Publications by authors named "Rabia Shahid"

10 Publications

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Impact of industrial agglomeration on environmental pollution from perspective of foreign direct investment-a panel threshold analysis for Chinese provinces.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Management, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, People's Republic of China.

In the course of China's rapid economic development, the coexistence of industrial development and dominant industrial agglomeration (AGG), along with growing environmental problems, has attracted widespread attention from scholars. Although the linear relationship between the two has been analyzed in depth in the research literature, a concomitant phenomenon, i.e., the gradual expansion in the scale of foreign direct investment (FDI), has been overlooked. By employing threshold panel regression model, this paper attempts to construct a theoretical model with embedded AGG and FDI, and incorporates other factors affecting environmental pollution (POL). For examining the mechanism of AGG on POL, we proposed a testable theoretical hypothesis, and conducted an empirical study by combining panel data of POL and AGG at the provincial level in China. The measurement index of a control variable was changed to check the robustness of our results, and the coefficient sign of each explanatory variable was not changed, confirming the robustness of main results. Overall, AGG improves regional POL, but the impact of FDI is stage-specific and roughly there are three stages. Specifically, the positive effect of AGG on POL is strong when FDI is at a low level. When the level of FDI crosses the first threshold and continues to rise, the positive effect of AGG on POL reaches its strongest; until the second threshold is crossed, the positive effect of AGG starts diminishing slowly. Concluding this, for promoting economic development and environmental protection in the region in parallel, government and enterprises should prioritize the increment in FDI, with an equalization of levels of AGG and FDI, in order to enhance the improvement effect of AGG on POL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14823-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Phytomelatonin: An overview of the importance and mediating functions of melatonin against environmental stresses.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 18;172(2):820-846. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Life Sciences, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Recently, melatonin has gained significant importance in plant research. The presence of melatonin in the plant kingdom has been known since 1995. It is a molecule that is conserved in a wide array of evolutionary distant organisms. Its functions and characteristics have been found to be similar in both plants and animals. The review focuses on the role of melatonin pertaining to physiological functions in higher plants. Melatonin regulates physiological functions regarding auxin activity, root, shoot, and explant growth, activates germination of seeds, promotes rhizogenesis (growth of adventitious and lateral roots), and holds up impelled leaf senescence. Melatonin is a natural bio-stimulant that creates resistance in field crops against various abiotic stress, including heat, chemical pollutants, cold, drought, salinity, and harmful ultra-violet radiation. The full potential of melatonin in regulating physiological functions in higher plants still needs to be explored by further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13262DOI Listing
June 2021

Extrapulmonary small cell cancer: a Canadian province's experience.

Cancer 2006 Nov;107(9):2262-9

Department of Medical Oncology, Saskatoon Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine variables that correlate with the survival of patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC).

Methods: Medical records of 101 eligible patients with EPSCC who were diagnosed in Saskatchewan from 1971 to 2002 were reviewed. Survival was calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. A logistic regression analysis with a backward elimination was carried out to determine prognostic variables that predicted mortality.

Results: The median patient age was 72 years (range, 24-100 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. The primary disease sites were as follows: breast, 9%; gastrointestinal, 20%; genitourinary, 18%; gynecologic, 11%; head and neck, 10%; thymus, 2%; and unknown primary site, 31%. Fifty-one patients had limited disease (LD), and 50 patients had extensive disease (ED). Patients with LD had a median overall survival of 34 months (range, 0.2-276 months) compared with 2 months (range, 0.1-108 months) in patients with ED (P < .0001). Among different primary sites, patients with gynecologic small cell cancer (SCC) had a median survival of 54.4 months, whereas patients with SCC of an unknown primary site had a survival of 2.5 months. Among various variables that were examined with respect to their prognostic importance, an abnormal white blood cell count (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.4-14.1), an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >2 (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.1-9.9), and ED (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.0) were found to be correlated significantly with mortality.

Conclusions: The gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts were the 2 major sites involved by EPSCC in the current series. Survival varied according to the primary sites, and patients with gynecologic tumors had the best prognosis. An abnormal white blood cell count, a poor performance status, and disease extent were important factors in predicting survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22235DOI Listing
November 2006

Orbital lymphomas: a clinicopathologic study of a rare disease.

Am J Med Sci 2006 Feb;331(2):79-83

Saskatoon Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of patients with orbital lymphomas.

Methods: Clinical and pathologic data of 35 patients with biopsy-proven orbital lymphoma diagnosed at a tertiary care hospital from 1992 to 2001 were reviewed. Lymphomas were divided into low-grade and high-grade lymphomas. Survival of patients was compared according to age, gender, disease site, extent of disease, tumor grade, and treatment modality by using log rank test.

