Publications by authors named "Rachel Kaye"

69 Publications

Lamotrigine and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Prevention.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2021 Mar;51(2):96-114

Edinoff, MD, Nguyen, MD, Gerald, MD, Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Crane, BS, Lewis, BS, St Pierre, BS, Louisiana State University Shreveport School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Alan D. Kaye, MD, PhD, Louisiana State University New Orleans, Department of Anesthesiology, New Orleans, LA, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Gennuso, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Adam M. Kaye, PharmD, Jessica S. Kaye, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Stockton, CA. Rachel J. Kaye, BA, Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Varrassi, MD, PhD, FIPP, Paolo Procacci Foundation, Via Tacito 7, Roma, Italy. Viswanath, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE, Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants-Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ. Urits, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, Southcoast Health, Southcoast Physicians Group Pain Medicine, Wareham, MA.

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by severe mucocutaneous epidermal necrolysis and detachment of the epidermis. The condition centers around a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction with a complex etiology stemming from a variety of causes. The number one cause is medication-related-common ones including sulfonamides, antiepileptics, allopurinol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Genetics also play a role as several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes within certain ethnic groups have been implicated in adverse reactions to specific drugs. HLAB*15:02 has been identified in the Chinese and others of Southeast Asian origin to increase susceptibility to lamotrigine and carbamazepine-induced SJS. Furthermore, patients of Japanese origin with HLAB*31:01 and Koreans with HLA-B*44:03 are also at increased risk of SJS after receiving the same two drugs. Of the antiepileptics, one most commonly associated with SJS is lamotrigine, a pre-synaptic voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitor. Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug of the phenyltriazine class that is indicated for the prevention of focal and generalized seizures in epileptic patients as well as monotherapy or adjunctive maintenance treatment for Bipolar disorder. The occurrence of SJS is not a rigid contraindication to lamotrigine reintroduction in the same patient. To facilitate this, manufacturers have developed a strict re-challenge dosing regimen to facilitate successful reintroduction of lamotrigine. In order to prevent the recurrence of SJS during a re-challenge, timing of re-dose and initial rash severity must be considered. Therefore, to prevent SJS recurrence, prime lamotrigine re-challenge patients are those with mild initial rash that has not occurred within the previous 4 weeks. The Federal Food and Drug Administration recommends the testing HLA subtypes for those associated with SJS prior to starting lamotrigine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146560PMC
March 2021

Adverse events following injection laryngoplasty: An analysis of the MAUDE database.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 May 27;42(6):103092. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States of America.

Objective: Injection laryngoplasty (IL) is considered safe in both the operating room and clinical setting. However, safety data is limited to single-institution studies with reduced sample sizes. The objective of this study is to examine a national database for adverse events related to IL in an effort to further confirm the safety of this procedure and better characterize potential complications.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective analysis of the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database for reported adverse events of IL procedures utilizing calcium hydroxyapatite (CAHA), hyaluronic acid (HA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) implants from 2009 to 2020.

Results And Analysis: We identified 47 reported adverse events. The average patient age was 54 years old. 59.3% of patients were female. Adverse events more frequently involved the use of CAHA compared to HA or CMC (n = 27, 57.4%, n = 13, 27.7% and n = 7, 14.9%, respectively). The most common adverse events were laryngeal edema (n = 18, 39.1%), improper placement of injected material (n = 12, 26.1%), persistent dysphonia (n = 13, 28.3%), and post-injection dysphagia or odynophagia (n = 11, 23.9%). Major events, defined as requiring emergency room treatment, hospitalization, or surgical intervention accounted for 29 (60.4%) of cases. Four cases of edema required intubation, and one patient necessitated a surgical airway.

Conclusion: Complications arising from IL range from minor events to airway obstruction and may happen with a variety of injectable materials including CAHA, HA and CMC. Few cases of airway obstruction requiring immediate intervention were identified, confirming the safety of IL in both the operative and office setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2021.103092DOI Listing
May 2021

Patterns of Care and Outcomes of Primary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Trachea.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Apr 19:34894211008101. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Objective: Primary tracheal malignancies are relatively rare cancers, representing 0.1% to 0.4% of all malignancies. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the second most common histology of primary tracheal malignancy, after squamous cell carcinoma. This study aims to analyze demographic characteristics and potential influencing factors on survival of tracheal ACC (TACC).

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The NCDB was queried for all cases of TACC diagnosed from 2004 to 2016 (n = 394). Kaplan-Meier (KM) and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine clinicopathological and treatment factors associated with survival outcomes.

Results: Median age of diagnosis was 56 (IQR: 44.75-66.00). Females were affected slightly more than males (53.8% vs 46.2%). The most prevalent tumor diameter range was 20 to 39 mm (34.8%) followed by greater than 40 mm in diameter (17.8%). Median overall survival (OS) was 9.72 years with a 5- and 10-year OS of 70% and 47.5%, respectively. Localized disease was not associated with a survival benefit over invasive disease ( = .388). The most common intervention was surgery combined with radiation therapy (RT) at 46.2%, followed by surgery alone (16.8%), and standalone RT (8.9%). When adjusting for confounders, surgical resection was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.461, 95% CI 0.225-0.946). Tumor size greater than 40 mm was independently associated with worse OS (HR 2.808; 95% CI 1.096-7.194).

