Publications by authors named "Rachel Adams"

185 Publications

Accuracy and cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies for identifying undiagnosed COPD among primary care patients (≥40 years) in China: a cross-sectional screening test accuracy study: findings from the Breathe Well group.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 23;11(9):e051811. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK.

Objectives: To examine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of various chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) screening tests and combinations within a Chinese primary care population.

Design: Screening test accuracy study.

Setting: Urban and rural community health centres in four municipalities of China: Beijing (north), Chengdu (southwest), Guangzhou (south) and Shenyang (northeast).

Participants: Community residents aged 40 years and above who attended community health centres for any reason were invited to participate. 2445 participants (mean age 59.8 (SD 9.6) years, 39.1% (n=956) male) completed the study (February-December 2019), 68.9% (n=1684) were never-smokers and 3.6% (n=88) had an existing COPD diagnosis. 13.7% (n=333) of participants had spirometry-confirmed airflow obstruction.

Interventions: Participants completed six index tests (screening questionnaires (COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire, COPD Assessment in Primary Care To Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk (CAPTURE), Chinese Symptom-Based Questionnaire (C-SBQ), COPD-SQ), microspirometry (COPD-6), peak flow (model of peak flow meters used in the study (USPE)) and the reference test (ndd Easy On-PC).

Primary And Secondary Outcomes: Cases were defined as those with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV)/forced vital capacity (FVC) below the lower limit of normal (LLN-GLI) on the reference test. Performance of individual screening tests and their combinations was evaluated, with cost-effectiveness analyses providing cost per additional true case detected.

Results: Airflow measurement devices (sensitivities 64.9% (95% CI 59.5% to 70.0%) and 67.3% (95% CI 61.9% to 72.3%), specificities 89.7% (95% CI 88.4% to 91.0%) and 82.6% (95% CI 80.9% to 84.2%) for microspirometry and peak flow, respectively) generally performed better than questionnaires, the most accurate of which was C-SBQ (sensitivity 63.1% (95% CI 57.6% to 68.3%) specificity 74.2% (95% CI 72.3% to 76.1%)). The combination of C-SBQ and microspirometry used in parallel maximised sensitivity (81.4%) (95% CI 76.8% to 85.4%) and had specificity of 68.0% (95% CI 66.0% to 70.0%), with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £64.20 (CNY385) per additional case detected compared with peak flow.

Conclusions: Simple screening tests to identify undiagnosed COPD within the primary care setting in China is possible, and a combination of C-SBQ and microspirometry is the most sensitive and cost-effective. Further work is required to explore optimal cut-points and effectiveness of programme implementation.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN13357135.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051811DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of Lifetime History of Traumatic Brain Injury With Prescription Opioid Use and Misuse Among Adults.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Sep-Oct 01;36(5):328-337

Institute for Behavioral Health (Drs Adams and Reif) and Schneider Institutes for Health Policy and Research (Dr Ritter), Heller School for Social Policy & Management, Brandeis University Waltham, Massachusetts; Undergraduate Student at Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts (Ms Pliskin), Waltham, Massachusetts; Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Health Administration, Aurora, Colorado (Dr Adams); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus (Dr Corrigan); and Violence and Injury Prevention Section, Ohio Department of Health, Columbus (Dr Hagemeyer).

Objective: To investigate associations of lifetime history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with prescription opioid use and misuse among noninstitutionalized adults.

Participants: Ohio Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) participants in the 2018 cohort who completed the prescription opioid and lifetime history of TBI modules (n = 3448).

Design: Secondary analyses of a statewide population-based cross-sectional survey.

Main Measures: Self-report of a lifetime history of TBI using an adaptation of the Ohio State University TBI-Identification Method. Self-report of past year: (1) prescription pain medication use (ie, prescription opioid use); and (2) prescription opioid misuse, defined as using opioids more frequently or in higher doses than prescribed and/or using a prescription opioid not prescribed to the respondent.

Results: In total, 22.8% of adults in the sample screened positive for a lifetime history of TBI. A quarter (25.5%) reported past year prescription opioid use, and 3.1% met criteria for prescription opioid misuse. A lifetime history of TBI was associated with increased odds of both past year prescription opioid use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.27-1.83; P < .01) and prescription opioid misuse (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.08-2.52; P < .05), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status.

Conclusion: Results from this study support the "perfect storm" hypothesis-that persons with a history of TBI are at an increased risk for exposure to prescription opioids and advancing to prescription opioid misuse compared with those without a history of TBI. Routine screening for a lifetime history of TBI may help target efforts to prevent opioid misuse among adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000729DOI Listing
September 2021

Scoping Review of Opioid Use After Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Sep-Oct 01;36(5):310-327

Division of Rehabilitation Psychology, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (Drs Starosta and Hoffman); Institute for Behavioral Health at the Heller School for Social Policy & Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts (Dr Adams); Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Health Administration, Aurora, Colorado (Dr Adams); Division of Rehabilitation Psychology and Neuropsychology (Dr Kreutzer), Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Ms Marwitz), Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (Dr Monden); Brain Injury Research Center of Mount Sinai, Departments of Rehabilitation Medicine and Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York (Dr Dams O'Connor).

