Publications by authors named "Radhakrishnan Ezhil"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of (wet cupping), (massage) & (medicated steam) in amelioration of (non-specific low back pain) - an open prospective clinical trial.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt of India, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: Low back pain is the most widespread musculoskeletal ailment and a common cause of disability worldwide. Conventional medicine typically treats low back pain with a combination of physical therapy; activity modification and rest; pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory medications which are associated with huge socioeconomic implications and adverse drug reactions. In contrast and are ancient medical techniques recommended in the management of musculoskeletal disorders with little or no adverse effects. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of (wet cupping), followed (Massage) with and (medicated steam) with ( Linn) in patients of (Non-specific Low back pain).

Methods: Patients of either gender in the age group of 18-50 years with low back pain persisting for four weeks or more as chief complaint were recruited in the trial. The study was GCP compliant. The duration of the protocol therapy carried out was 14 days.

Results: Ninty two patients of NSLBP were screened, of which 34 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were willing to participate in the study were recruited. Three participants were lost to follow-ups due to personal reasons and 31 patients completed the trial during the study period. Overall therapeutic response observed in this study was 97% while 3% of the patients did not respond to intervention.

Conclusions: The study findings imply that there is a credible evidence to ensure that the regimens intervened are safe and effective in ameliorating the symptoms of .
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July 2021

Lithotriptic effect of in patients of (Nephrolithiasis) - an open prospective clinical validation trial.

J Complement Integr Med 2020 May 19;18(1):139-146. Epub 2020 May 19.

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt of India, India.

Background: (Nephrolithiasis) is one of the most common chronic conditions and has been known to the mankind since antiquity. The incidence is increasing globally with geographic, racial and gender variation in its occurrence. Medical management of Nephrolithiasis still poses a considerable challenge for modern medical practice. Unani drugs possessing lithotriptic activity are not only cost effective but also have least side effects. has been used since long for the treatment of (Nephrolithiasis) but no documentary evidence based on scientific parameters as to its safety and efficacy are available.

Objective: To validate the safety and efficacy of in the treatment of .

Methodology: An open prospective clinical trial was carried out on 107 subjects of renal calculi of 3-7 mm diameter diagnosed by Ultrasonogram-KUB (USG-KUB). Subjects were evaluated by clinical history & examination, laboratory investigations followed by USG-KUB for confirmation. The safety was assessed by reporting of adverse events and by pathological and biochemical investigations. Assessment of efficacy was based on improvement observed in VAS score and expulsion/reduction of stone size as detected by USG-KUB.

Results: Substantial reduction (53%) in the size of calculi confirmed by USG-KUB and considerable lowering of VAS score (75%) were observed with the active intervention in majority of the cases.

Conclusion: The trial has revealed that the Unani pharmacopoeal formulation was well tolerated and has the therapeutic potential in the reduction and expulsion of renal calculi.
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May 2020

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rural South India: cohort study.

BMJ Open 2019 10 28;9(10):e029759. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Former Director, ICMR-National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India.

Background And Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) accounted for one-third of the deaths in India. We conducted a cohort study to estimate the incidence of CVD and the association of established risk factors with the incident CVD in a rural population in South India.

Design, Setting And Participants: We conducted a community-based cohort study among 6026 adults aged 25-64 years in five villages in Tiruvallur, Tamil Nadu. We did baseline (2005-2007) and two follow-up surveys in 2008-2009 and 2013-2015. Risk factors studied were tobacco, alcohol, hypertension, self-reported diabetes and central obesity.

Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were fatal or non-fatal ischaemic heart disease or cerebrovascular event. We estimated HRs for the risk factors and population attributable fraction (PAF).

Results: We followed up 5641 (94.4%) subjects, and follow-up duration was 33 371 person years. The overall incidence of cardiovascular event or death was 4.6 per 1000 person years. Current smoking (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6) and hypertension (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.4) were the risk factors among men and accounted for 47% of the PAF. Among women, hypertension (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.4), self-reported diabetes (HR 4.3, 95% CI 2.2 to 8.1) and central obesity (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0) were associated with CVD and accounted for more than half of the PAF.

Conclusions: We described the high burden of fatal CVD and identified the role of CVD risk factors such as hypertension, self-reported diabetes, smoking and central obesity. There is an urgent need to implement low-cost interventions such as smoking cessation and treat hypertension and diabetes in primary care settings.
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October 2019

Study on the correlation of premises condition index and the presence of larvae of aedes species mosquitoes in human dwellings of the cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2012 Mar;3(1):3-7

Department of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Cuddalore 607001, Tamil Nadu, India.

Conclusions: It is concluded that this study helps in conducting rapid survey to identify the presence of Aedes larvae with a minimum number of staff for both inspection and treatment of Aedes larvae during the epidemic situation.