Results: Median patient age was 75 years (23-94) and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2.9. Twenty-three patients (66%) were diagnosed with low-grade lymphoma, and 12 patients (34%) were found to have high-grade lymphoma. Among low-grade lymphomas, marginal zone lymphoma (n=6), follicle center cell lymphoma (n= 6), and small lymphocytic lymphoma (n=5) were common entities, whereas diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma (n=5) was the most common entity in patients with high-grade lymphoma. Disease was clinically localized in 74% of patients at the time of diagnosis. Radiation alone or with chemotherapy was the primary treatment modality in 83% of patients. All except one patient had an objective response to therapy. Over the median follow-up period of 47 months (range, 1.5-141 months), disease recurred in 37% patients who achieved a complete response. The estimated 5- and 10-year survival rates were 64% and 42%, respectively. Overall, 13 (37%) patients died, 6 with high-grade and 7 with low-grade lymphoma. No clinical variable was found to be prognostically significant with respect to survival.

Conclusions: Orbital lymphoma is a disease of the elderly with a female preponderance. It tends to be localized to the orbit at the time of diagnosis and responds well to local or systemic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000441-200602000-00013DOI Listing
February 2006

Malignant pleural effusions in lymphoproliferative disorders.

Leuk Lymphoma 2005 Jul;46(7):1039-44

Saskatoon Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

In order to determine variables that correlate with malignant pleural effusion and mortality in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and pleural effusion, a retrospective study was performed. Clinical data of hospitalized patients with a lymphoid malignancy and pleural effusion who underwent thoracentesis from January 1993 to December 2002 were collected. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine prognostic variables that predict malignant pleural effusion and hospital mortality. There were 86 patients who were admitted on 91 occasions. The median age was 70 years (range 4 - 92) and the male:female ratio was 44:42. Sixty-four patients (74%) had advanced disease, 43 (50%) had received prior chemotherapy and 9 (10%) were in remission. Of 91 cases of pleural effusions, 44 (48%) were bilateral, 80 (88%) were exudates and 48 (53%) were due to malignant involvement of pleura. In multivariate analysis, symptomatic pleural effusion (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 1.7 - 98.3), pleural fluid mesothelial cell count < 5% (odds ratio 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4 - 58.2), pleural fluid:serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > or =1 (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 - 45.6) and pleural fluid lymphocyte percentage > or =50 (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 - 50) were significantly correlated with malignant effusion. A secondary cancer (odds ratio 11.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3 - 88.8), pleural fluid:serum LDH > or =1 (odds ratio 10.9, 95% confidence interval 2.6 - 64.9), and pneumonia (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.7 - 28.6) were significantly correlated with hospital mortality. In conclusion, malignant pleural effusion is the common etiology of pleural effusion in patients with lymphoid malignancy. Many clinical and cytochemical markers have discriminatory values in identifying malignant effusion. A high pleural fluid to serum LDH level correlates with malignant pleural involvement and hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00268970500096616DOI Listing
July 2005

Unusual causes of abdominal pain: sickle cell anemia.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2005 Apr;19(2):297-310

Saskatoon Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, University of Saskatchewan Campus, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Sask., Canada S7N4H4.

Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive painful crises. The vascular occlusion in sickle cell disease is a complex process and accounts for the majority of the clinical manifestation of the disease. Abdominal pain is an important component of vaso-occlusive painful crises. It often represents a substantial diagnostic challenge in this population of patients. These episodes are often attributed to micro-vessel occlusion and infarcts of mesentery and abdominal viscera. Abdominal pain due to sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis is often indistinguishable from an acute intra-abdominal disease process such as acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, hepatic infarction, ischemic colitis and acute appendicitis. In the majority of cases, however, no specific cause is identified and spontaneous resolution occurs. This chapter will focus on etiologies, pathophysiology and management of abdominal pain in patients with sickle cell disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpg.2004.11.007DOI Listing
April 2005

Hemoglobin oxygen saturation discrepancy using various methods in patients with sickle cell vaso-occlusive painful crisis.

Eur J Haematol 2005 Apr;74(4):309-14

Saskatoon Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate agreement among various methods for measuring oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in adult hypoxic patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) during painful vaso-occlusive crisis and to compare those results with a control group.

Patients And Methods: The hemoglobin oxygen saturation was determined simultaneously by pulse oximetry (SpO2), co-oximetry [SO2 (functional oxyhemoglobin saturation) and FO2Hb (oxyhemoglobin fraction)] and by calculation (SaO2) using a normal O2Hb dissociation curve in 18 adult patients with SCD during vaso-occlusive crisis and 12 non-SCD patients with various cardiopulmonary diagnoses. The method proposed by Bland and Altman was used to evaluate agreement of various methods in each of the two groups.

Results: Mean differences between various methods in patients with SCD were significantly larger than the control group. Limits of agreement (LOA) were also wider in the SCD group than in the control group. Mean bias between SpO2 and SO2, and SpO2 and FO2Hb in patients with SCD were -3.1 +/- 4.4 (LOA: -11.9 to 5.7) and 2 +/- 4.1 (LOA: -6.2 to 10.2) respectively, compared with -1.4 +/- 1.4 (LOA: -4.2 to 1.4) and 1.2 +/- 1.5 (LOA: -1.9 to 4.3) in the control group. A mean bias of -4.5 +/- 4 (LOA: -12.5 to 3.5) between SpO2 and SaO2 was noted in patients with SCD compared with -0.1 +/- 2.1 (LOA: -4.3 to 4.1) in the control group. The width of LOA for various methods in patients with SCD ranged from 9.8 to 17.6 compared with 1.3 to 8.4 in the control group.