Objective: To summarize the current literature to identify what research has been conducted, examine the approaches used, and determine what is presently known about prescription and nonprescription opioid receipts and use among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Data Sources: The search strategy included the following: opioid; opiate; analgesics, opioid; opiate alkaloids; or opioid-related disorders; AND brain injury; brain injuries; brain injuries, traumatic; head injury; head injuries; head injuries, closed; head injuries, penetrating; brain concussion; diffuse axonal injury; diffuse axonal injuries; brain trauma/s; head trauma/s; concussion; craniocerebral trauma/s; or TBI. Filters included English and Adults (19+ years). Study Selection: Inclusion: English language, adults with stable TBI, and prescription opioid receipt or use after TBI. Exclusion: Animal models, populations with other acquired brain injury, acute TBI management, and non-peer-reviewed articles, theses, or conference abstracts. Multiple reviewers screened abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility. In total, 771 abstracts were screened, 183 full texts were reviewed, and 21 met eligibility criteria. Data Extraction: Relevant content was independently extracted by multiple observers, including authors, design, sample identification and data source/s, TBI severity, TBI assessment, opioid assessment, study population (demographics, N), military affiliation, comparison groups, date of data collection, and summary of findings.

Results: Studies were published between 1987 and 2019; most data were collected prior to 2015. The majority utilized administrative and electronic medical record data from the Department of Veterans Affairs and retrospective cohort designs, and most focused on prescription opioids. There were no studies evaluating interventions to reduce use of opioids in TBI populations. Preliminary findings suggest that prescription opioid receipt is strongly related to psychological symptoms, including comorbid depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Conclusions: Despite increased awareness of opioid receipt and use following TBI, there is limited investigation on the examination of this issue. Future studies should include more varied patient populations as well as evaluate interventions to reduce opioid use following TBI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428300PMC
January 2022

Does evidence support measuring spore counts to identify dampness or mold in buildings? A literature review.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA, USA.

Background: To identify dampness or mold (D/M) in buildings, investigators generally inspect for observable D/M indicators, the presence of which justifies remediation. Investigators may also use microbiological measurement and interpretation strategies with uncertain scientific support.

Objective: We assessed available evidence supporting uses of spore counts, the microbiological measurement most commonly used to assess D/M.

Methods: We reviewed published studies assessing relationships between spore counts and observable D/M, across buildings with different observable D/M levels.

Results: Penicillium/Aspergillus counts were consistently elevated in damp vs. reference (dry or outdoor) locations. Total spore counts provided a weaker, less consistent signal. The most detailed published analysis could distinguish groups of damp homes but not individual damp homes.

Significance: Evidence did not validate current interpretations of spore count data for identifying single damp homes. Thus, such interpretations rest primarily on professional judgment. An additional series of informative but ineligible articles demonstrated an unconventional, more powerful "statistically based" comparison of multiple indoor vs. outdoor spore counts for identifying elevated indoor spores (and assumed D/M). Findings suggest that validation of enhanced spore trap approaches, including more samples indoors and outdoors plus statistically based comparisons of specific fungal groups, may allow evidence-based microbial identification of probable dampness in individual buildings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00377-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of go/no-go training on food-related action tendencies, liking and choice.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Aug 25;8(8):210666. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Brain Research Imaging Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.

Inhibitory control training effects on behaviour (e.g. 'healthier' food choices) can be driven by changes in affective evaluations of trained stimuli, and theoretical models indicate that changes in action tendencies may be a complementary mechanism. In this preregistered study, we investigated the effects of food-specific go/no-go training on action tendencies, liking and impulsive choices in healthy participants. In the training task, energy-dense foods were assigned to one of three conditions: 100% inhibition (no-go), 0% inhibition (go) or 50% inhibition (control). Automatic action tendencies and liking were measured pre- and post-training for each condition. We found that training did not lead to changes in approach bias towards trained foods (go and no-go relative to control), but we warrant caution in interpreting this finding as there are important limitations to consider for the employed approach-avoidance task. There was only anecdotal evidence for an effect on food liking, but there was evidence for contingency learning during training, and participants were on average less likely to choose a no-go food compared to a control food after training. We discuss these findings from both a methodological and theoretical standpoint and propose that the mechanisms of action behind training effects be investigated further.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.210666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385366PMC
August 2021

Examining differences in prescription opioid use behaviors among U.S. adults with and without disabilities.

Prev Med 2021 Aug 1;153:106754. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Lurie Institute for Disability Policy, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA.

We aimed to identify differences in prescription opioid-related behaviors between adults with and without disabilities in the U.S. We analyzed data from the 2015-2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (128,740 individuals; weighted N of 244,831,740) to examine disability-based differences in (1) reasons and sources of last prescription opioid misuse and, in multivariate models overall and stratified by disability, the likelihood of (2) prescription opioid use, and if used, (3) misuse and prescription opioid use disorder (OUD), overall and stratified by disability. Adults with disabilities were 11% more likely than adults without disabilities to report any past-year prescription opioid use, adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and behavioral health characteristics. However, among adults with any prescription opioid use, which is more common among people with disabilities, likelihood of prescription OUD did not vary by disability status. Pain relief as the reason for last misuse was associated with 18% increased likelihood of prescription OUD, if any use. To reduce risk of opioid misuse among people with disabilities, accessible and inclusive chronic pain management services are essential. Further, the substance use treatment field should provide accessible and inclusive services, and be aware of the need for pain management by many people with disabilities, which may include the use of prescription opioids. These findings highlight essential opportunities for public health and policies to improve access, accommodations, and quality of health and behavioral health care for people with disabilities, and to encourage a holistic perspective of people with disabilities and their needs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106754DOI Listing
August 2021

