Publications by authors named "Rachel A Battaglia"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Borealin directs recruitment of the CPC to oocyte chromosomes and movement to the microtubules.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun;220(6)

Waksman Institute and Department of Genetics, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ.

The chromosomes in the oocytes of many animals appear to promote bipolar spindle assembly. In Drosophila oocytes, spindle assembly requires the chromosome passenger complex (CPC), which consists of INCENP, Borealin, Survivin, and Aurora B. To determine what recruits the CPC to the chromosomes and its role in spindle assembly, we developed a strategy to manipulate the function and localization of INCENP, which is critical for recruiting the Aurora B kinase. We found that an interaction between Borealin and the chromatin is crucial for the recruitment of the CPC to the chromosomes and is sufficient to build kinetochores and recruit spindle microtubules. HP1 colocalizes with the CPC on the chromosomes and together they move to the spindle microtubules. We propose that the Borealin interaction with HP1 promotes the movement of the CPC from the chromosomes to the microtubules. In addition, within the central spindle, rather than at the centromeres, the CPC and HP1 are required for homologous chromosome bi-orientation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202006018DOI Listing
June 2021

Site-specific phosphorylation and caspase cleavage of GFAP are new markers of Alexander disease severity.

Elife 2019 11 4;8. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States.

Alexander disease (AxD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which supports the structural integrity of astrocytes. Over 70 GFAP missense mutations cause AxD, but the mechanism linking different mutations to disease-relevant phenotypes remains unknown. We used AxD patient brain tissue and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived astrocytes to investigate the hypothesis that AxD-causing mutations perturb key post-translational modifications (PTMs) on GFAP. Our findings reveal selective phosphorylation of GFAP-Ser13 in patients who died young, independently of the mutation they carried. AxD iPSC-astrocytes accumulated pSer13-GFAP in cytoplasmic aggregates within deep nuclear invaginations, resembling the hallmark Rosenthal fibers observed in vivo. Ser13 phosphorylation facilitated GFAP aggregation and was associated with increased GFAP proteolysis by caspase-6. Furthermore, caspase-6 was selectively expressed in young AxD patients, and correlated with the presence of cleaved GFAP. We reveal a novel PTM signature linking different GFAP mutations in infantile AxD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927689PMC
November 2019

Cell type- and tissue-specific functions of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73).

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2019 12 28;317(6):C1079-C1092. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Ecto-5'-nucleotidase [cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73)] is a ubiquitously expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein that converts extracellular adenosine 5'-monophosphate to adenosine. Anti-CD73 inhibitory antibodies are currently undergoing clinical testing for cancer immunotherapy. However, many protective physiological functions of CD73 need to be taken into account for new targeted therapies. This review examines CD73 functions in multiple organ systems and cell types, with a particular focus on novel findings from the last 5 years. Missense loss-of-function mutations in the CD73-encoding gene cause the rare disease "arterial calcifications due to deficiency of CD73." Aside from direct human disease involvement, cellular and animal model studies have revealed key functions of CD73 in tissue homeostasis and pathology across multiple organ systems. In the context of the central nervous system, CD73 is antinociceptive and protects against inflammatory damage, while also contributing to age-dependent decline in cortical plasticity. CD73 preserves barrier function in multiple tissues, a role that is most evident in the respiratory system, where it inhibits endothelial permeability in an adenosine-dependent manner. CD73 has important cardioprotective functions during myocardial infarction and heart failure. Under ischemia-reperfusion injury conditions, rapid and sustained induction of CD73 confers protection in the liver and kidney. In some cases, the mechanism by which CD73 mediates tissue injury is less clear. For example, CD73 has a promoting role in liver fibrosis but is protective in lung fibrosis. Future studies that integrate CD73 regulation and function at the cellular level with physiological responses will improve its utility as a disease target.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00285.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957383PMC
December 2019

Vimentin on the move: new developments in cell migration.

F1000Res 2018 15;7. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The vimentin gene ( ) encodes one of the 71 human intermediate filament (IF) proteins, which are the building blocks of highly ordered, dynamic, and cell type-specific fiber networks. Vimentin is a multi-functional 466 amino acid protein with a high degree of evolutionary conservation among vertebrates. mice, though viable, exhibit systemic defects related to development and wound repair, which may have implications for understanding human disease pathogenesis. Vimentin IFs are required for the plasticity of mesenchymal cells under normal physiological conditions and for the migration of cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Although it was observed years ago that vimentin promotes cell migration, the molecular mechanisms were not completely understood. Recent advances in microscopic techniques, combined with computational image analysis, have helped illuminate vimentin dynamics and function in migrating cells on a precise scale. This review includes a brief historical account of early studies that unveiled vimentin as a unique component of the cell cytoskeleton followed by an overview of the physiological vimentin functions documented in studies on mice. The primary focus of the discussion is on novel mechanisms related to how vimentin coordinates cell migration. The current hypothesis is that vimentin promotes cell migration by integrating mechanical input from the environment and modulating the dynamics of microtubules and the actomyosin network. These new findings undoubtedly will open up multiple avenues to study the broader function of vimentin and other IF proteins in cell biology and will lead to critical insights into the relevance of different vimentin levels for the invasive behaviors of metastatic cancer cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.15967.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241562PMC
March 2019

An image-based small-molecule screen identifies vimentin as a pharmacologically relevant target of simvastatin in cancer cells.