Conclusion: Our data suggests that surgical resection, possibly in conjunction with radiation therapy, is associated with improved survival, and tumor larger than 40 mm are associated with worse survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00034894211008101DOI Listing
April 2021

Sclerotherapy for Benign Cystic Lesions of the Head and Neck: Systematic Review of 474 Cases.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Mar 23:1945998211000448. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Objective: The role of sclerotherapy for vascular lesions of the head and neck is well established. However, the efficacy of sclerotherapy for benign cystic lesions of the head and neck is less clear. The objective of this review is to determine the efficacy and safety of sclerotherapy for benign cystic lesions of the head and neck.

Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase.

Review Methods: The PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Systems for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) were followed for this systematic review. Studies of patients with benign head and neck cystic masses treated primarily with sclerotherapy were included. Thirty-two studies met criteria for inclusion.

Results: A total of 474 cases of sclerotherapy were reviewed. Agents comprised OK-432, ethanol, doxycycline, tetracycline, and bleomycin. Lesions in the analysis were ranula, thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, benign lymphoepithelial cyst, parotid cyst, thoracic duct cyst, and unspecified lateral neck cyst. A total of 287 patients (60.5%) had a complete response; 132 (27.9%) had a partial response; and 55 (11.6%) had no response. OK-432 was the most widely utilized agent, with a higher rate of complete response than that of ethanol (62.0% vs 39.4%, = .015). Fifty-three cases (11.2%) required further surgical management. One case of laryngeal edema was reported and managed nonoperatively.

Conclusion: Sclerotherapy appears to be a safe and efficacious option for benign cystic lesions if malignancy is reliably excluded. Efficacy rates are comparable to those of sclerotherapy for vascular malformations. The rate of serious complications is low, with 1 incident of airway edema reported in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01945998211000448DOI Listing
March 2021

Management of Lower Extremity Pain from Chronic Venous Insufficiency: A Comprehensive Review.

Cardiol Ther 2021 Jun 11;10(1):111-140. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic venous insufficiency is found to some extent in a large proportion of the world's population, especially in the elderly and obese. Despite its prevalence, little research has been pursued into this pathology when compared to similarly common conditions. Pain is often the presenting symptom of chronic venous insufficiency and has significant deleterious effects on quality of life. This manuscript will describe the development of pain in chronic venous insufficiency, and will also review both traditional methods of pain management and novel advances in both medical and surgical therapy for this disease.

Recent Findings: Pain in chronic venous insufficiency is a common complication which remains poorly correlated in recent studies with the clinically observable extent of disease. Although lifestyle modification remains the foundation of treatment for pain associated with chronic venous sufficiency, compression devices and various pharmacologic agents have emerged as safe and effective treatments for pain in these patients. In patients for whom these measures are insufficient, recently developed minimally invasive vascular surgical techniques have been shown to reduce postsurgical complications and recovery time, although additional research is necessary to characterize long-term outcomes of these procedures. This review discusses the latest findings concerning the pathophysiology of pain in chronic venous insufficiency, conservative and medical management, and surgical strategies for pain relief, including minimally invasive treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40119-021-00213-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126535PMC
June 2021

Ubrogepant to Treat Acute Migraine in Adults.

Neurol Int 2021 Jan 28;13(1):32-45. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Migraine is a neurobiological headache disorder that affects around 16% of adults in the United States. Medical treatment of mild to moderate migraines include non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, or aspirin and caffeine-containing combination analgesics. Additionally, moderate to severe migraines and those that are mild to moderate that have not responded to analgesics can be treated with triptans, which are drugs specific for migraine treatment. Non-pharmacological treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy and relaxation training. Medications for the prevention of migraines have also been developed since they are more affective in offsetting the symptoms. Ubrogepant's high specificity and selectivity for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) sets it apart from certain other drugs, which previously limited the treatment of migraines with or without aura due to their decreased selectivity. The most frequently reported side effects are oropharyngeal pain, nasopharyngitis, and headache. Most studies found that participants receiving Ubrogepant were free from pain within 2 h when compared to placebo. Patients taking Ubrogepant should avoid taking it when pregnant or with end stage renal disease. In summary, Ubrogepant has good tolerability and an overall favorable safety profile. It appears to hold promise for the acute treatment of migraines with or without aura in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13010004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931025PMC
January 2021

Vocal Fold Motion Impairment Following Chemotherapy Administration: Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Apr 27;130(4):405-415. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Objective: Chemotherapy-induced vocal fold motion impairment (CIVFMI) is a rare complication of cancer therapy with potential for airway compromise. The objective of this review is to present 2 new cases of CIVFMI to add to the literature as well as characterize the demographics, symptoms, exam findings, airway complication rates and prognosis of CIVFMI.