The chemical composition and toxicological effects of fine particulate matter (PM) emitted from different cooking styles.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 7;288:117754. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

The mass, chemical composition and toxicological properties of fine particulates (PM) emitted from cooking activities in three Hong Kong based restaurants and two simulated cooking experiments were characterized. Extracts from the PM samples elicited significant biological activities [cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and inflammation effect (TNF-α)] in a dose-dependent manner. The composition of PAHs, oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarenes (AZAs) mixtures differed between samples. The concentration ranges of the Σ30PAHs, Σ17OPAHs and Σ4AZAs and Σ7Carbonyls in the samples were 9627-23,452 pg m, 503-3700 pg m, 33-263 pg m and 158 - 5328 ng m, respectively. Cell viability caused by extracts from the samples was positively correlated to the concentration of benzo[a]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and 1,4-naphthoquinone in the PM extracts. Cellular ROS production (upon exposure to extracts) was positively correlated with the concentrations of PM, decaldehyde, acridine, Σ17OPAHs and 7 individual OPAHs. TNF-α showed significant positive correlations with the concentrations of most chemical species (elemental carbon, 16 individual PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene, Σ30PAHs, SO, Ca, Ca, Na, K, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn). The concentrations of Al, Ti, Mn, Σ30PAHs and 8 individual PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene in the samples were positively correlated with DNA damage caused by extracts from the samples. This study demonstrates that inhalation of PM emitted from cooking could result in adverse human health effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117754DOI Listing
July 2021

Food-related inhibitory control training reduces food liking but not snacking frequency or weight in a large healthy adult sample.

Appetite 2021 Dec 17;167:105601. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Psychology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QG, UK. Electronic address:

Inhibitory control training has recently been used as an intervention to aid healthy eating and encourage weight loss. The aim of this pre-registered study was to explore the effects of training on food liking, food consumption and weight loss in a large (n = 366), predominantly healthy-weight sample. Participants received four training sessions within a week, in which they had to inhibit their responses to either energy-dense foods (active group) or non-food images (control group). Subjective food ratings, food consumption frequency and weight were measured pre- and post-training. At two-weeks post-training, the active group reported a greater reduction in liking for energy-dense foods, compared to the control group. Active participants also reported a significantly greater increase in healthy food liking, immediately post-training, relative to the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the change in consumption of trained foods or for weight loss. These findings are partially consistent with previous research conducted in smaller, more overweight samples. Exploratory analyses suggest that some effects of training may be driven by awareness effects. Methodological differences across findings and avenues for future investigation are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2021.105601DOI Listing
December 2021

Combinations of peptides synergistically activate the regenerative capacity of skin cells in vitro.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Oct 25;43(5):518-529. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Objective: To explore synergistic effects related to skin regeneration, peptides with distinct biological mechanisms of action were evaluated in combination with different skin cell lines in the presence or absence of niacinamide (Nam). Furthermore, the synergistic responses of peptide combinations on global gene expression were compared with the changes that occur with fractional laser resurfacing treatment, a gold standard approach for skin rejuvenation, to further define optimal peptide combinations.

Methods: Microarray profiling was used to characterize the biological responses of peptide combinations (+/- Nam) relative to the individual components in epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblast cell lines. Cellular functional assays were utilized to confirm the synergistic effects of peptide combinations. Bioinformatics approaches were used to link the synergistic effects of peptide combinations on gene expression to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response from fractional laser treatment.

Results: Microarray analysis of skin cells treated with peptide combinations revealed synergistic changes in gene expression compared with individual peptide controls. Bioinformatic analysis of synergy genes in keratinocytes revealed the activation of NRF2-mediated oxidative stress responses by a combination of Ac-PPYL, Pal-KTTKS and Nam. Additional analysis revealed direct downstream transcriptional targets of NRF2/ARE exhibiting synergistic regulation by this combination of materials, which was corroborated by a cellular reporter assay. NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathways were also found to be activated in the transcriptomics of the early skin rejuvenation response to fractional laser treatment, suggesting the importance of this biology in the early stages of tissue repair. Additionally, the second combination of peptides (pal-KT and Ac-PPYL) was found to synergistically restore cellular ATP levels that had been depleted due to the presence of ROS, indicating an additional mechanism, whereby peptide synergies may accelerate skin repair.

Conclusion: Through combinatorial synergy studies, we have identified additional in vitro skin repair mechanisms beyond the previously described functions of individual peptides and correlated these to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response of fractional laser treatment. These findings suggest that specific peptides can act together, via complementary and synergistic mechanisms, to holistically enhance the regenerative capacity of in vitro skin cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12725DOI Listing
October 2021

Microbial exposures in moisture-damaged schools and associations with respiratory symptoms in students: A multi-country environmental exposure study.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Environmental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.