Conclusion: Patients with SCD during vaso-occlusive crisis have discrepancies in O2Hb saturation measurements by various methods. Abnormal pulse oximetry values in these patients should be interpreted cautiously and supplemented by arterial blood gas analysis and co-oximetry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2004.00396.xDOI Listing
April 2005

Prognostic variables in newly diagnosed childhood immune thrombocytopenia.

Am J Hematol 2004 Dec;77(4):358-62

Saskatoon Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has a favorable prognosis in children. Only a small number of children go on to develop chronic ITP. However, at the time of diagnosis, it is not possible to predict the course of the disease. In order to determine prognostic factors that could predict the disease course at diagnosis, we retrospectively evaluated various clinical variables in 103 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed ITP at our institution from 1995 to 2001. Sixty-eight (66%) patients had a mean platelet volume (MPV) of <8 fL on admission. Of 72 patients who had a follow-up period of at least 6 months, 54 (75%) achieved a durable remission within 6 months and 18 (25%) developed chronic ITP. In univariate analysis, a low admission MPV (<8), history of viral prodrome, and a low admission platelet count (<10 x 10(9)/L) predicted for a favorable outcome. Age and sex did not correlate with remission. In multivariate analysis, a low admission MPV and a history of a viral prodrome were the only independent factors correlated with a durable CR. The adjusted odds ratio for achieving a durable remission was 8.9 (95% CI: 1.54-51.8) for history of a viral prodrome and 14 (95% CI: 2.52-83.3) for low admission MPV value. In conclusion, our study showed that a majority of the children with newly diagnosed ITP presented with a low MPV value. A history of viral illness and a low admission MPV were found to be independent prognostic variables that predicted for the achievement of a durable CR in childhood ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.20205DOI Listing
December 2004

Echocardiographic abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

Am J Hematol 2004 Jul;76(3):195-8

Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) were determined, and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) was estimated. Clinical data and echocardiograms of 38 adult hospitalized patients with SCD at two tertiary care hospitals were reviewed. Fisher's exact test was performed to determine correlation between pulmonary hypertension and various clinical variables. Pulmonary hypertension was the most common abnormality identified in 22 (58%) patients. The estimated mean PASP was 37.5 +/- 10.9 mmHg. Older age and prior history of acute chest syndrome were significantly correlated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (P < 0.05). Patients with hemoglobin levels <8 g/dL had PASP 43.2 +/- 0.5 compared to a mean PASP of 33.3 +/- 6.0 in patients with hemoglobin > or =8 g/dL (P = 0.01). Eight (21%) patients had evidence of a hyperdynamic left ventricle. Left heart abnormalities included dilated atrium in 14 (37%), dilated ventricle in 5 (13%), ventricle hypertrophy in 5 (13%), and ventricle dysfunction in 3 (9%) patients. Right heart abnormalities included dilated atrium in 9 (24%), dilated ventricle in 6 (16%), and ventricle dysfunction in 3 (9%) patients. Despite an increased incidence of abnormal flow across the valves on Doppler analysis, no patient had structurally abnormal valves. A majority of patients with SCD had evidence of pulmonary hypertension, which correlated with older age and history of acute chest syndrome. Other structural and functional echocardiographic abnormalities were less common.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.20118DOI Listing
July 2004

Effect of low-dose warfarin on D-dimer levels during sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis: a brief report.

Eur J Haematol 2004 Mar;72(3):213-6

Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate the activation of clotting systems in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) by measuring the plasma D-dimer level and to determine the effect of low-dose warfarin on D-dimer level during vaso-occlusive crisis.

Methods: Plasma D-dimer level was measured in 65 blood samples of 37 adult patients with SCD who were hospitalized for vaso-occlusive painful crisis. D-dimer level of patients who were on low-dose warfarin was compared with those patients who were not on any anticoagulation treatment. Analysis of variance (anova) was carried out to determine factors significantly associated with low D-dimer level in patients with SCD. The following factors were included in the anova model; warfarin, homozygous hemoglobin S, history of blood transfusion in past 3 months, hydroxyurea, hemoglobin S%, hemoglobin F%, white blood cell counts, hemoglobin level, platelet count, and plasma fibrinogen level.

Results: Overall median D-dimer level in 65 samples was 2.7 microg fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU)/mL (0.34-4). Patients who were on low-dose warfarin had a median D-dimer level of 0.81 microg FEU/mL (0.34-1.8) compared with 3.1 microg FEU/mL (0.94-4) in those patients who were not on anticoagulation treatment. Using anova to model D-dimer levels, only warfarin was significantly correlated with low D-dimer levels after controlling for other variables.

Conclusions: Patients with SCD during vaso-occulsive painful crisis have an elevated D-dimer level. Low-dose anticoagulation treatment is associated with a significant reduction in the D-dimer levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0902-4441.2003.00209.xDOI Listing
March 2004