Methods: A search of Pubmed/MEDLINE (1970 to May 1, 2020), Embase (1970 to May 1, 2020), and Cochrane Library using medical study heading (MeSH) terms related to chemotherapy () and vocal cord motion impairment (, ) was performed. Exploratory pooling of data without formal meta-analysis was performed.

Results: A preliminary search yielded 148 abstracts, review articles and studies. A total of 23 studies met inclusion criteria. There were 35 total cases presented in the literature, with a mean age of 29.5 (0.4-78). The most common cancer diagnosis was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 15, 42.9%), and the most common agent was vincristine (n = 30, 85.7%). Dysphagia, bilateral CIVFMI, and vocal fold immobility rather than hypomobility were more common in pediatric patients. There were 8 cases of surgical airway intervention, including tracheostomy and posterior cordotomy. The duration of symptoms was 7 to 420 days, and spontaneous resolution was reported in 32 cases.

Conclusions: CIVFMI has potential for airway complications requiring surgical intervention. Spontaneous resolution after cessation of the offending agent is the most likely outcome. Bilateral CIVFMI, dysphagia and vocal fold immobility are more common in the pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003489421990149DOI Listing
April 2021

Ozanimod to Treat Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review of Disease, Drug Efficacy and Side Effects.

Neurol Int 2020 Dec 3;12(3):89-108. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prevalent and debilitating neurologic condition characterized by widespread neurodegeneration and the formation of focal demyelinating plaques in the central nervous system. Current therapeutic options are complex and attempt to manage acute relapse, modify disease, and manage symptoms. Such therapies often prove insufficient alone and highlight the need for more targeted MS treatments with reduced systemic side effect profiles. Ozanimod is a novel S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) receptor modulator used for the treatment of clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. It selectively modulates S1P1 and S1P5 receptors to prevent autoreactive lymphocytes from entering the CNS where they can promote nerve damage and inflammation. Ozanimod was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the management of multiple sclerosis in March 2020 and has been proved to be both effective and well tolerated. Of note, ozanimod is associated with the following complications: increased risk of infections, liver injury, fetal risk, increased blood pressure, respiratory effects, macular edema, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, among others. Further investigation including head-to-head clinical trials is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of ozanimod compared with other S1P1 receptor modulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/neurolint12030016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768354PMC
December 2020

Chronic Pain Treatment Strategies in Parkinson's Disease.

Neurol Int 2020 Nov 18;12(3):61-76. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), have increased in prevalence and are expected to further increase in the coming decades. In this regard, PD affects around 3% of the population by age 65 and up to 5% of people over the age of 85. PD is a widely described, physically and mentally disabling neurodegenerative disorder. One symptom often poorly recognized and under-treated by health care providers despite being reported as the most common non-motor symptom is the finding of chronic pain. Compared to the general population of similar age, PD patients suffer from a significantly higher level and prevalence of pain. The most common form of pain reported by Parkinson's patients is of musculoskeletal origin. One of the most used combination drugs for PD is Levodopa-Carbidopa, a dopamine precursor that is converted to dopamine by the action of a naturally occurring enzyme called DOPA decarboxylase. Pramipexole, a D2 dopamine agonist, and apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, and Rotigotine, a dopamine receptor agonist, have showed efficacy on PD-associated pain. Other treatments that have shown efficacy in treating pain of diverse etiologies are acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. Opioids and opioid-like medications such as oxycodone, morphine, tramadol, and codeine are also commonly employed in treatment of chronic pain in PD. Other opioid related medications such as Tapentadol, a central-acting oral analgesic with combined opioid and noradrenergic properties, and Targinact, a combination of the opioid agonist oxycodone and the opioid antagonist naloxone have shown improvement in pain. Anticonvulsants such as gabapentin, pregabalin, lamotrigine, carbamazepine and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can be trialed when attempting to manage chronic pain in PD. The selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) also possess pain relieving and antidepressant properties, but carry less of the risk of anticholinergic side effects seen in TCAs. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown in multiple studies to be effective against various types of PD associated pain symptoms. Massage therapy (MT) is one of the most common forms of complementary and alternative medicine. Studies have shown that pressure applied during MT may stimulate vagal activity, promoting reduced anxiety and pain, as well as increasing levels of serotonin. In a survey study of PD patients, rehabilitative therapy and physical therapy were rated as the most effective for pain reduction, though with only temporary relief but these studies were uncontrolled. Yoga has been studied for patients with a wide array of neurological disorders. In summary, PD pathology is thought to have a modulating effect on pain sensation, which could amplify pain. This could help explain a portion of the higher incidence of chronic pain felt by PD patients. A treatment plan can be devised that may include dopaminergic agents, acetaminophen, NSAIDs, opioids, antidepressants, physical therapies, DBS and other options discussed in this review. A thorough assessment of patient history and physical examination should be made in patients with PD so chronic pain may be managed effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/neurolint12030014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768530PMC
November 2020

Exparel for Postoperative Pain Management: a Comprehensive Review.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Oct 23;24(11):73. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Multimodal pain management is the most effective way to treat postsurgical pain. However, the use of opioids for acute pain management has unfortunately been a significant contributor to the current opioid epidemic. The use of opioids should be limited and only considered a "rescue" pain medication after other modalities of pain management have been utilized.