Moisture-damaged buildings are associated with respiratory symptoms and underlying diseases among building occupants, but the causative agent(s) remain a mystery. We first identified specific fungal and bacterial taxa in classrooms with moisture damage in Finnish and Dutch primary schools. We then investigated associations of the identified moisture damage indicators with respiratory symptoms in more than 2700 students. Finally, we explored whether exposure to specific taxa within the indoor microbiota may explain the association between moisture damage and respiratory health. Schools were assessed for moisture damage through detailed inspections, and the microbial composition of settled dust in electrostatic dustfall collectors was determined using marker-gene analysis. In Finland, there were several positive associations between particular microbial indicators (diversity, richness, individual taxa) and a respiratory symptom score, while in the Netherlands, the associations tended to be mostly inverse and statistically non-significant. In Finland, abundance of the Sphingomonas bacterial genus and endotoxin levels partially explained the associations between moisture damage and symptom score. A few microbial taxa explained part of the associations with health, but overall, the observed associations between damage-associated individual taxa and respiratory health were limited.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12865DOI Listing
June 2021

Predictors of Veterans Health Administration utilization and pain persistence among soldiers treated for postdeployment chronic pain in the Military Health System.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 24;21(1):494. Epub 2021 May 24.

VA Health Services Research & Development, Center for Innovation to Implementation (Ci2i), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA.

Background: Chronic pain presents a significant burden for both federal health care systems designed to serve combat Veterans in the United States (i.e., the Military Health System [MHS] and Veterans Health Administration [VHA]), yet there have been few studies of Veterans with chronic pain that have integrated data from both systems of care. This study examined 1) health care utilization in VHA as an enrollee (i.e., linkage to VHA) after military separation among soldiers with postdeployment chronic pain identified in the MHS, and predictors of linkage, and 2) persistence of chronic pain among those utilizing the VHA.

Methods: Observational, longitudinal study of soldiers returning from a deployment in support of the Afghanistan/Iraq conflicts in fiscal years 2008-2014. The analytic sample included 138,206 active duty soldiers for whom linkage to VHA was determined through FY2019. A Cox proportional hazards model was estimated to examine the effects of demographic characteristics, military history, and MHS clinical characteristics on time to linkage to VHA after separation from the military. Among the subpopulation of soldiers who linked to VHA, we described whether they met criteria for chronic pain in the VHA and pain management treatments received during the first year in VHA.

Results: The majority (79%) of soldiers within the chronic pain cohort linked to VHA after military separation. Significant predictors of VHA linkage included: VHA utilization as a non-enrollee prior to military separation, separating for disability, mental health comorbidities, and being non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic. Soldiers that separated because of misconduct were less likely to link than other soldiers. Soldiers who received nonpharmacological treatments, opioids/tramadol, or mental health treatment in the MHS linked earlier to VHA than soldiers who did not receive these treatments. Among those who enrolled in VHA, during the first year after linking to the VHA, 49.7% of soldiers met criteria for persistent chronic pain in VHA.

Conclusions: The vast majority of soldiers identified with chronic pain in the MHS utilized care within VHA after military separation. Careful coordination of pain management approaches across the MHS and VHA is required to optimize care for soldiers with chronic pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06536-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145830PMC
May 2021

Do nonpharmacological services offset opioids in pain treatment for soldiers?

Health Serv Res 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Institute for Behavioral Health, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: To examine the relationships between nonpharmacological treatment (NPT) utilization and opioid prescriptions and doses and whether these relationships vary according to the type of NPT service received.

Data Source: Secondary data from the US Military Health System, nationwide.

Study Design: Patterns of NPT utilization and opioid prescriptions were analyzed over the 23 months after initial pain treatment (index visit). Regression models were used to examine the relationship between opioid prescription use in a given month and NPT service utilization in the three preceding months, using person fixed effects to control for time-invariant patient characteristics, as well as time fixed effects. Analyses were stratified by whether the patient filled an opioid prescription in the first 30 days post index visit.

Data Extraction Methods: Administrative data on health care utilization were extracted from the US Military Health System Data Repository for Army service members who returned from deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq that ended in fiscal years 2008 to 2014 and had at least one outpatient visit with a primary diagnosis of musculoskeletal pain in the subsequent year.

Principal Findings: Utilization of any NPT service in the past 3 months was positively associated with filling an opioid prescription in the given month, regardless of whether the patient was initially prescribed opioids (percentage point difference [PP] =2.87, P < 0.01) or not (PP = 0.83, P < 0.01). However, for those not initially prescribed opioids, use of any NPT service in the past 3 months was negatively associated with mean daily opioid dose in the given month (morphine milligram equivalent dose = -0.4017, P < 0.01). For those initially prescribed opioids, NPT was not associated with opioid dose.

Conclusions: NPT only reduced the prescription opioid daily dose for some patients, whereas the probability of receiving an opioid prescription was positively associated with NPT. Future research should assess whether recent system-level policies and program changes influence referral and opioid prescribing patterns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13664DOI Listing
May 2021

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients and healthcare professionals regarding oral health and COPD in São Paulo, Brazil: a qualitative study.

NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2021 05 4;31(1):20. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute for Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

Poor oral health is associated with worse clinical outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This qualitative study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of COPD patients and primary health care professionals (HCPs) in Brazil - where there are high rates of COPD and periodontal disease. Semi-structured interviews with COPD patients (n = 9) and three semi-structured focus groups with HCPs (n = 25) were conducted in São Paulo. Interviews were thematically analysed using The Framework Method. Despite a high prevalence of edentulism, patients viewed tooth loss and decay as a norm and neglected preventative oral health practices. HCPs blamed patients for avoiding preventative opportunities, whilst patients discussed significant barriers to oral healthcare. Knowledge of the relationship between oral health and COPD was lacking among HCPs and patients, but all participants were receptive to oral health education. Practitioners identified the need for a COPD primary care pathway that integrates oral health protocols. This study indicates that Brazil must incorporate preventative oral health into COPD management and expand public dental services to increase uptake.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41533-021-00235-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096830PMC
May 2021

RHAPSODY, Biomarkers and Novel Clinical Trial design in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prediabetes.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 04 6;4(2):e00207. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Sciences Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, LUDC Lund University Skåne University Hospital Malmö Sweden.

Developing a novel therapeutic product for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a long, resource-intensive process. Novel biomarkers could potentially aid clinical trial design by shortening clinical trials or enabling better prediction of at-risk populations and/or disease progression. Novel clinical trial designs could lead to reduced costs of development and less burden to patients, due to shorter trial duration, and/or less burdensome assessments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8029523PMC
April 2021

Patterns of stress generation differ depending on internalizing symptoms, alcohol use, and personality traits in early adulthood: a five year longitudinal study.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2021 Apr 5:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Public Health Sciences, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, USA.

Background: Depression is thought to generate stressful life events. However, other internalizing symptoms such as anxiety or post-traumatic stress and individual difference variables such as personality traits and alcohol use may contribute to stressful life events. Whether stress generation is specific to depression or generalized to these other variables is unclear. Therefore, we tested whether stress generation was depression specific or generalizable to anxiety, PTSD, alcohol use, neuroticism, and extraversion.

Design: Two-wave longitudinal study with a five-year follow-up.

Methods: 917 young adults completed measures of internalizing symptoms, alcohol use, neuroticism, and extraversion during college and five years later along with an interview-based measure of life events.

Results: Symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and neuroticism exhibited bivariate predictive effects on interpersonal-dependent events. When considering internalizing symptoms in the aggregate, stress generation was specific to symptoms rather than neuroticism. Furthermore, interpersonal-dependent life events mediated Time 1 internalizing symptoms predicting Time 2 symptoms.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that stress generation applies to internalizing symptoms broadly rather than specifically to depression. Moreover, neuroticism was no longer a significant predictor of life events when examined with internalizing symptoms simultaneously. These results support the value of integrative models that test numerous factors predicting stressful life events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2021.1910677DOI Listing
April 2021

Prevalence of Drinking Within Low-Risk Guidelines During the First 2 Years After Inpatient Rehabilitation for Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 08;100(8):815-819

From the Institute for Behavioral Health, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts (RSA); Veterans Health Administration, Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Aurora, Colorado (RSA); Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems, National Data and Statistical Center, Craig Hospital, Englewood, Colorado (JMK); James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Traumatic Brain Injury Center of Excellence, Tampa, Florida (RN-R); Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (DIK); and Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (JDC).

Abstract: The objective of this retrospective, longitudinal study was to investigate the prevalence of drinking within the recommended limits (i.e., low-risk drinking) after moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data were drawn from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research TBI Model Systems National Database, a longitudinal dataset closely representative of the US adult population requiring inpatient rehabilitation for TBI. The sample included 6348 adults with moderate or severe TBI (injured October 2006-May 2016) who received inpatient rehabilitation at a civilian TBI Model Systems center and completed the alcohol consumption items preinjury and 1 and 2 yrs postinjury. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism guidelines define low-risk drinking as no more than 4 drinks per day for men or 3 drinks per day for women and no more than 14 drinks per week for men or no more than 7 drinks per week for women. Low-risk drinking was common both before and after TBI, with more than 30% drinking in the low-risk level preinjury and more than 25% at 1 and 2 yrs postinjury. Postinjury, most drinkers consumed alcohol in the low-risk level regardless of preinjury drinking level. Definitive research on the long-term outcomes of low-risk alcohol consumption after more severe TBI should be a high priority.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001753DOI Listing
August 2021

The association of engagement in substance use treatment with negative separation from the military among soldiers with post-deployment alcohol use disorder.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 04 22;221:108647. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Heller School, Institute for Behavioral Health, Brandeis University, 415 South Street MS 035, Waltham, MA, 02453, USA; Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Health Administration, 1700 N. Wheeling Street, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) reduces the health of soldiers and the readiness of the Armed Forces. It remains unknown if engagement in substance use treatment in the Military Health System improves retention in the military.

Methods: The sample consisted of active duty soldiers returning from an Afghanistan/Iraq deployment in fiscal years 2008-2010 who received an AUD diagnosis within 150 days of completing a post-deployment health re-assessment survey (n = 4,726). A Heckman probit procedure was used to examine predictors of substance use treatment initiation and engagement in accordance with Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) criteria. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to examine the association between treatment engagement and retention, defined as a negative separation for a non-routine cause (e.g., separation due to misconduct, poor performance, disability) from the military in the two years following the index AUD diagnosis.

