Publications by authors named "Rabab O Ali"

4 Publications

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HepQuant SHUNT Detects Portal Hypertension in Early Stages of Clinically Compensated Chronic Liver Disease.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Section of Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO; HepQuant LLC, Greenwood Village, CO, 80111. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.04.030DOI Listing
April 2021

APECED-Associated Hepatitis: Clinical, Biochemical, Histological and Treatment Data From a Large, Predominantly American Cohort.

Hepatology 2021 Mar;73(3):1088-1104

Translational, Hepatology Section, Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background And Aims: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), caused by autoimmune regulator (AIRE) mutations, manifests with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and multisystem autoimmunity, most often hypoparathyroidism (HP) and adrenal insufficiency (AI). European cohorts previously reported a ~10% prevalence of APECED-associated hepatitis (APAH) with presentations ranging from asymptomatic laboratory derangements to fatal fulminant hepatic failure. Herein, we characterized APAH in a large APECED cohort from the Americas.

Approach And Results: Forty-five consecutive patients with APECED were evaluated (2013-2015) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH; NCT01386437). Hepatology consultation assessed hepatic and autoimmune biomarkers and liver ultrasound in all patients. Liver biopsies evaluated autoimmune features and fibrosis. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing was performed in 35 patients' stools (12 with and 23 without APAH). Among 43 evaluable patients, 18 (42%) had APAH; in 33.3% of those with APAH, APAH occurred before developing classic APECED diagnostic criteria. At APAH diagnosis, the median age was 7.8 years, and patients manifested with aminotransferase elevation and/or hyperbilirubinemia. All patients with APAH were in clinical remission during their NIH evaluation while receiving immunomodulatory treatment. We found no difference in age, sex, or prevalence of CMC, AI, or HP between patients with or without APAH. Autoantibody positivity against aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 2, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold-containing B1, tryptophan hydroxlase, and 21-hydroxylase (21-OH), and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation were associated with APAH development. Classical serological biomarkers of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) were only sporadically positive. AIH-like lymphoplasmacytic inflammation with mild fibrosis was the predominant histological feature. Stool microbiome analysis found Slackia and Acidaminococcus in greater abundance in patients with APAH.

Conclusions: APAH is more common than previously described, may present early before classic APECED manifestations, and most often manifests with milder, treatment-responsive disease. Several APECED-associated autoantibodies, but not standard AIH-associated biomarkers, correlate with APAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31421DOI Listing
March 2021

Exploring the Link Between Platelet Numbers and Vascular Homeostasis Across Early and Late Stages of Fibrosis in Hepatitis C.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 02 12;65(2):524-533. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Translational Hepatology Section, Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 9B16, 10 Center Dr. MSC 1800, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1800, USA.

Background: Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of advanced liver disease. Platelets, growth factors (GFs), and vascular integrity are closely linked factors in disease pathogenesis, and their relationship, particularly in early disease stages, is not entirely understood. The aim was to compare circulating platelets, growth factors, and vascular injury markers (VIMs) in hepatitis C-infected (HCV) patients with early fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Methods: Retrospective evaluation of serum GFs and VIMs by ELISA were evaluated from twenty-six HCV patients. Analytes from an earlier time-point were correlated with MELD at a later time-point.

Results: Platelets and GFs decreased, and VIMs increased with fibrosis. Platelets correlated positively with PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, TGFB1, EGF, and P-selectin, and negatively with ICAM-3 and VCAM-1. P-selectin showed no correlations with VIMs but positively correlated with PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, TGFB1, and EGF. Soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-3 were linked to increasing fibrosis, liver enzymes, and synthetic dysfunction. Higher VCAM-1 and ICAM-3 and lower P-selectin at an earlier time-point were linked to higher MELD score at a later time-point.

Conclusion: In chronic HCV, progressive decline in platelets and growth factors with fibrosis and their associations suggest that platelets are an important source of circulating GFs and influence GF decline with fibrosis. Enhanced markers of vascular injury in patients with early fibrosis suggest an earlier onset of endothelial dysfunction preceding cirrhosis. Associations of VIMs with platelets suggest a critical link between platelets and vascular homeostasis. Circulating markers of vascular injury may not only have prognostic importance but emphasize the role of vascular dysfunction in liver disease pathogenesis (NCT00001971).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05760-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988415PMC
February 2020

Bacterial Translocation and Host Immune Activation in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Jul;6(7)

Translational Hepatology Section, Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 71 million individuals, and barriers to treatment remain. Bacterial translocation is a complication of chronic HCV infection, and this study evaluated circulating microbial components including lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, and β-D-glucan in addition to their pattern recognition receptors and degree of hepatic macrophage uptake. The findings suggest that regulation of serum peptidoglycan and β-D-glucan differs from that of lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, macrophage activation in the liver may be better reflected by the degree of macrophage uptake than by circulating levels of microbial markers. These findings allow for a greater understanding of bacterial translocation and host immune activation during HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667717PMC
July 2019