Publications by authors named "Radha Desai"

9 Publications

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Mitochondria form contact sites with the nucleus to couple prosurvival retrograde response.

Sci Adv 2020 Dec 18;6(51). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK.

Mitochondria drive cellular adaptation to stress by retro-communicating with the nucleus. This process is known as mitochondrial retrograde response (MRR) and is induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. MRR results in the nuclear stabilization of prosurvival transcription factors such as the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Here, we demonstrate that MRR is facilitated by contact sites between mitochondria and the nucleus. The translocator protein (TSPO) by preventing the mitophagy-mediated segregation o mitochonria is required for this interaction. The complex formed by TSPO with the protein kinase A (PKA), via the A-kinase anchoring protein acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3), established the tethering. The latter allows for cholesterol redistribution of cholesterol in the nucleus to sustain the prosurvival response by blocking NF-κB deacetylation. This work proposes a previously unidentified paradigm in MRR: the formation of contact sites between mitochondria and nucleus to aid communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc9955DOI Listing
December 2020

Exploring mitochondrial cholesterol signalling for therapeutic intervention in neurological conditions.

Br J Pharmacol 2019 11 9;176(22):4284-4292. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK.

The pharmacological targeting of cholesterol levels continues to generate interest due to the undoubted success of therapeutic agents, such as statins, in extending life expectancy by modifying the prognosis of diseases associated with the impairment of lipid metabolism. Advances in our understanding of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic age-related diseases of the brain have disclosed an emerging role for mitochondrial cholesterol in their pathophysiology, thus delineating an opportunity to provide mechanistic insights and explore strategies of intervention. This review draws attention to novel signalling mechanisms in conditions linked with impaired metabolism associated with impaired handling of cholesterol and its oxidized forms (oxysterols) by mitochondria. By emphasizing the role of mitochondrial cholesterol in neurological diseases, we here call for novel approaches and new means of assessment. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Featured Mechanisms and Approaches for Therapy Translation. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v176.22/issuetoc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.14697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6887905PMC
November 2019

Transglutaminase Type 2 Regulates ER-Mitochondria Contact Sites by Interacting with GRP75.

Cell Rep 2018 12;25(13):3573-3581.e4

Department of Biology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata," Rome 00133, Italy; National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS "L. Spallanzani," Rome 00149, Italy. Electronic address:

Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that plays a key role in mitochondria homeostasis under stressful cellular conditions. TG2 interactome analysis reveals an enzyme interaction with GRP75 (glucose-regulated protein 75). GRP75 localizes in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and acts as a bridging molecule between the two organelles by assembling the IP3R-GRP75-VDAC complex, which is involved in the transport of Ca from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. We demonstrate that the TG2 and GRP75 interaction occurs in MAMs. The absence of the TG2-GRP75 interaction leads to an increase of the interaction between IP3R-3 and GRP75; a decrease of the number of ER-mitochondria contact sites; an impairment of the ER-mitochondrial Ca flux; and an altered profile of the MAM proteome. These findings indicate TG2 is a key regulatory element of the MAMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.094DOI Listing
December 2018

MitoCPR: Meticulous Monitoring of Mitochondrial Proteostasis.

Mol Cell 2018 07;71(1):8-9

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Royal College Street, NW1 0TU London, UK; Consortium for Mitochondrial Research (CfMR), University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London, UK. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial protein import stress compromises functioning of the organelles, due to inadequate supply of inner mitochondrial proteins. Weidberg and Amon (2018) describe a new monitoring pathway in budding yeast, which restores mitochondrial function following the clearing of accumulated unfolded pre-transported mitochondrial proteins, by devising a molecular strategy of overexpressing bi-partite-containing mitochondrial proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2018.06.027DOI Listing
July 2018

Aberrant ribonucleotide incorporation and multiple deletions in mitochondrial DNA of the murine MPV17 disease model.

Nucleic Acids Res 2017 Dec;45(22):12808-12815

MRC Laboratory, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK.

All DNA polymerases misincorporate ribonucleotides despite their preference for deoxyribonucleotides, and analysis of cultured cells indicates that mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tolerates such replication errors. However, it is not clear to what extent misincorporation occurs in tissues, or whether this plays a role in human disease. Here, we show that mtDNA of solid tissues contains many more embedded ribonucleotides than that of cultured cells, consistent with the high ratio of ribonucleotide to deoxynucleotide triphosphates in tissues, and that riboadenosines account for three-quarters of them. The pattern of embedded ribonucleotides changes in a mouse model of Mpv17 deficiency, which displays a marked increase in rGMPs in mtDNA. However, while the mitochondrial dGTP is low in the Mpv17-/- liver, the brain shows no change in the overall dGTP pool, leading us to suggest that Mpv17 determines the local concentration or quality of dGTP. Embedded rGMPs are expected to distort the mtDNA and impede its replication, and elevated rGMP incorporation is associated with early-onset mtDNA depletion in liver and late-onset multiple deletions in brain of Mpv17-/- mice. These findings suggest aberrant ribonucleotide incorporation is a primary mtDNA abnormality that can result in pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkx1009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728394PMC
December 2017

ATAD3 gene cluster deletions cause cerebellar dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial DNA and cholesterol metabolism.