Recent Findings: It may be difficult to curtail the use of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain; however, in the postsurgical setting, there is compelling evidence that an opioid-centric analgesic approach is not necessary for good patient outcomes and healthcare cost benefits. Opioid-related adverse effects are the leading cause of preventable harm in the hospital setting. After the realization in recent years of the many harmful effects of opioids, alternative regimens including the use of multimodal analgesia have become a standard practice in acute pain management. Exparel, a long-lasting liposomal bupivacaine local anesthetic agent, has many significant benefits in the management of postoperative pain. Overall, the literature suggests that Exparel may be a significant component for postoperative multimodal pain control owing to its efficacy and long duration of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00905-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Vocal Fold Immobility Following Vaccination.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Jun 16;130(6):609-613. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Objective: Vocal fold immobility (VFI) may severely affect quality of life due to dysphonia and respiratory distress. Many etiologies of this disorder have been evaluated, however the relationship between VFI and vaccination has yet to be explored. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between VFI and vaccine administration.

Methods: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database was queried for patients exhibiting symptoms of VFI following vaccination. Patient demographics and clinical information including presenting symptoms, time of symptom onset, laterality, outcomes, and adverse events were documented.

Results: Twenty-two patients were found to have VFI following vaccination. Of those reported, 13 patients were female (59.1%) and 8 were male (36.4%) with an average age of 48.4 years. Vaccinations for influenza, shingles, pneumococcus, and hepatitis B were reported. A majority of these cases were unilateral in nature (73.3%). Mean lag time from vaccination to symptom onset was 6.3 days (range 0-45 days). Five adverse events were reported, with 4 patients requiring intubation and tracheostomy.

Conclusion: Vaccine administration may be associated with VFI and physicians should be cognizant of this potential adverse event. This is a rare complication with less reported cases than other post-vaccination cranial neuropathies. The difficulty in establishing an initial diagnosis and need for specialized evaluation by an otolaryngologist may result in under-reporting of such events. Further research is needed to delineate the exact pathophysiology of this complication and determine whether a causal relationship exists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003489420965633DOI Listing
June 2021

The use of antineuropathic medications for the treatment of chronic pain.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2020 Sep 8;34(3):493-506. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE, USA; Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, USA; Valley Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Chronic pain syndromes cost the US healthcare system over $600 billion per year. A subtype of chronic pain is neuropathic pain (NP), which is defined as "pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system," according to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is very complex, and more research needs to be done to find the exact mechanism. Patients that have preexisting conditions such as cancer and diabetes are at high-risk of developing NP. Many NP patients are misdiagnosed and receive delayed treatment due to a lack of a standardized classification system that allows clinicians to identify, understand, and utilize pain management in these patients. Medications like tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake Inhibitor (SNRIs), and gabapentinoids are first-line treatments followed by opioids, cannabinoids, and other drugs. There are limited studies on the treatment of NP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.08.007DOI Listing
September 2020

The utilization of buprenorphine in chronic pain.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2020 Sep 3;34(3):355-368. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, USA; Valley Pain Consultants, Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE, USA.

Reclassification of chronic pain as a disease may be helpful because patients with chronic pain require significant treatment and rehabilitation with a clear diagnosis. This can help address critical factors including suffering, quality of life, participation, and with family and social life, which continue to become more important in evaluating the quality of the health care we give our patients today. During the past decade of the opioid epidemic, methadone was the primary treatment for opioid addiction until buprenorphine was approved. Buprenorphine's high-affinity partial agonist properties make it a good alternative to methadone due to lower abuse potential and safer adverse effect profile while maintaining significant efficacy. Expanded out-patient prescribing options have allowed physician and physician extenders such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners to treat these patients that otherwise would have been required to utilize methadone. With unique pharmacological properties, buprenorphine is a safe and effective analgesic for chronic pain. The literature for buprenorphine shows great potential for its utilization in the treatment of chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.06.005DOI Listing
September 2020

Overview of Stem Cell Therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Focus on COVID 19.

Authors:
Rachel J Kaye

Pain Physician 2020 08;23(4S):S421-S432

Medical University of South Carolina Medical School, Charleston, SC.

Objective: There are as yet no effective strategies to treat the novel COVID-19 and to stem its symptoms, including ARDS. This review examines recent research studies in humans to determine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be used effectively and safely to target potentially deadly lung damage that may follow infection.

Methods: A literature search was conducted to find published manuscripts on the treatment of ARDS and COVID-19 symptoms, disease presentation, and available treatment regimens. Electronic data bases of scientific articles and records of printed documents of JAMA journals were searched to find research publications on MSC treatment of ARDS and COVID-19. Outcome variables included mortality over varying time periods, hospital days, days on ventilator, and biological factors.