Results: 40 % of soldiers meeting HEDIS AUD criteria initiated and 24 % engaged in substance use treatment. Among soldiers diagnosed with AUD, meeting criteria for treatment engagement was associated with a significantly higher hazard of having a negative separation compared to soldiers who did not engage in treatment.

Conclusions: Rates of initiation and engagement in substance use treatment for post-deployment AUD were relatively low. Soldiers with AUD who engaged in substance use treatment were more likely to have a negative separation from the military than soldiers with AUD who did not engage. Our findings imply that in the study cohort, treatment did not mitigate negative career consequences of AUD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136466PMC
April 2021

Associations of observed home dampness and mold with the fungal and bacterial dust microbiomes.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Mar 1;23(3):491-500. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

The objective of this analysis was to examine and compare quantitative metrics of observed dampness and mold, including visible mold and moisture damage, and fungal and bacterial microbiomes. In-home visits were conducted at age 7 for children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Trained study staff evaluated the primary residence and measured total areas of visible moisture and mold damage in the home. Floor dust was collected and archived. Archived dust samples collected from each home (n = 178) were extracted and analyzed using bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer region) sequencing. Fungi were also divided into moisture requirement categories of xerophiles, mesophiles, and hydrophiles. Data analyses used Spearman's correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, Permanova, DESeq, and negative binomial regression models. Comparing high moisture or mold damage to no damage, five fungal species and two bacterial species had higher concentrations (absolute abundance) and six fungal species and three bacterial species had lower concentrations. Hydrophilic and mesophilic fungi showed significant dose-related increases with increasing moisture damage and mold damage, respectively. When comparing alpha or beta diversity of fungi and bacteria across mold and moisture damage levels, no significant associations or differences were found. Mold and moisture damage did not affect diversity of fungal and bacterial microbiomes. Instead, both kinds of damage were associated with changes in species composition of both bacterial and fungal microbiomes, indicating that fungal and bacterial communities in the home might be influenced by one another as well as by mold or moisture in the home.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0em00505cDOI Listing
March 2021

Associations of observed home dampness and mold with the fungal and bacterial dust microbiomes.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Mar 1;23(3):491-500. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

The objective of this analysis was to examine and compare quantitative metrics of observed dampness and mold, including visible mold and moisture damage, and fungal and bacterial microbiomes. In-home visits were conducted at age 7 for children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Trained study staff evaluated the primary residence and measured total areas of visible moisture and mold damage in the home. Floor dust was collected and archived. Archived dust samples collected from each home (n = 178) were extracted and analyzed using bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer region) sequencing. Fungi were also divided into moisture requirement categories of xerophiles, mesophiles, and hydrophiles. Data analyses used Spearman's correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, Permanova, DESeq, and negative binomial regression models. Comparing high moisture or mold damage to no damage, five fungal species and two bacterial species had higher concentrations (absolute abundance) and six fungal species and three bacterial species had lower concentrations. Hydrophilic and mesophilic fungi showed significant dose-related increases with increasing moisture damage and mold damage, respectively. When comparing alpha or beta diversity of fungi and bacteria across mold and moisture damage levels, no significant associations or differences were found. Mold and moisture damage did not affect diversity of fungal and bacterial microbiomes. Instead, both kinds of damage were associated with changes in species composition of both bacterial and fungal microbiomes, indicating that fungal and bacterial communities in the home might be influenced by one another as well as by mold or moisture in the home.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0em00505cDOI Listing
March 2021

Incorporating Mental Health Research into Disaster Risk Reduction: An Online Training Module for the Hazards and Disaster Workforce.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 30;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Natural Hazards Center and CONVERGE, Department of Sociology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.

There is an expansive and growing body of literature that examines the mental health consequences of disasters and large-scale emergencies. There is a need, however, for more explicit incorporation of mental health research into disaster risk reduction practices. Training and education programs can serve as a bridge to connect academic mental health research and the work of disaster risk reduction practitioners. This article describes the development and evaluation of one such intervention, the CONVERGE Disaster Mental Health Training Module, which provides users from diverse academic and professional backgrounds with foundational knowledge on disaster mental health risk factors, mental health outcomes, and psychosocial well-being research. Moreover, the module helps bridge the gap between research and practice by describing methods used to study disaster mental health, showcasing examples of evidence-based programs and tools, and providing recommendations for future research. Since its initial release on 8 October 2019, 317 trainees from 12 countries have completed the Disaster Mental Health Training Module. All trainees completed a pre- and post-training questionnaire regarding their disaster mental health knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests demonstrated a significant increase in all three measures after completion of the training module. Students, emerging researchers or practitioners, and trainees with a high school/GED education level experienced the greatest benefit from the module, with Kruskal-Wallis results indicating significant differences in changes in knowledge and skills across the groups. This evaluation research highlights the effectiveness of the Disaster Mental Health Training Module in increasing knowledge, skills, and attitudes among trainees. This article concludes with a discussion of how this training can support workforce development and ultimately contribute to broader disaster risk reduction efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908440PMC
January 2021

Opioid and Nonpharmacologic Treatments Among Soldiers With Chronic Pain and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 03 20;72(3):264-272. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Schneider Institutes for Health Policy and Research, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts (Saadoun, Bauer, Adams, Larson); Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management, Department of Anesthesiology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, Maryland (Highland).

