Publications by authors named "Rachel L Washburn"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mechanisms linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and microRNAs to adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jun 28:1-27. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Laboratory of Nutrigenomics, Inflammation and Obesity Research, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Over accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue disrupts metabolic homeostasis by affecting cellular processes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one such process affected by obesity. Biochemical and physiological alterations in adipose tissue due to obesity interfere with adipose ER functions causing ER stress. This is in line with increased irregularities in other cellular processes such as inflammation and autophagy, affecting overall metabolic integrity within adipocytes. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs), which can post-transcriptionally regulate genes, are differentially modulated in obesity. A better understanding and identification of such miRNAs could be used as novel therapeutic targets to fight against diseases. In this review, we discuss ways in which ER stress participates as a common molecular process in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Moreover, our review discusses detailed underlying mechanisms through which ER stress and miRNAs contribute to metabolic alteration in adipose tissue in obesity. Hence, identifying mechanistic involvement of miRNAs-ER stress cross-talk in regulating adipose function during obesity could be used as a potential therapeutic approach to combat chronic diseases, including obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2021.1925219DOI Listing
June 2021

Therapeutic application of Sertoli cells for treatment of various diseases.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Department of Medical Education, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA. Electronic address:

Sertoli cells (SCs) are immune privileged cells found in the testis that function to immunologically protect maturing germ cells from immune destruction. This immune protection is due to the blood-testis-barrier, which prevents infiltration of cytotoxic immune cells and antibodies, and SC production of immunomodulatory factors, that favor a tolerogenic environment. The ability of SCs to create an immune privileged environment has led to the exploration of their potential use in the treatment of various diseases. SCs have been utilized to create a tolerogenic ectopic microenvironment, to protect co-grafted cells, and to deliver therapeutic proteins through gene therapy. To date, numerous studies have reported the potential use of SCs for the treatment of diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and restoration of spermatogenesis. Additionally, SCs have been investigated as a delivery vehicle for therapeutic products to treat other diseases like Laron syndrome, muscular dystrophy, and infections. This review will provide an overview of these therapeutic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.04.007DOI Listing
April 2021

C-Peptide as a Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 8;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disease affecting one-third of the United States population. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, where the hormone insulin is either not produced sufficiently or where there is a resistance to insulin. Patients with Type 1 DM (T1DM), in which the insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed by autoimmune mechanisms, have a significantly increased risk of developing life-threatening cardiovascular complications, even when exogenous insulin is administered. In fact, due to various factors such as limited blood glucose measurements and timing of insulin administration, only 37% of T1DM adults achieve normoglycemia. Furthermore, T1DM patients do not produce C-peptide, a cleavage product from insulin processing. C-peptide has potential therapeutic effects in vitro and in vivo on many complications of T1DM, such as peripheral neuropathy, atherosclerosis, and inflammation. Thus, delivery of C-peptide in conjunction with insulin through a pump, pancreatic islet transplantation, or genetically engineered Sertoli cells (an immune privileged cell type) may ameliorate many of the cardiovascular and vascular complications afflicting T1DM patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9030270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000702PMC
March 2021

Pilot Study of Novel Intermittent Fasting Effects on Metabolomic and Trimethylamine -oxide Changes During 24-hour Water-Only Fasting in the FEELGOOD Trial.

Nutrients 2019 Jan 23;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute, Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84107, USA.

Intermittent fasting (IF) has been connected with health benefits such as weight loss, lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes, increased longevity, and improved quality of life. However, the mechanisms of these IF benefits in humans require further investigation. This study sought to elucidate some of these mechanisms through secondary analyses of the Fasting and ExprEssion of Longevity Genes during fOOD abstinence (FEELGOOD) trial, in which apparently healthy participants were randomized in a Latin square design to a 24-h water-only fast and a 24-h ad libitum fed day. Two pathways were investigated, with trimethylamine -oxide (TMAO) levels measured due to their association with elevated risk of CAD, along with conductance of a broad panel of metabolic analytes. Measurements were made at baseline, at the end of the fasting day, and at the end of the fed day. A fasting mean of 14.3 ng in TMAO was found versus the baseline mean of 27.1 ng with = 0.019, although TMAO levels returned to baseline on refeeding. Further, acute alterations in levels of proline, tyrosine, galactitol, and urea plasma levels were observed along with changes in 24 other metabolites during the fasting period. These acute changes reveal short-term mechanisms which, with consistent repeated episodes of IF, may lead to improved health and reduced risk of CAD and diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412259PMC
January 2019