Results: Two randomized double-blind clinical trials, 2 pilot studies, and 2 case reports described MSC use to treat ARDS with specific focus on COVID-19 and lung symptoms of cytokine storm. The MSCs were well-tolerated across studies. No significant differences in treatment outcome were found in randomized double-blind trials; however, results of 1 pilot study and 1 case report showed that MSCs led to lung symptom resolution and survival in severely ill treatment patients.

Conclusions: There is little published research on disease and survival outcomes among patients suffering severe lung disease associated with ARDS and COVID-19, and studies available are limited by lack of consistency in design and numerous flaws and limitations. Comparisons across studies are difficult. Nevertheless, it is documented that 8 ARDS patients with COVID-19 experienced symptom recovery and survival subsequent to MSC administration. MSCs are potentially life-saving treatment approaches for some patients who exhibit severe lung distress and have not responded to standard treatments. This is an obviously exciting research and treatment option for COVID-19 and other life-threatening diseases.
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August 2020

Current Concepts of Minimally Invasive Treatment Options for Plantar Fasciitis: a Comprehensive Review.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Aug 12;24(9):55. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic foot pain constitutes a large portion of the chronic pain burden in the overall population. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common and most easily identifiable causes of chronic foot pain. The syndrome has been estimated to cause 11 to 15% of foot pain visits, requiring professional care. Moreover, studies have suggested that 1 in 10 people will develop plantar fasciitis at some point in their life. Conservative management has been shown to be effective and considered first-line treatment. Minimally invasive treatment options are typically reserved for those who fail conservative management. With the advent of new techniques and improvements in current therapeutic options, there has been an expansion of available minimally invasive treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on the current understanding of minimally invasive treatments of plantar fasciitis.

Recent Findings: This review shows that conservative management continues to be the first-line therapy, whereas other treatment options were those who failed conservative management using modern techniques that have shown improving effectiveness, with successful restoration of patient functionality, recovery, and satisfaction. However, a multitude of these minimally invasive treatment options are evolving.

Conclusion: While conservative management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for plantar fasciitis, multiple minimally invasive treatment options are emerging with potential effectiveness in reducing pain and improving the function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00883-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Perioperative strategies for the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2020 Jun 23;34(2):153-166. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neurosciences, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport LA 71103, USA; Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport LA 71103, USA. Electronic address:

Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), estimated between 2.0% and 5.6% in the general surgical population and 20-70% for upper abdominal and thoracic surgeries, are a significant factor leading to poor patient outcomes. Efforts to decrease the incidence of PPCs such as bronchospasm, atelectasis, exacerbations of underlying chronic lung conditions, infections (bronchitis and pneumonia), prolonged mechanical ventilation, and respiratory failure, begins with a detailed preoperative risk evaluation. There are several available preoperative tests to estimate the risk of PPCs. However, the value of some of these studies to estimate PPCs remains controversial and is still debated. In this review, the preoperative risk assessment of PPCs is examined along with preoperative pulmonary tests to estimate risk, intraoperative, and procedure-associated risk factors for PPCs, and perioperative strategies to decrease PPCs. The importance of minimizing these events is reflected in the fact that nearly 25% of postoperative deaths occurring in the first week after surgery are associated with PPCs. This review provides important information to help clinical anesthesiologists to recognize potential risks for pulmonary complications and allows strategies to create an appropriate perioperative plan for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.04.011DOI Listing
June 2020

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Dejerine-Roussy Syndrome: a Comprehensive Review.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Jul 15;24(9):48. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Post-stroke pain represents a complex condition with few standardized diagnostic criteria. As such, the array of symptoms is often difficult to categorize and diagnose. Central post-stroke pain (CPSP), also known as Dejerine-Roussy syndrome, presents as painful paresthesia in any part of the body that is usually coupled with sensory abnormalities.

Recent Findings: In patients who had experienced a cerebrovascular accident, CPSP typically affects the same areas of the body that are also impacted by the general motor and sensory deficits that result from stroke. Though it is generally debated, CPSP is thought to result from a lesion in any part of the central nervous system. Pain usually presents in the range of 3-6 months after the occurrence of stroke, manifesting contralaterally to the lesion, and most commonly involving the upper extremities. For the most accurate diagnosis of CPSP, a thorough history and clinical examination should be supplemented with imaging. Infarcted areas of the brain can be visualized using either CT or MRI. First-line treatment of CPSP is pharmacologic and consists of a three-drug regimen. Despite this, CPSP is often refractory to medical management producing only modest pain reduction in a limited subset of patients. Adverse effects associated with pharmacologic management of CPSP and frequent recalcitrance to treatment have driven alternative minimally invasive methods of pain control which include transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and neuromodulation. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update to recent advances in the understanding of the treatment and management of CPSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00887-3DOI Listing
July 2020

A Comprehensive Review of the Treatment and Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Jun 27;24(8):43. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

LSUHSC School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a musculoskeletal pain condition that stems from localized, taut regions of skeletal muscle and fascia, termed trigger points. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to provide updated information on prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment modalities with a focus on interventional modalities in managing MPS.

