antibody directed to this protein should be a useful new reagent for β cell sorting, in vivo imaging, and targeting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402969PMC
March 2019

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is caused by islet loss and inflammation.

JCI Insight 2018 04 19;3(8). Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Cystic fibrosis-related (CF-related) diabetes (CFRD) is an increasingly common and devastating comorbidity of CF, affecting approximately 35% of adults with CF. However, the underlying causes of CFRD are unclear. Here, we examined cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) islet expression and whether the CFTR participates in islet endocrine cell function using murine models of β cell CFTR deletion and normal and CF human pancreas and islets. Specific deletion of CFTR from murine β cells did not affect β cell function. In human islets, CFTR mRNA was minimally expressed, and CFTR protein and electrical activity were not detected. Isolated CF/CFRD islets demonstrated appropriate insulin and glucagon secretion, with few changes in key islet-regulatory transcripts. Furthermore, approximately 65% of β cell area was lost in CF donors, compounded by pancreatic remodeling and immune infiltration of the islet. These results indicate that CFRD is caused by β cell loss and intraislet inflammation in the setting of a complex pleiotropic disease and not by intrinsic islet dysfunction from CFTR mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.98240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931120PMC
April 2018

α Cell Function and Gene Expression Are Compromised in Type 1 Diabetes.

Cell Rep 2018 03;22(10):2667-2676

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Many patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have residual β cells producing small amounts of C-peptide long after disease onset but develop an inadequate glucagon response to hypoglycemia following T1D diagnosis. The features of these residual β cells and α cells in the islet endocrine compartment are largely unknown, due to the difficulty of comprehensive investigation. By studying the T1D pancreas and isolated islets, we show that remnant β cells appeared to maintain several aspects of regulated insulin secretion. However, the function of T1D α cells was markedly reduced, and these cells had alterations in transcription factors constituting α and β cell identity. In the native pancreas and after placing the T1D islets into a non-autoimmune, normoglycemic in vivo environment, there was no evidence of α-to-β cell conversion. These results suggest an explanation for the disordered T1D counterregulatory glucagon response to hypoglycemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.02.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368357PMC
March 2018

Development of a reliable automated screening system to identify small molecules and biologics that promote human β-cell regeneration.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2016 11 13;311(5):E859-E868. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Numerous compounds stimulate rodent β-cell proliferation; however, translating these findings to human β-cells remains a challenge. To examine human β-cell proliferation in response to such compounds, we developed a medium-throughput in vitro method of quantifying adult human β-cell proliferation markers. This method is based on high-content imaging of dispersed islet cells seeded in 384-well plates and automated cell counting that identifies fluorescently labeled β-cells with high specificity using both nuclear and cytoplasmic markers. β-Cells from each donor were assessed for their function and ability to enter the cell cycle by cotransduction with adenoviruses encoding cell cycle regulators cdk6 and cyclin D3. Using this approach, we tested 12 previously identified mitogens, including neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors, and molecules, involved in adenosine and Tgf-1β signaling. Each compound was tested in a wide concentration range either in the presence of basal (5 mM) or high (11 mM) glucose. Treatment with the control compound harmine, a Dyrk1a inhibitor, led to a significant increase in Ki-67 β-cells, whereas treatment with other compounds had limited to no effect on human β-cell proliferation. This new scalable approach reduces the time and effort required for sensitive and specific evaluation of human β-cell proliferation, thus allowing for increased testing of candidate human β-cell mitogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00515.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5130356PMC
November 2016

Stress-impaired transcription factor expression and insulin secretion in transplanted human islets.

J Clin Invest 2016 05 11;126(5):1857-70. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and progressive β cell dysfunction. Excess glucose and lipid impair β cell function in islet cell lines, cultured rodent and human islets, and in vivo rodent models. Here, we examined the mechanistic consequences of glucotoxic and lipotoxic conditions on human islets in vivo and developed and/or used 3 complementary models that allowed comparison of the effects of hyperglycemic and/or insulin-resistant metabolic stress conditions on human and mouse islets, which responded quite differently to these challenges. Hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance impaired insulin secretion only from human islets in vivo. In human grafts, chronic insulin resistance decreased antioxidant enzyme expression and increased superoxide and amyloid formation. In human islet grafts, expression of transcription factors NKX6.1 and MAFB was decreased by chronic insulin resistance, but only MAFB decreased under chronic hyperglycemia. Knockdown of NKX6.1 or MAFB expression in a human β cell line recapitulated the insulin secretion defect seen in vivo. Contrary to rodent islet studies, neither insulin resistance nor hyperglycemia led to human β cell proliferation or apoptosis. These results demonstrate profound differences in how excess glucose or lipid influence mouse and human insulin secretion and β cell activity and show that reduced expression of key islet-enriched transcription factors is an important mediator of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI83657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855919PMC
May 2016