FASEB J 2018 05 18;32(5):2841-2854. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Vimentin is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament protein that is expressed in mesenchymal cells and cancer cells during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The goal of this study was to identify vimentin-targeting small molecules by using the Tocriscreen library of 1120 biochemically active compounds. We monitored vimentin filament reorganization and bundling in adrenal carcinoma SW13 vimentin-positive (SW13-vim) cells via indirect immunofluorescence. The screen identified 18 pharmacologically diverse hits that included 2 statins-simvastatin and mevastatin. Simvastatin induced vimentin reorganization within 15-30 min and significant perinuclear bundling within 60 min (IC = 6.7 nM). Early filament reorganization coincided with increased vimentin solubility. Mevastatin produced similar effects at >1 µM, whereas the structurally related pravastatin and lovastatin did not affect vimentin. In vitro vimentin filament assembly assays revealed a direct targeting mechanism, as determined biochemically and by electron microscopy. In SW13-vim cells, simvastatin, but not pravastatin, reduced total cell numbers (IC = 48.1 nM) and promoted apoptosis after 24 h. In contrast, SW13-vim cell viability was unaffected by simvastatin, unless vimentin was ectopically expressed. Simvastatin similarly targeted vimentin filaments and induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 (vim), but lacked effect in MCF7 (vim) breast cancer cells. In conclusion, this study identified vimentin as a direct molecular target that mediates simvastatin-induced cell death in 2 different cancer cell lines.-Trogden, K. P., Battaglia, R. A., Kabiraj, P., Madden, V. J., Herrmann, H., Snider, N. T. An image-based small-molecule screen identifies vimentin as a pharmacologically relevant target of simvastatin in cancer cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201700663RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901388PMC
May 2018

Isolation of Intermediate Filament Proteins from Multiple Mouse Tissues to Study Aging-associated Post-translational Modifications.

J Vis Exp 2017 05 18(123). Epub 2017 May 18.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill;

Intermediate filaments (IFs), together with actin filaments and microtubules, form the cytoskeleton - a critical structural element of every cell. Normal functioning IFs provide cells with mechanical and stress resilience, while a dysfunctional IF cytoskeleton compromises cellular health and has been associated with many human diseases. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) critically regulate IF dynamics in response to physiological changes and under stress conditions. Therefore, the ability to monitor changes in the PTM signature of IFs can contribute to a better functional understanding, and ultimately conditioning, of the IF system as a stress responder during cellular injury. However, the large number of IF proteins, which are encoded by over 70 individual genes and expressed in a tissue-dependent manner, is a major challenge in sorting out the relative importance of different PTMs. To that end, methods that enable monitoring of PTMs on IF proteins on an organism-wide level, rather than for isolated members of the family, can accelerate research progress in this area. Here, we present biochemical methods for the isolation of the total, detergent-soluble, and detergent-resistant fraction of IF proteins from 9 different mouse tissues (brain, heart, lung, liver, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, kidney, and spleen). We further demonstrate an optimized protocol for rapid isolation of IF proteins by using lysing matrix and automated homogenization of different mouse tissues. The automated protocol is useful for profiling IFs in experiments with high sample volume (such as in disease models involving multiple animals and experimental groups). The resulting samples can be utilized for various downstream analyses, including mass spectrometry-based PTM profiling. Utilizing these methods, we provide new data to show that IF proteins in different mouse tissues (brain and liver) undergo parallel changes with respect to their expression levels and PTMs during aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/55655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5603907PMC
May 2017

The microtubule catastrophe promoter Sentin delays stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes.

J Cell Biol 2015 Dec 14;211(6):1113-20. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, Scotland, UK

The critical step in meiosis is to attach homologous chromosomes to the opposite poles. In mouse oocytes, stable microtubule end-on attachments to kinetochores are not established until hours after spindle assembly, and phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins by Aurora B/C is responsible for the delay. Here we demonstrated that microtubule ends are actively prevented from stable attachment to kinetochores until well after spindle formation in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We identified the microtubule catastrophe-promoting complex Sentin-EB1 as a major factor responsible for this delay. Without this activity, microtubule ends precociously form robust attachments to kinetochores in oocytes, leading to a high proportion of homologous kinetochores stably attached to the same pole. Therefore, regulation of microtubule ends provides an alternative novel mechanism to delay stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201507006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4687879PMC
December 2015

Spindle Assembly and Chromosome Segregation Requires Central Spindle Proteins in Drosophila Oocytes.

Genetics 2016 Jan 12;202(1):61-75. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Waksman Institute, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey 08854 Department of Genetics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey 08854

Oocytes segregate chromosomes in the absence of centrosomes. In this situation, the chromosomes direct spindle assembly. It is still unclear in this system which factors are required for homologous chromosome bi-orientation and spindle assembly. The Drosophila kinesin-6 protein Subito, although nonessential for mitotic spindle assembly, is required to organize a bipolar meiotic spindle and chromosome bi-orientation in oocytes. Along with the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), Subito is an important part of the metaphase I central spindle. In this study we have conducted genetic screens to identify genes that interact with subito or the CPC component Incenp. In addition, the meiotic mutant phenotype for some of the genes identified in these screens were characterized. We show, in part through the use of a heat-shock-inducible system, that the Centralspindlin component RacGAP50C and downstream regulators of cytokinesis Rho1, Sticky, and RhoGEF2 are required for homologous chromosome bi-orientation in metaphase I oocytes. This suggests a novel function for proteins normally involved in mitotic cell division in the regulation of microtubule-chromosome interactions. We also show that the kinetochore protein, Polo kinase, is required for maintaining chromosome alignment and spindle organization in metaphase I oocytes. In combination our results support a model where the meiotic central spindle and associated proteins are essential for acentrosomal chromosome segregation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.181081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4701103PMC
January 2016