Recent Findings: Though MPS can present acutely, it frequently presents as a chronic condition, affecting up to 85% of adults during their lifetime. MPS is an often-overlooked component of pain with overarching effects on society, including patient quality of life, physical and social functioning, emotional well-being, energy, and costs on health care. The prevalence of MPS is generally increased among patients with other chronic pain disorders and has been associated with various other conditions such as bladder pain syndrome, endometriosis, and anxiety. MPS is poorly understood and remains a challenging condition to treat. Non-pharmacologic treatment modalities such as acupuncture, massage, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, and interferential current therapy may offer relief to some patients with MPS. Additional studies are warranted to get a better understanding of managing myofascial pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00877-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Standardized Testing Demonstrates Altered Odor Detection Sensitivity and Hedonics in Asymptomatic College Students as SARS-CoV-2 Emerged Locally.

medRxiv 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Background Anosmia is a recognized symptom of COVID-19, but the relationship of SARS-CoV-2 exposure with olfactory dysfunction remains enigmatic. This report adds unique data from healthy students tested as the virus emerged locally. Methods Psychometrically validated measures assessed odor detection, identification and hedonics in healthy university students. Data from asymptomatic students (N=22), tested as SARS-CoV-2 unknowingly emerged locally, were compared to students tested just prior to local virus transmission (N=25), and our normative sample (N=272) tested over the previous 4 years. Results The exposed cohort demonstrated significantly reduced odor detection sensitivity compared to the students in the prior group (P=.01; d=0.77; CI 0.17, 1.36), with a distribution skewed towards less detection sensitivity (P=.03). Categorically, the exposed group was significantly more likely to have hyposmia (OR=7.7; CI, 3.1, 19.4), particularly the subset assessed in the final week before campus closure (OR=13.6; CI, 3.4, 35.7). The exposed group also rated odors as less unpleasant (P<.001, CLES=0.77, CI, 0.51, 1.56) and showed a similarly skewed distribution (P=.005). The groups had similar odor identification performance. Conclusion Psychometric measures of odor detection sensitivity and hedonics may detect early SARS-CoV-2 exposure in asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic persons with normal odor identification. Viral detection by nasal associated lymphoid tissue is known to trigger systemic immune effects, but its activation may also reduce smell sensitivity and shift perception of the environment towards unpleasant, increasing the social isolation that may mitigate viral infection or transmission. Regular testing of odor detection and hedonics may have value for identifying regional viral exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.17.20106302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310658PMC
June 2020

A Comprehensive Review of the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Jun 11;24(8):41. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) remains poorly defined, although it is applied to chronic neuropathic pain following surgical procedures of the breast, including mastectomy and lumpectomy in breast-conserving surgery. It is characterized by persistent pain affecting the anterior thorax, axilla, and/or medial upper arm following mastectomy or lumpectomy. Though the onset of pain is most likely to occur after surgery, there may also be a new onset of symptoms following adjuvant therapy, including chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Recent Findings: The underlying pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, although exact mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In this regard, neuralgia of the intercostobrachial nerve is currently implicated as the most common cause of PMPS. Numerous pharmacological options are available in the treatment of PMPS, including gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, NMDA receptor antagonists, and nefopam (a non-opioid, non-steroidal benzoxazocine analgesic). Minimally invasive interventional treatment including injection therapy, regional anesthesia, botulinum toxin, and neuromodulation has been demonstrated to have some beneficial effect. A comprehensive update highlighting current perspectives on the treatment of postmastectomy pain syndrome is presented with emphasis on treatments currently available and newer therapeutics currently being evaluated to alleviate this complex and multifactorial condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00876-6DOI Listing
June 2020

A Comprehensive Review of the Celiac Plexus Block for the Management of Chronic Abdominal Pain.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Jun 11;24(8):42. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) is a significant health problem that can dramatically affect quality of life and survival. Pancreatic cancer is recognized as one of the most painful malignancies with 70-80% suffering from substantial pain, often unresponsive to typical medical management. Celiac plexus neurolysis and celiac plexus block (CPB) can be performed to mitigate pain through direct destruction or blockade of visceral afferent nerves. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the CPB as it pertains to CAP with a focus on the associated anatomy, indications, techniques, neurolysis/blocking agents, and complications observed in patients who undergo CPB for the treatment of CAP.

Recent Findings: The CAP is difficult to manage due to lack of precision in diagnosis and limited evidence from available treatments. CAP can arise from both benign and malignant causes. Treatment options include pharmacologic, interventional, and biopsychosocial treatments. Opioid therapy is typically utilized for the treatment of CAP; however, opioid therapy is associated with multiple complications. CPB has successfully been used to treat a variety of conditions resulting in CAP. The majority of the literature specifically related to CPB is surrounding chronic pain associated with pancreatic cancer. The literature shows emerging evidence in managing CAP with CPB, specifically in pancreatic cancer. This review provides multiple aspects of CAP and CPB, including anatomy, medical necessity, indications, technical considerations, available evidence, and finally complications related to the management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00878-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Considerations and Implications of Cannabidiol Use During Pregnancy.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Jun 10;24(7):38. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cannabis is a naturally occurring plant that is composed of over sixty phytocannabinoids, of which cannabidiol (CBD) has been recently identified as having therapeutic potential.