Human islet preparations distributed for research exhibit a variety of insulin-secretory profiles.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2015 Apr 3;308(7):E592-602. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee

Human islet research is providing new insights into human islet biology and diabetes, using islets isolated at multiple US centers from donors with varying characteristics. This creates challenges for understanding, interpreting, and integrating research findings from the many laboratories that use these islets. In what is, to our knowledge, the first standardized assessment of human islet preparations from multiple isolation centers, we measured insulin secretion from 202 preparations isolated at 15 centers over 11 years and noted five distinct patterns of insulin secretion. Approximately three quarters were appropriately responsive to stimuli, but one quarter were dysfunctional, with unstable basal insulin secretion and/or an impairment in stimulated insulin secretion. Importantly, the patterns of insulin secretion by responsive human islet preparations (stable Baseline and Fold stimulation of insulin secretion) isolated at different centers were similar and improved slightly over the years studied. When all preparations studied were considered, basal and stimulated insulin secretion did not correlate with isolation center, biological differences of the islet donor, or differences in isolation, such as Cold Ischemia Time. Dysfunctional islet preparations could not be predicted from the information provided by the isolation center and had altered expression of genes encoding components of the glucose-sensing pathway, but not of insulin production or cell death. These results indicate that insulin secretion by most preparations from multiple centers is similar but that in vitro responsiveness of human islets cannot be predicted, necessitating preexperimental human islet assessment. These results should be considered when one is designing, interpreting, and integrating experiments using human islets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00437.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4385877PMC
April 2015

Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding.

Development 2014 Apr 26;141(7):1480-91. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Neurovascular alignment is a common anatomical feature of organs, but the mechanisms leading to this arrangement are incompletely understood. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling profoundly affects both vascularization and innervation of the pancreatic islet. In mature islets, nerves are closely associated with capillaries, but the islet vascularization process during embryonic organogenesis significantly precedes islet innervation. Although a simple neuronal meshwork interconnects the developing islet clusters as they begin to form at E14.5, the substantial ingrowth of nerve fibers into islets occurs postnatally, when islet vascularization is already complete. Using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that VEGF regulates islet innervation indirectly through its effects on intra-islet endothelial cells. Our data indicate that formation of a VEGF-directed, intra-islet vascular plexus is required for development of islet innervation, and that VEGF-induced islet hypervascularization leads to increased nerve fiber ingrowth. Transcriptome analysis of hypervascularized islets revealed an increased expression of extracellular matrix components and axon guidance molecules, with these transcripts being enriched in the islet-derived endothelial cell population. We propose a mechanism for coordinated neurovascular development within pancreatic islets, in which endocrine cell-derived VEGF directs the patterning of intra-islet capillaries during embryogenesis, forming a scaffold for the postnatal ingrowth of essential autonomic nerve fibers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.098657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3957372PMC
April 2014

Islet microenvironment, modulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling, promotes β cell regeneration.

Cell Metab 2014 Mar 20;19(3):498-511. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Electronic address:

Pancreatic islet endocrine cell and endothelial cell (EC) interactions mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signaling are important for islet differentiation and the formation of highly vascularized islets. To dissect how VEGF-A signaling modulates intra-islet vasculature, islet microenvironment, and β cell mass, we transiently increased VEGF-A production by β cells. VEGF-A induction dramatically increased the number of intra-islet ECs but led to β cell loss. After withdrawal of the VEGF-A stimulus, β cell mass, function, and islet structure normalized as a result of a robust, but transient, burst in proliferation of pre-existing β cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (MΦs) recruited to the site of β cell injury were crucial for the β cell proliferation, which was independent of pancreatic location and circulating factors such as glucose. Identification of the signals responsible for the proliferation of adult, terminally differentiated β cells will improve strategies aimed at β cell regeneration and expansion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2014.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012856PMC
March 2014

Enhanced expression of VEGF-A in β cells increases endothelial cell number but impairs islet morphogenesis and β cell proliferation.