Objectives: To predict dwellings for the presence of Aedes larvae rapidly based on Premises Condition Index (PCI) factors, we studied the possible presence of Aedes species mosquitoes larvae among houses in the Chidambaram urban of Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu, India based on the scores of variables in PCI, namely House, Yard and degree of shadow. Data of these variables were collected in September and October 2006 from 1813 houses in the Chidambaram urban area during the intensive vector control activities employed for the prevention and control of Chikungunya.

Methods: The association between presence of larvae and the variables of PCI was tested by Chi-square and Correlation. The predictability of the presence of Aedes larvae based on PCI factors was computed by logistic regression.

Results: The study shows 301 containers in 132 houses were found positive with Aedes species out of 1813 houses surveyed. It was further observed that the probability of presence of positive premises was four times higher in the premises with 75% shadow compared with premises with a 25% shadow. These findings showed a significant association (p < 0.001) with positive premises.
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March 2012

Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors for hypertension in a rural population in South India.

Int J Public Health 2012 Feb 23;57(1):87-94. Epub 2011 Sep 23.

National Institute of Epidemiology (Indian Council of Medical Research), Ayapakkam, Chennai, India.

Objectives: Hypertension is a major public health problem with prevalence ranging 22-30% in urban India. There are few data on hypertension epidemiology in rural India. We conducted a survey to estimate prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors for hypertension in a rural population in south India.

Methods: We did cross-sectional survey in 11 villages in Tamil Nadu. We collected data on behavioral risk factors, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. We defined hypertension according to WHO criteria.

Results: Study population included 10,463 subjects aged 25-64 years. Among them, 4,900 (46.8%) were males. Hypertension was present for 2,247 (21.4%) subjects and 1,682 (74.9%) among hypertensives were newly detected. Overall 20% were on treatment and 6.6% had blood pressure control. Age ≥35 years, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) and central obesity were risk factors significantly associated with hypertension (p < 0.05). In addition, alcohol consumption, higher education level were risk factor among males and family history of hypertension was risk factor among females (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Hypertension is an emerging challenge in rural India. We need health promotion programs and reorientation of primary health care to improve hypertension detection and management.
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February 2012

The metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors in an urban industrial male population in South India.

J Assoc Physicians India 2010 Jun;58:363-6, 371

National Institute of Epidemiology (Indian Council of Medical research), #R-127, 3rd Avenue, Tamil Nadu Housing Board, Ayapakkam, Chennai, 600 077, India.

Background: The metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of risk factors, which predisposes subjects to increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and determine the association of risk factors with the metabolic syndrome in an urban industrial male population in Chennai, India.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey for male employees working in an industrial unit. The survey included questionnaire for risk factors, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Blood samples were collected for the fasting plasma glucose, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The metabolic syndrome was defined using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and American Heart Association (AHA)/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) criteria.

Results: The total numbers of male subjects included in the study were 1077. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 41.3% and 51.4% using IDF and AHA/NHLBI criteria respectively. Risk factors were age above 35 years, family history of diabetes and body mass index (BMI) above 23.9 kg/m2. The consumption of more than three servings of fruits and vegetables was protective.

Conclusion: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was very high in select industrial population in south India. Higher BMI and low intake of fruits and vegetables are modifiable by life style modification. Work site screening for the metabolic syndrome would facilitate the early detection and treatment.
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June 2010

A comparison of anthropometric indices for predicting hypertension and type 2 diabetes in a male industrial population of Chennai, South India.

Ethn Dis 2008 ;18(1):31-6

National Institute of Epidemiology, Indian Council of Medical Research, R-127, 3rd Ave, Ambattur Housing Board, Phase I and II, Chennai 600 077, India.

Objectives: To assess the association of four obesity-related indices--body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR)--with hypertension and type 2 diabetes among a male industrial population in south India.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A cross sectional study of 2148 men aged 18-69 years in two purposely selected industrial units in Chennai, India, in 2003-2005.

Main Outcome Measures: The examination included blood pressure and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, hip circumference, and WC) to calculate BMI, WHR, and WSR. Fasting blood samples were taken to assess plasma glucose.

Results: Prevalence of overweight was 43.4%; prevalences of central obesity using WC > or = 90.0 cm and WHR > 0.90 were 50.0% and 70%, respectively. The prevalences of hypertension and type 2 diabetes were 26.5% and 16.3%, respectively. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension across the quintiles for the four anthropometric indices. In logistic regression analysis, BMI and WC showed a significant graded increase in the odds ratio for hypertension after adjusting for age. In case of type 2 diabetes, only WHR showed significant increase in odds ratio across quintiles after adjusting for age and BMI.

Conclusions: WHR was the best predictor for type 2 diabetes in the study sample. BMI and WC were good predictors for hypertension. We recommend that WHR should be routinely used in this clinical setting in addition to BMI to detect persons at high risk in these industrial units. Prospective studies are needed to provide evidence of the predictive power of anthropometric indices for Asian Indians.
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July 2008