Recent Findings: Although not clearly understood in its mechanism of action, CBD contains potent anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesia, and analgesic qualities now being further analyzed for its use in the treatment of a plethora of diseases. Related to its large safety profile and lack of psychoactive effects typically associated with cannabis and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD is being used more frequently for self-treatment of chronic pain, anxiety, and depression. With the help of broad marketing, CBD is being used by numerous people, including pregnant women who use CBD as an anti-emetic. Since marijuana is legalized in many states in the USA, the use of CBD has increased not only in the general population but also in specific groups such as pregnant women with chronic pain. Despite CBD's accessibility, there are limited studies showing its safety during pregnancy. While the use of cannabis has been well explored in terms of the effects on pregnancy, the use of CBD during pregnancy thus far has limited literature. The goal of this investigation is to impart the current understanding of CBD and its effects of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00872-wDOI Listing
June 2020

The Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control: Basic and Clinical Implications.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Jun 6;24(7):35. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive update of the different known components of the endogenous cannabinoid system and the mechanisms of action, as it applies to analgesia.

Recent Findings: Following the discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid system in the early 1990s and the subsequent characterization of the cannabinoid receptor, there has been a renewed interest in cannabinoid research. Recent work has demonstrated its efficacy as a pharmacologic agent. There is limited evidence in the literature about the understanding of the endocannabinoid system and its role in the treatment and management of acute and chronic pain. Further work may elucidate additional roles for the endocannabinoid system within our nervous system and, moreover, additional subtypes of cannabinoid receptors have yet to be discovered. Cannabinoid compounds mediate their biological effects via binding and subsequent activation of cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are located throughout the body and make up the endocannabinoid system. These receptors are best understood and have been cloned, type 1 (CB) and type 2 (CB) [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)] [ (1, 2)]. The CB receptor is located primarily in the immune system. CB receptors are primarily located in the nervous system with the highest concentrations in the brain and lower concentrations in the spine and peripheral nervous tissues. Cannabinoids may be promising treatments for neuropathic pain with limited evidence, whereas, the evidence for other uses is insufficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00873-9DOI Listing
June 2020

Minimally Invasive Therapies for Osteoarthritic Hip Pain: a Comprehensive Review.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Jun 6;24(7):37. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants, Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent cause of chronic hip pain, affecting 27% of adults aged over 45 years and 42% of adults aged over 75 years. Though OA has traditionally been described as a disorder of "wear-and-tear," recent studies have expanded on this understanding to include a possible inflammatory etiology as well, damage to articular cartilage produces debris in the joint that is phagocytosed by synovial cells which leads to inflammation.

Recent Findings: Patients with OA of the hip frequently have decreased quality of life due to pain and limited mobility though additional comorbidities of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, poor sleep quality, and obesity have been correlated. Initial treatment with conservative medical management can provide effective symptomatic relief. Physical therapy and exercise are important components of a multimodal approach to osteoarthritic hip pain. Patients with persistent pain may benefit from minimally invasive therapeutic approaches prior to consideration of undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this review is to provide an update of current minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of pain stemming from hip osteoarthritis; these include intra-articular injection of medication, regenerative therapies, and radiofrequency ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00874-8DOI Listing
June 2020

A Comprehensive Review of the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 May 6;24(6):27. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) is a chronic, noncyclic pain condition which can lead to significant patient morbidity and disability. It is defined by pain in the pelvic region, lasting for greater than 3 to 6 months, with no readily identifiable disease process. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update of diagnosis and treatment of UCPPS.

Recent Findings: UCPPS encompasses chronic pelvic pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis (CP/CPPS) in men and interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) in women. Underlying inflammatory, immunologic, and neuropathic components have been implicated in the pathogenesis of UCPPS. For optimal patient management, an individualized and multimodal approach is recommended. Medical management and physical therapy are the mainstays of treatment. Injection therapy may offer additional relief in medically refractory patients. Further minimally invasive management may include spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation, though evidence supporting efficacy is limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00857-9DOI Listing
May 2020

COVID-19 Anosmia Reporting Tool: Initial Findings.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020 07 28;163(1):132-134. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

There is accumulating anecdotal evidence that anosmia and dysgeusia are associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. To investigate their relationship to SARS-CoV2 infection, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery developed the COVID-19 Anosmia Reporting Tool for Clinicians for the basis of this pilot study. This tool allows health care providers to confidentially submit cases of anosmia and dysgeusia related to COVID-19. We analyzed the first 237 entries, which revealed that anosmia was noted in 73% of patients prior to COVID-19 diagnosis and was the initial symptom in 26.6%. Some improvement was noted in 27% of patients, with a mean time to improvement of 7.2 days in this group (85% of this group improved within 10 days). Our findings suggest that anomia can be a presenting symptom of COVID-19, consistent with other emerging international reports. Anosmia may be critical in timely identification of individuals infected with SARS-CoV2 who may be unwittingly transmitting the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599820922992DOI Listing
July 2020

A Comprehensive Update on the Treatment and Management of Postdural Puncture Headache.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Apr 22;24(6):24. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) with a focus on epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prophylaxis.