Dev Biol 2012 Jul 24;367(1):40-54. Epub 2012 Apr 24.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

There is a reciprocal interaction between pancreatic islet cells and vascular endothelial cells (EC) in which EC-derived signals promote islet cell differentiation and islet development while islet cell-derived angiogenic factors promote EC recruitment and extensive islet vascularization. To examine the role of angiogenic factors in the coordinated development of islets and their associated vessels, we used a "tet-on" inducible system (mice expressing rat insulin promoter-reverse tetracycline activator transgene and a tet-operon-angiogenic factor transgene) to increase the β cell production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), or angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) during islet cell differentiation and islet development. In VEGF-A overexpressing embryos, ECs began to accumulate around epithelial tubes residing in the central region of the developing pancreas (associated with endocrine cells) as early as embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and increased dramatically by E16.5. While α and β cells formed islet cell clusters in control embryos at E16.5, the increased EC population perturbed endocrine cell differentiation and islet cell clustering in VEGF-A overexpressing embryos. With continued overexpression of VEGF-A, α and β cells became scattered, remained adjacent to ductal structures, and never coalesced into islets, resulting in a reduction in β cell proliferation and β cell mass at postnatal day 1. A similar impact on islet morphology was observed when VEGF-A was overexpressed in β cells during the postnatal period. In contrast, increased expression of Ang1 or Ang2 in β cells in developing or adult islets did not alter islet differentiation, development, or morphology, but altered islet EC ultrastructure. These data indicate that (1) increased EC number does not promote, but actually impairs β cell proliferation and islet formation; (2) the level of VEGF-A production by islet endocrine cells is critical for islet vascularization during development and postnatally; (3) angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling in endothelial cells does not have a crucial role in the development or maintenance of islet vascularization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.04.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3391601PMC
July 2012

Multimodal image coregistration and inducible selective cell ablation to evaluate imaging ligands.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Dec 5;108(51):20719-24. Epub 2011 Dec 5.

Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

We combined multimodal imaging (bioluminescence, X-ray computed tomography, and PET), tomographic reconstruction of bioluminescent sources, and two unique, complementary models to evaluate three previously synthesized PET radiotracers thought to target pancreatic beta cells. The three radiotracers {[(18)F]fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([(18)F]FP-DTBZ), [(18)F](+)-2-oxiranyl-3-isobutyl-9-(3-fluoropropoxy)-10-methoxy-2,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinoline ((18)F-AV-266), and (2S,3R,11bR)-9-(3-fluoropropoxy)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-isobutyl-10-methoxy-2,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinolin-2-ol ((18)F-AV-300)} bind vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Tomographic reconstruction of the bioluminescent signal in mice expressing luciferase only in pancreatic beta cells was used to delineate the pancreas and was coregistered with PET and X-ray computed tomography images. This strategy enabled unambiguous identification of the pancreas on PET images, permitting accurate quantification of the pancreatic PET signal. We show here that, after conditional, specific, and rapid mouse beta-cell ablation, beta-cell loss was detected by bioluminescence imaging but not by PET imaging, given that the pancreatic signal provided by three PET radiotracers was not altered. To determine whether these ligands bound human beta cells in vivo, we imaged mice transplanted with luciferase-expressing human islets. The human islets were imaged by bioluminescence but not with the PET ligands, indicating that these vesicular monoamine transporter 2-directed ligands did not specifically bind beta cells. These data demonstrate the utility of coregistered multimodal imaging as a platform for evaluation and validation of candidate ligands for imaging islets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1109480108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3251115PMC
December 2011

Bioluminescence imaging in mouse models quantifies beta cell mass in the pancreas and after islet transplantation.

Mol Imaging Biol 2010 Jan-Feb;12(1):42-53. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

Vanderbilt University, Institute of Imaging Science, Nashville, TN, USA.

Purpose: We developed a mouse model that enables non-invasive assessment of changes in beta cell mass.

Procedures: We generated a transgenic mouse expressing luciferase under control of the mouse insulin I promoter [mouse insulin promoter-luciferase-Vanderbilt University (MIP-Luc-VU)] and characterized this model in mice with increased or decreased beta cell mass and after islet transplantation.

Results: Streptozotocin-induced, diabetic MIP-Luc-VU mice had a progressive decline in bioluminescence that correlated with a decrease in beta cell mass. MIP-Luc-VU animals fed a high-fat diet displayed a progressive increase in bioluminescence that reflected an increase in beta cell mass. MIP-Luc-VU islets transplanted beneath the renal capsule or into the liver emitted bioluminescence proportional to the number of islets transplanted and could be imaged for more than a year.