Brain 2017 Jun;140(6):1595-1610

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, Royal Free Campus, University College London, NW3 2PF, UK.

Although mitochondrial disorders are clinically heterogeneous, they frequently involve the central nervous system and are among the most common neurogenetic disorders. Identifying the causal genes has benefited enormously from advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies; however, once the defect is known, researchers face the challenge of deciphering the underlying disease mechanism. Here we characterize large biallelic deletions in the region encoding the ATAD3C, ATAD3B and ATAD3A genes. Although high homology complicates genomic analysis of the ATAD3 defects, they can be identified by targeted analysis of standard single nucleotide polymorphism array and whole exome sequencing data. We report deletions that generate chimeric ATAD3B/ATAD3A fusion genes in individuals from four unrelated families with fatal congenital pontocerebellar hypoplasia, whereas a case with genomic rearrangements affecting the ATAD3C/ATAD3B genes on one allele and ATAD3B/ATAD3A genes on the other displays later-onset encephalopathy with cerebellar atrophy, ataxia and dystonia. Fibroblasts from affected individuals display mitochondrial DNA abnormalities, associated with multiple indicators of altered cholesterol metabolism. Moreover, drug-induced perturbations of cholesterol homeostasis cause mitochondrial DNA disorganization in control cells, while mitochondrial DNA aggregation in the genetic cholesterol trafficking disorder Niemann-Pick type C disease further corroborates the interdependence of mitochondrial DNA organization and cholesterol. These data demonstrate the integration of mitochondria in cellular cholesterol homeostasis, in which ATAD3 plays a critical role. The dual problem of perturbed cholesterol metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction could be widespread in neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5445257PMC
June 2017

Pathological ribonuclease H1 causes R-loop depletion and aberrant DNA segregation in mitochondria.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 07 8;113(30):E4276-85. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Medical Research Council, Mill Hill Laboratory, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom;

The genetic information in mammalian mitochondrial DNA is densely packed; there are no introns and only one sizeable noncoding, or control, region containing key cis-elements for its replication and expression. Many molecules of mitochondrial DNA bear a third strand of DNA, known as "7S DNA," which forms a displacement (D-) loop in the control region. Here we show that many other molecules contain RNA as a third strand. The RNA of these R-loops maps to the control region of the mitochondrial DNA and is complementary to 7S DNA. Ribonuclease H1 is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication; it degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, so the R-loop is a potential substrate. In cells with a pathological variant of ribonuclease H1 associated with mitochondrial disease, R-loops are of low abundance, and there is mitochondrial DNA aggregation. These findings implicate ribonuclease H1 and RNA in the physical segregation of mitochondrial DNA, perturbation of which represents a previously unidentified disease mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1600537113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968715PMC
July 2016

Known drug space as a metric in exploring the boundaries of drug-like chemical space.

Eur J Med Chem 2009 Dec 6;44(12):5006-11. Epub 2009 Sep 6.

Cancer Research UK Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, UK.

In this work, marketed drug compounds (or known drug space) were used as a metric to test the principles of eliminating parent structures of the nitrenium ion (aryl-amine/nitro compounds) as well as sulphur and halogen containing molecules from screening compound collections. Molecules containing such moieties and/or atoms have biological and physiochemical properties, which possibly make them less attractive as leads in drug development. It was found that precursors to the nitrenium ion were relatively abundant in known drug space at 14%. Thus, their simple elimination from drug-like chemical space is not advisable. Interestingly, the mutagenic potential of the nitrenium ions is linked to their stability and quantum mechanical calculations can be used to estimate it. Furthermore, 24% of drugs investigated contained sulphur atoms and around 28% were halogenated. As some sulphur containing moieties were abundant whilst others were scarce, it was deduced that it would be more effective to eliminate specific molecular scaffolds rather than all sulphur containing molecules. In conclusion, it has been shown that by statistically analysing known drug space a better understanding of the boundaries of drug-like chemical space was established which can help medicinal chemists in finding rewarding regions of chemical space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2009.08.014DOI Listing
December 2009

Serotonin in pre-implantation mouse embryos is localized to the mitochondria and can modulate mitochondrial potential.

Reproduction 2008 May 27;135(5):657-69. Epub 2008 Feb 27.

National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore 560065, India.

Serotonin is reported to be present in early embryos of many species and plays an important role in early patterning. Since it is a fluorophore, it can be directly visualized using fluorescence microscopy. Here, we use three-photon microscopy to image serotonin in live pre-implantation mouse embryos. We find that it is present as puncta averaging 1.3 square microns and in concentrations as high as 442 mM. The observed serotonin puncta were found to co-localize with mitochondria. Live embryos pre-incubated with serotonin showed a higher mitochondrial potential, indicating that it can modulate mitochondrial potential. Pre-implantation mouse embryos were also examined at various developmental stages for the presence of transcripts of the peripheral and neuronal forms of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph1 and Tph2 respectively) and the classical serotonin transporter (Slc6a4). Transcripts of Tph2 were seen in oocytes and in two-cell stages, whereas transcripts of Tph1 were not detected at any stage. Transcripts of the transporter, Slc6a4, were present in all pre-implantation stages investigated. These results suggest that serotonin in embryos can arise from a combination of synthesis and uptake from the surrounding milieu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-07-0577DOI Listing
May 2008