Publications by authors named "Rachel L Brown"

6 Publications

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Expanding the Toolkit for Genome Editing in a Disease Vector, Transgenic Lines Expressing Cas9 and Single Guide RNA Induce Efficient Mutagenesis.

CRISPR J 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing methods are being used for the analysis of gene function. However, it is hard to identify gene knockout mutants for genes whose knockout does not cause distinct phenotypes. To overcome this issue in the disease vector, , a transgenic Cas9/single guide RNA (sgRNA) method, was used to knock out the eye marker gene, (), and the juvenile hormone receptor, (). PiggyBac transformation vectors were prepared to express sgRNAs targeting and under the control of the U6 promoter. Transgenic expressing -sgRNA or -sgRNA under the control of the U6 promoter and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the hr5ie1 promoter were produced. The U6-sgRNA adults were mated with AAEL010097-Cas9 adults. The progeny were screened, and the insects expressing eGFP and DsRed were selected and evaluated for mutations in target genes. About 77% and 78% of the progeny that were positive for both eGFP and DsRed in -sgRNA and -sgRNA groups, respectively, showed mutations in their target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/crispr.2020.0052DOI Listing
January 2021

The emerging spectrum of COVID-19 neurology: clinical, radiological and laboratory findings.

Brain 2020 10;143(10):3104-3120

Lister Hospital, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.

Preliminary clinical data indicate that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with neurological and neuropsychiatric illness. Responding to this, a weekly virtual coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) neurology multi-disciplinary meeting was established at the National Hospital, Queen Square, in early March 2020 in order to discuss and begin to understand neurological presentations in patients with suspected COVID-19-related neurological disorders. Detailed clinical and paraclinical data were collected from cases where the diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed through RNA PCR, or where the diagnosis was probable/possible according to World Health Organization criteria. Of 43 patients, 29 were SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and definite, eight probable and six possible. Five major categories emerged: (i) encephalopathies (n = 10) with delirium/psychosis and no distinct MRI or CSF abnormalities, and with 9/10 making a full or partial recovery with supportive care only; (ii) inflammatory CNS syndromes (n = 12) including encephalitis (n = 2, para- or post-infectious), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 9), with haemorrhage in five, necrosis in one, and myelitis in two, and isolated myelitis (n = 1). Of these, 10 were treated with corticosteroids, and three of these patients also received intravenous immunoglobulin; one made a full recovery, 10 of 12 made a partial recovery, and one patient died; (iii) ischaemic strokes (n = 8) associated with a pro-thrombotic state (four with pulmonary thromboembolism), one of whom died; (iv) peripheral neurological disorders (n = 8), seven with Guillain-Barré syndrome, one with brachial plexopathy, six of eight making a partial and ongoing recovery; and (v) five patients with miscellaneous central disorders who did not fit these categories. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes affecting the whole neuraxis, including the cerebral vasculature and, in some cases, responding to immunotherapies. The high incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, particularly with haemorrhagic change, is striking. This complication was not related to the severity of the respiratory COVID-19 disease. Early recognition, investigation and management of COVID-19-related neurological disease is challenging. Further clinical, neuroradiological, biomarker and neuropathological studies are essential to determine the underlying pathobiological mechanisms that will guide treatment. Longitudinal follow-up studies will be necessary to ascertain the long-term neurological and neuropsychological consequences of this pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7454352PMC
October 2020

Untreated Isolated Sytolic Hypertension among Middle-Aged and Old Adults in the United States: Trends in the Prevalence by Demographic Factors During 1999-2010.

Int J Chronic Dis 2015 23;2015:508584. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Practice, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA.

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) predominates hemodynamic hypertension subtypes and becomes a significant factor for cardiovascular and renal outcomes in middle-aged and old adults. The prevalence and changes of untreated ISH have not been fully investigated in this population. A total of 12,097 participants aged ≥40 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. The overall prevalence of untreated ISH was 15.2%. The prevalence decreased significantly from 16.8% in 1999-2004 to 13.5% in 2005-2010. Females, non-Hispanic blacks, and adults with low education had higher prevalence of untreated ISH than males, non-Hispanic whites, and adults with high education, respectively. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 reduced in old adults (28.0% versus 37.7%), females (14.3% versus 19.5%), and non-Hispanic whites (12.7% versus 16.2%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH decreased in 2005-2010 in non-Hispanic white females (12.8% versus 18.6%) and females who did not attend college (16.9% versus 21.8%). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in old and female subjects, and significant improvements in these groups suggest that public health measures or changes are in the right direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/508584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590928PMC
October 2015

Demystifying encephalitis: guidelines for an emergency not to miss.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2014 Jan;75(1):12-5

Consultant in the Department of Neurology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2014.75.1.12DOI Listing
January 2014

Epilepsy onscreen: getting it wrong.

Authors:
Rachel L Brown

Lancet 2007 Aug;370(9585):371

Somerville College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6HD, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61174-XDOI Listing
August 2007