Objective: This study examined the prevalence of chronic pain alone, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alone, and both chronic pain and PTSD among U.S. Army soldiers during the postdeployment year.

Methods: The sample was 576,425 active duty soldiers returning from deployment in Afghanistan or Iraq between October 1, 2008, and September 30, 2014. Bivariate statistics were used to compare health care utilization among subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression with additional covariates was used to identify predictors of receiving an opioid days' supply of >30 days in the postdeployment year among soldiers with chronic pain, focusing on the effect of PTSD alone and on an interaction of PTSD with nonpharmacologic treatments (including therapeutic exercise, chiropractic treatment, acupuncture, and biofeedback).

Results: In total, 12.2% of the soldiers received a chronic pain diagnosis, 5.1% a PTSD diagnosis, and 1.8% had both. Among soldiers with both conditions, 80.3% received nonpharmacologic treatment, and 31.4% received an opioid days' supply of >30 days. Among soldiers with chronic pain, comorbid PTSD and lack of nonpharmacologic treatment was associated with increased odds of receiving an opioid days' supply of >30 days (odds ratio [OR]=1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3-1.6). PTSD combined with specific nonpharmacologic treatment modalities had a variable relationship with opioid receipt, and only PTSD with acupuncture or biofeedback was associated with reduced odds (OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.7-0.9).

Conclusions: Soldiers having both chronic pain and PTSD have significant health care needs. Although these soldiers accessed mental health care and received nonpharmacologic treatment, additional interventions are needed to mitigate protracted opioid utilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201900303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127998PMC
March 2021

A New Look at the Purported Health Benefits of Commercial and Natural Clays.

Biomolecules 2021 01 5;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK.

Clays attributed to have medicinal properties have been used since prehistoric times and are still used today as complementary medicines, which has given rise to unregulated "bioceutical" clays to treat skin conditions. Recently, clays with antibacterial characteristics have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics, potentially overcoming modern day antibiotic resistance. Clays with suggested antibacterial properties were examined to establish their effects on common wound-infecting bacteria. Geochemical, microscopical, and toxicological characterization of clay particulates, their suspensions and filtered leachates was performed on THP-1 and HaCaT cell lines. Cytoskeletal toxicity, cell proliferation/viability (MTT assays), and migration (scratch wounds) were further evaluated. Clays were assayed for antibacterial efficacy using minimum inhibitory concentration assays. All clays possessed a mineral content with antibacterial potential; however, clay leachates contained insufficient ions to have any antibacterial effects. All clay leachates displayed toxicity towards THP-1 monocytes, while clay suspensions showed less toxicity, suggesting immunogenicity. Reduced clay cytotoxicity on HaCaTs was shown, as many leachates stimulated wound-healing responses. The "Green" clay exhibited antibacterial effects and only in suspension, which was lost upon neutralization. pH and its interaction with clay particle surface charge is more significant than previously understood to emphasize dangers of unregulated marketing and unsubstantiated bioceutical claims.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11010058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824833PMC
January 2021

Human milk oligosaccharides, infant growth, and adiposity over the first 4 months of lactation.

Pediatr Res 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Nestlé Research, Société des Produits Nestlé SA, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: The relationship between human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and infant growth and adiposity is not fully understood and comprehensive studies are missing from the current literature.

Methods: We screened and recruited 370 healthy, pregnant women and their infants from seven European countries. Breastmilk samples were collected using standardized procedures at six time points over 4 months, as were infant parameters. Correlations and associations between HMO area under the curve, anthropometric data, and fat mass at 4 months were tested.

Results: Lacto-N-neotetraose had a negative correlation with the change in length (rs = -0.18, P = 0.02). Sialyllacto-N-tetraose c (LSTc) had a positive correlation with weight for length (rs = 0.19, P = 0.015). Infants at the 25th upper percentile were fed milk higher in 3'-sialyllactose and LSTc (P = 0.017 and P = 0.006, respectively) compared to the lower 25th percentile of the weight-for-length z-score gain over 4 months of lactation. No significant associations between growth and body composition and Lewis or secretor-dependent HMOs like 2'-fucosyllactose were identified.

Conclusions: Changes in the HMO composition of breastmilk during the first 4 months appear to have little influence on infant growth and body composition in this cohort of healthy mothers and infants.

Impact: Modest associations exist between individual HMO and infant growth outcomes at least in healthy growing populations. Our study provides a comprehensive investigation of associations between all major HMO and infant growth and adiposity including several time points. Certain groups of HMOs, like the sialylated, may be associated with adiposity during the first months of lactation. HMO may modulate the risk of future metabolic disease. Future population studies need to address the role of specific groups of HMOs in the context of health and disease to understand the long-term impact.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-01328-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Author Correction: An investigation of causal relationships between prediabetes and vascular complications.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 4;12(1):202. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Malmö, SE-20502, Sweden.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20663-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782799PMC
January 2021

A Potent SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody That Reduces Viral Burden and Disease Severity in Syrian Hamsters.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:614256. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States.