Conclusions: Bioluminescence in the MIP-Luc-VU mouse model is proportional to beta cell mass in the setting of increased and decreased beta cell mass and after transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-009-0240-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822006PMC
March 2010

Assessment of pancreatic islet mass after islet transplantation using in vivo bioluminescence imaging.

Transplantation 2005 Apr;79(7):768-76

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Background: Pancreatic islet transplantation is an emerging therapy for type 1 diabetes, but it is difficult to assess islets after transplantation and thus to design interventions to improve islet survival.

Methods: To image and quantify islets, the authors transplanted luciferase-expressing murine or human islets (by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer) into the liver or beneath the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice and quantified the in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of mice using a cooled charge-coupled device camera and digital photon-counting image analysis. To account for variables that are independent of islet mass such as transplant site, animal positioning, and wound healing, the BLI of transplanted islets was calibrated against measurement of luminescence of an implanted bead emitting a constant light intensity.

Results: BLI of mice bearing islet transplants was seen in the expected anatomic location, was stable for more than 8 weeks after transplantation, and correlated with the number of islets transplanted into the liver or kidney. BLI of the luminescent bead and of transplanted islets in the kidney was approximately four times greater than when transplanted in the liver, indicating that photon emission is dependent on optical absorption of generated light and thus light source location.

Conclusion: In vivo BLI allows for quantitative, serial measurements of pancreatic islet mass after transplantation and should be useful in assessing interventions to sustain or increase islet survival of transplanted islets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000152798.03204.5cDOI Listing
April 2005

Reduced PDX-1 expression impairs islet response to insulin resistance and worsens glucose homeostasis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005 Apr 23;288(4):E707-14. Epub 2004 Nov 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, 715 PRB, Dept. of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

In type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and an inadequate pancreatic beta-cell response to the demands of insulin resistance lead to impaired insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic duodenal homeodomain-1 (PDX-1), a transcription factor required for normal pancreatic development, also plays a key role in normal insulin secretion by islets. To investigate the role of PDX-1 in islet compensation for insulin resistance, we examined glucose disposal, insulin secretion, and islet cell mass in mice of four different genotypes: wild-type mice, mice with one PDX-1 allele inactivated (PDX-1+/-, resulting in impaired insulin secretion), mice with one GLUT4 allele inactivated (GLUT4+/-, resulting in insulin resistance), and mice heterozygous for both PDX-1 and GLUT4 (GLUT4+/-;PDX-1+/-). The combination of PDX-1 and GLUT4 heterozygosity markedly prolonged glucose clearance. GLUT4+/-;PDX-1+/- mice developed beta-cell hyperplasia but failed to increase their beta-cell insulin content. These results indicate that PDX-1 heterozygosity (approximately 60% of normal protein levels) abrogates the beta-cell's compensatory response to insulin resistance, impairs glucose homeostasis, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00252.2004DOI Listing
April 2005

Intraislet endothelial cells contribute to revascularization of transplanted pancreatic islets.

Diabetes 2004 May;53(5):1318-25

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Pancreatic islet transplantation is an emerging therapy for type 1 diabetes. To survive and function, transplanted islets must revascularize because islet isolation severs arterial and venous connections; the current paradigm is that islet revascularization originates from the transplant recipient. Because isolated islets retain intraislet endothelial cells, we determined whether these endothelial cells contribute to the revascularization using a murine model with tagged endothelial cells (lacZ knock-in to Flk-1/VEGFR2 gene) and using transplanted human islets. At 3-5 weeks after transplantation beneath the renal capsule, we found that islets were revascularized and that the transplant recipient vasculature indeed contributed to the revascularization process. Using the lacZ-tagged endothelial cell model, we found that intraislet endothelial cells not only survived after transplantation but became a functional part of revascularized islet graft. A similar contribution of intraislet endothelial cells was also seen with human islets transplanted into an immunodeficient mouse model. In the murine model, individual blood vessels within the islet graft consisted of donor or recipient endothelial cells or were a chimera of donor and recipient endothelial cells, indicating that both sources of endothelial cells contribute to the new vasculature. These observations suggest that interventions to activate, amplify, or sustain intraislet endothelial cells before and after transplantation may facilitate islet revascularization, enhance islet survival, and improve islet transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.53.5.1318DOI Listing
May 2004
-->