Recent Findings: PDPH is an adverse iatrogenic complication of neuraxial anesthesia that occurs following inadvertent puncture of the dura after epidural or spinal anesthesia. The overall incidence of PDPH after neuraxial procedures varies from 6 to 36%. The occurrence of PDPH can lead to increased patient morbidity, delayed discharge, and increased readmission. PDPH is a self-limiting postural headache that most often will resolve within 1 week, without need for treatment. Various prophylactic measures have been studied; however, more studies have been recommended to be undertaken in order to establish a proven benefit. For mild PDPH, conservative treatments are currently focused around bed rest, as well as oral caffeine. For moderate-to-severe PDPH, epidural blood patch (EBP) remains the most effective treatment; however, this invasive treatment is not without inherent risks. Further less invasive treatments have been explored such as epidural saline, dextran 40 mg solutions, hydration, caffeine, sphenopalatine ganglion blocks, greater occipital nerve blocks, and surgical closure of the gap; all have shown promise. Further studies are essential to prove efficacy as well as safety over the proven treatment of epidural blood patches. There is still limited evidence in literature about the understanding of PDPH and optimal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00860-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Dexmedetomidine in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Protocols for Postoperative Pain.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Apr 2;24(5):21. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Effective acute pain management has evolved considerably in recent years and is a primary area of focus in attempts to defend against the opioid epidemic. Persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) has an incidence of up to 30-50% and has negative outcome of quality of life and negative burden on individuals, family, and society. The 2016 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) guidelines states that enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) forms an integral part of Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) and is now recommended to use a multimodal opioid-sparing approach for management of postoperative pain. As such, dexmedetomidine is now being used as part of ERAS protocols along with regional nerve blocks and other medications, to create a satisfactory postoperative outcome with reduced opioid consumption in the Post anesthesia care unit (PACU).

Recent Findings: Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha agonist, possesses analgesic effects and has a different mechanism of action when compared with opioids. When dexmedetomidine is initiated at the end of a procedure, it has a better hemodynamic stability and pain response than ropivacaine. Dexmedetomidine can be used as an adjuvant in epidurals with local anesthetic sparing effects. Its use during nerve blocks results in reduced postoperative pain. Also, local infiltration of IV dexmedetomidine is associated with earlier discharge from PACU. Perioperative use of dexmedetomidine has significantly improved postoperative outcomes when used as part of ERAS protocols. An in-depth review of the use of dexmedetomidine in ERAS protocols is presented for clinical anesthesiologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00853-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223065PMC
April 2020

An Evidence-Based Review of Fremanezumab for the Treatment of Migraine.

Pain Ther 2020 Jun 28;9(1):195-215. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Migraine headache is a common, chronic, debilitating disease with a complex etiology. Current therapy for migraine headache comprises either treatments targeting acute migraine pain or prophylactic therapy aimed at increasing the length of time between migraine episodes. Recent evidence suggests that calcium gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a critical component in the pathogenesis of migraines. Fremanezumab, a monoclonal antibody against CGRP, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after multiple studies showed that it was well-tolerated, safe, and effective in the treatment of migraines. Further research is needed to elucidate the long-term effects of fremanezumab and CGRP-antagonists in general, and additional data is required in less healthy patients to estimate its effects in these populations and potentially increase the eligible group of recipients. This is a comprehensive review of the current literature on the efficacy and safety of fremanezumab for the treatment of chronic migraine. In this review we provide an update on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment of migraine, and summarize the evidence for fremanezumab as a treatment for migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40122-020-00159-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203396PMC
June 2020

A Comprehensive Review of the Treatment and Management of Pain in Sickle Cell Disease.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Mar 21;24(5):17. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hematological disorder which leads to serious complications in multiple organ systems. While significant research has addressed many of the effects of acute pain episodes and end-organ damage connected to this disease, little has approached the chronic pain state associated with this condition.

Recent Findings: Associated chronic pain represents a significant detractor from the quality of life experienced by these patients, affecting over half of those with SCD on more days than not. Current treatment typically is centered upon preventing and responding to acute vasoocclusive crises, presumably because this is the most common reason for hospitalization in these patients. The lack of management of chronic pain symptoms leaves many with SCD in a state of suffering. In this review, the treatment methodologies of SCD patients are examined including alternative treatments, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical, as well as procedural approaches specifically aimed at reducing chronic pain in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00854-yDOI Listing
March 2020