The emergence of COVID-19 has led to a pandemic that has caused millions of cases of disease, variable morbidity and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Currently, only remdesivir and dexamethasone have demonstrated limited efficacy, only slightly reducing disease burden, thus novel approaches for clinical management of COVID-19 are needed. We identified a panel of human monoclonal antibody clones from a yeast display library with specificity to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain that neutralized the virus . Administration of the lead antibody clone to Syrian hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduced viral load and histopathology score in the lungs. Moreover, the antibody interrupted monocyte infiltration into the lungs, which may have contributed to the reduction of disease severity by limiting immunopathological exacerbation. The use of this antibody could provide an important therapy for treatment of COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.614256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775388PMC
January 2021

The NICE MEDLINE and Embase (Ovid) health apps search filters: development of validated filters to retrieve evidence about health apps.

Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2020 Oct 27;37:e16. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Manchester, UK.

Objectives: Health apps are software programs that are designed to prevent, diagnose, monitor, or manage conditions. Inconsistent terminology for apps is used in research literature and bibliographic database subject headings. It can therefore be challenging to retrieve evidence about them in literature searches. Information specialists at the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) have developed novel validated search filters to retrieve evidence about apps from MEDLINE and Embase (Ovid).

Methods: A selection of medical informatics journals was hand searched to identify a "gold standard" (GS) set of references about apps. The GS set was divided into a development and validation set. The filters' search terms were derived from and tested against the development set. An external development set containing app references from published NICE products was also used to inform the development of the filters. The filters were then validated using the validation set. Target recall was >90 percent. The filters' overall recall, specificity, and precision were calculated using all the references identified from the hand search.

Results: Both filters achieved 98.6 percent recall against their validation sets. Overall, the MEDLINE filter had 98.8 percent recall, 71.3 percent specificity, and 22.6 percent precision. The Embase filter had 98.6 percent recall, 74.9 percent specificity, and 24.5 percent precision.

Conclusions: The NICE health apps search filters retrieve evidence about apps from MEDLINE and Embase with high recall. They can be applied to literature searches to retrieve evidence about the interventions by information professionals, researchers, and clinicians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S026646232000080XDOI Listing
October 2020

The vitamin A ester retinyl propionate has a unique metabolic profile and higher retinoid-related bioactivity over retinol and retinyl palmitate in human skin models.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Feb 5;30(2):226-236. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Human skin is exposed daily to environmental stressors, which cause acute damage and inflammation. Over time, this leads to morphological and visual appearance changes associated with premature ageing. Topical vitamin A derivatives such as retinol (ROL), retinyl palmitate (RPalm) and retinyl propionate (RP) have been used to reverse these changes and improve the appearance of skin. This study investigated a stoichiometric comparison of these retinoids using in vitro and ex vivo skin models. Skin biopsies were treated topically to compare skin penetration and metabolism. Treated keratinocytes were evaluated for transcriptomics profiling and hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis and treated 3D epidermal skin equivalents were stained for epidermal thickness, Ki67 and filaggrin. A retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARα) reporter cell line was used to compare retinoid activation levels. Results from ex vivo skin found that RP and ROL have higher penetration levels compared with RPalm. RP is metabolized primarily into ROL in the viable epidermis and dermis whereas ROL is esterified into RPalm and metabolized into the inactive retinoid 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol (14-HRR). RP treatment yielded higher RARα activation and HA synthesis levels than ROL whereas RPalm had a null effect. In keratinocytes, RP and ROL stimulated similar gene expression patterns and pathway theme profiles. In conclusion, RP and ROL show a similar response directionality whereas RPalm response was inconsistent. Additionally, RP has a consistently higher magnitude of response compared with ROL or RPalm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14219DOI Listing
February 2021

A potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing human monoclonal antibody that reduces viral burden and disease severity in Syrian hamsters.

bioRxiv 2020 Sep 28. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

The emergence of COVID-19 has led to a pandemic that has caused millions of cases of disease, variable morbidity and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Currently, only remdesivir and dexamethasone have demonstrated limited efficacy, only slightly reducing disease burden, thus novel approaches for clinical management of COVID-19 are needed. We identified a panel of human monoclonal antibody clones from a yeast display library with specificity to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain that neutralized the virus . Administration of the lead antibody clone to Syrian hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduced viral load and histopathology score in the lungs. Moreover, the antibody interrupted monocyte infiltration into the lungs, which may have contributed to the reduction of disease severity by limiting immunopathological exacerbation. The use of this antibody could provide an important therapy for treatment of COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.25.313601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536865PMC
September 2020

No evidence that prefrontal HD-tDCS influences cue-induced food craving.

Behav Neurosci 2020 Oct;134(5):369-383

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre.

This study investigated whether the application of high definition transcranial DC stimulation (HD-tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cue-induced food craving when combined with food-specific inhibitory control training. Using a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55) received both active and sham HD-tDCS across 2 sessions while completing a Go/No-Go task in which foods were either associated with response inhibition or response execution. Food craving was measured pre and post stimulation using a standardized questionnaire as well as desire to eat ratings for foods associated with both response inhibition and response execution in the training task. Results revealed no effect of HD-tDCS on reducing state food craving or desire to eat. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we were unable to achieve our maximum preplanned sample size or our minimum desired Bayesian evidence strength across all a priori hypotheses; however 6 of the 7 hypotheses converged with moderate or stronger evidence in favor of the null hypothesis over the alternative hypothesis. We discuss the importance of individual differences and provide recommendations for future studies with an emphasis on the importance of cognitive interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bne0000345DOI Listing
October 2020
-->