Publications by authors named "Rachel A Rusk"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Measuring bovine γδ T cell function at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2017 Dec 27;193-194:38-49. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address:

Bovine γδ T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/γδ T cell co-culture system to elucidate the role of γδ T cells in local immunity to M. bovis infection. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that γδ T cells upregulated expression of several novel, immune-associated genes in response to stimulation with M. bovis antigen. BCG-infected macrophage/γδ T cell co-cultures confirmed the results of our RNAseq analysis, and revealed that γδ T cells from M. bovis-infected animals had a significant impact on bacterial viability. Analysis of γδ T cells within late-stage M. bovis granulomas revealed significant expression of IFN-γ and CCL2, but not IL-10, IL-22, or IL-17. Our results suggest γδ T cells influence local immunity to M. bovis through cytokine secretion and direct effects on bacterial burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2017.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5703227PMC
December 2017

Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica.

PLoS One 2016 4;11(3):e0151083. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is genetically closely related to HRSV and is a leading cause of severe respiratory infections in young cattle. While BRSV infection in the calf parallels many aspects of human infection with HRSV, IL-17 and Th17 responses have not been studied in the bovine. Here we demonstrate that calves infected with BRSV express significant levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22; and both CD4 T cells and γδ T cells contribute to this response. In addition to causing significant morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle. BRDC is caused by a primary viral infection, followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia by pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo infection with M. haemolytica results in increased expression of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. We have also developed an in vitro model of BRDC and show that co-infection of PBMC with BRSV followed by M. haemolytica leads to significantly exacerbated IL-17 production, which is primarily mediated by IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that calves, like humans, mount a robust IL-17 response during RSV infection; and suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of BRDC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778910PMC
July 2016

Vaccination with an Attenuated Mutant of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Induces Pathogen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Immunity and Protection from Tick-Transmitted Wild-Type Challenge in the Canine Host.

PLoS One 2016 3;11(2):e0148229. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Center of Excellence for Vector-Borne Diseases, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Transmitted by the Amblyomma americanum tick, E. chaffeensis also causes disease in several other vertebrate species including white-tailed deer and dogs. We have recently described the generation of an attenuated mutant strain of E. chaffeensis, with a mutation in the Ech_0660 gene, which is able to confer protection from secondary, intravenous-administered, wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in dogs. Here, we extend our previous results, demonstrating that vaccination with the Ech_0660 mutant protects dogs from physiologic, tick-transmitted, secondary challenge with wild-type E. chaffeensis; and describing, for the first time, the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by Ech_0660 mutant vaccination and wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in the canine host. Both vaccination and infection induced a rise in E. chaffeensis-specific antibody titers and a significant Th1 response in peripheral blood as measured by E. chaffeensis antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production. Further, we describe for the first time significant IL-17 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from both Ech_0660 mutant vaccinated animals and control animals infected with wild-type E. chaffeensis, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and Th17 cells in the immune response to rickettsial pathogens. Our results are a critical first step towards defining the role of the immune system in vaccine-induced protection from E. chaffeensis infection in an incidental host; and confirm the potential of the attenuated mutant clone, Ech_0660, to be used as a vaccine candidate for protection against tick-transmitted E. chaffeensis infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148229PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4739596PMC
July 2016
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