Publications by authors named "Rachel Galot"

6 Publications

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A phase II study of monalizumab in patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: The I1 cohort of the EORTC-HNCG-1559 UPSTREAM trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Oct 9;158:17-26. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Service d'Oncologie Médicale, Institut Roi Albert II, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc and Institut de Recherche Clinique et Expérimentale, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Purpose: Monalizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the inhibitory natural killer group 2A (NKG2A) receptor localised on natural killer (NK) and T cells. Its ligand, the human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E), is overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). By targeting the HLA-E-NKG2A pathway, monalizumab may enhance NK and T cell activity.

Experimental Design: The UPSTREAM trial is a biomarker-driven umbrella trial studying targeted therapies and immunotherapies in patients with recurrent/metastatic (R/M) SCCHN progressing after platinum therapy. The immunotherapy 1 (I1) cohort was a phase II, single-arm substudy evaluating monalizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously on day 1 of a 14-day cycle). The primary end-point was the objective response (OR) rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours 1.1) over the first 16 weeks. A two-stage Simon design was used (H1 15%, H0 3%, α 8%, power 90%) with pre-planned interruption of accrual if no OR was observed after the first 25 patients.

Results: Twenty-six eligible patients were enrolled. Seventeen (65%) patients had received ≥2 previous lines of systemic treatment, and 15 (58%) patients were PD(-L)1 inhibitor pretreated. No OR was observed. Stable disease was observed in 6 patients (23%) with a median duration of 3.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-NE). The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 1.7 months (95% CI: 1.5-1.8) and 6.7 months (95% CI: 3.0-9.6), respectively. The most frequent treatment-related adverse event was grade I/II fatigue (19%).

Conclusions: Monalizumab monotherapy has limited activity in R/M SCCHN. The I1 cohort did not meet its primary objective. Monalizumab combined with durvalumab is under investigation within UPSTREAM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.09.003DOI Listing
October 2021

Liquid biopsy for mutational profiling of locoregional recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Oncol 2020 05 10;104:104631. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Roi Albert II - Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium; Institute for Clinical and Experimental Research (MIRO), Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objectives: The molecular landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) harbors potentially actionable genomic alterations. We aimed to study the utility of liquid biopsy to (i) characterize the mutational landscape of recurrent/metastatic HNSCC using a comprehensive gene panel and (ii) estimate the concordance between DNA mutations identified from circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and matched tumor tissues.

Materials And Methods: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of 39 patients with locoregional recurrent (n = 19) and/or metastatic (n = 20) HNSCC. Tumor biopsy (n = 18) was sequenced using the same technique.

Results: ctDNA was detected in 51% of patients (20/39) with a higher probability of detection in metastatic than locoregional recurrent disease (70% versus 30%, p = 0.025). 81% and 58% of the tissue tumor variants were not detected in plasma when considering all patients and only metastatic patients with detectable ctDNA, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, the likelihood of detecting the tissue tumor variant in plasma was related to metastatic status (p = 0.012), tumor variant allele frequency (p < 0.001) and ctDNA quantity (p < 0.001). 26% of the variants were detected only in liquid and not in the solid biopsy. Three patients without an available tumor sample had plasma containing three different potentially actionable PIK3CA mutations.

Conclusion: CtDNA detection and characterization using targeted NGS is feasible in metastatic HNSCC. Liquid biopsies do not reflect the complete mutation profile of the tumor but have the potential to identify actionable mutations when tumor biopsies are not available as well as variants not found in matched tumor tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.104631DOI Listing
May 2020

Current applications and challenges of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).

Cancer Treat Rev 2020 Apr 14;85:101992. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Roi Albert II - Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium; Institute for Clinical and Experimental Research (MIRO), Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Liquid biopsies (LB) are emerging in the oncology field, with promising data as new diagnostic, prognostic and treatment-monitoring tools. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a heterogenous disease and many challenges remain to improve patient outcomes. Liquid biopsy could be of interest at different stages of SCCHN disease, including better screening to diagnose more patients at an early stage, early detection of relapse after curative treatment, and the implementation of precision medicine. As LB is very attractive by the ease of sampling, this field is moving fast. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the potential applications but also the limitations of these new tools in regards to technical aspects and interpretation of the data. In this review, we will first give an overview of potential clinical applications and technical challenges of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and then focus on current available data of ctDNA in SCCHN. Although the literature on ctDNA analysis for SCCHN is scarce compared to other tumors, preliminary results seem to hold promise for the future, including the detection of minimal residual disease or the detection of potentially targetable events through liquid biopsy. Prospective liquid-biopsy driven clinical trials are needed to validate its clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.101992DOI Listing
April 2020

Safety of drug treatments for head and neck cancer.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2016 Nov 9;15(11):1527-1539. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

a Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Roi Albert II, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc and Institut de Recherche Clinique et Expérimentale (Pole MIRO) , Université catholique de Louvain , Brussels , Belgium.

Introduction: The treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and the neck depends on the disease's stage. In locally-advanced stage disease, multimodal treatment strategies, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, give the best outcome in terms of overall survival. Those treatments are not without negligeable adverse events, which can lead to late debilitating toxicities. In recurrent/metastatic disease, not amenable to surgery or radiation therapy, palliative chemotherapy is the most appropriate treatment. Areas covered: This review aims to provide an overview of the safety of standard drug regimens used to treat SCCHN in daily practice, including platinum-based chemoradiation, induction chemotherapy, cetuximab and immunotherapy. The toxicities induced by single modality radiotherapy, or those resulting from surgery, are not part of the discussion. Expert opinion: Toxicities observed with multimodal treatment of SCCHN are the highest we can tolerate in terms of treatment-related mortality, morbidity and late consequences. Patients at high risk of developing such complications should be identified upfront for optimal prevention and management. There is a medical need to identify less toxic regimens without compromising the treatment efficacy, especially for patients with Human Papilloma Virus-induced oropharyngeal cancers. Finally, it is crucial in future trials to better standardize the scales used to report treatment related adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2016.1227789DOI Listing
November 2016

HER2 and HER3 in HPV+ and HPV- HNSCC--Letter.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Apr;22(7):1825

Institut Roi Albert II, Department of Medical Oncology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc and Institut de Recherche Clinique et Expérimentale (Pole MIRO), Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2688DOI Listing
April 2016

Unusual presentation of bladder cancer resurgence and efficacy of radiotherapy.

BMJ Case Rep 2016 Jan 27;2016. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Hopital de Jolimont, Haine-Saint-Paul, Belgium.

A 68-year-old man with a history of bladder cancer presented with perineal pain and penile priapism. The work up showed multiple lesions strictly located in the penis; biopsy confirmed metastases of bladder cancer. Surgery was judged unfeasible and chemotherapy failed to improve symptoms. Radiotherapy was therefore delivered on the whole penis and resulted in a rapid clinical benefit and persistent control of the disease. Penile metastases are very rare and no consensus exists concerning their management; radiotherapy appears as a promising therapeutic option not only to palliate pain but also to control the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2015-213538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4735395PMC
January 2016
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