Publications by authors named "R V Zakharova"

23 Publications

Evidence for a sensitive period of plasticity in brown adipose tissue during early childhood among indigenous Siberians.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 08 28;175(4):834-846. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA.

Objectives: Evolutionary theorists have debated the adaptive significance of developmental plasticity in organisms with long lifespans such as humans. This debate in part stems from uncertainty regarding the timing of sensitive periods. Does sensitivity to environmental signals fluctuate across development or does it steadily decline? We investigated developmental plasticity in brown adipose tissue (BAT) among indigenous Siberians in order to explore the timing of phenotypic sensitivity to cold stress.

Methods: BAT thermogenesis was quantified using infrared thermal imaging in 78 adults (25 men; 33 women). Cold exposure during gestation, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence was quantified using: (1) the average ambient temperature across each period; (2) the number of times daily temperature dropped below -40°F during each period. We also assessed past cold exposure with a retrospective survey of participation in outdoor activities.

Results: Adult BAT thermogenesis was significantly associated with the average temperature (p = 0.021), the number of times it was below -40°F (p = 0.026), and participation in winter outdoor activities (p = 0.037) during early childhood.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that early childhood represents an important stage for developmental plasticity, and that culture may play a critical role in shaping the timing of environmental signals. The findings highlight a new pathway through which the local consequences of global climate change may influence human biology, and they suggest that ambient temperature may represent an understudied component of the developmental origins of health and disease.
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August 2021

Symposium report: emerging threats for human health - impact of socioeconomic and climate change on zooanthroponosis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2020 12;79(1):1715698

Yakut State Agricultural Academy, Yakutsk, Russian Federation.

Population growth, socio-cultural and economic changes as well as technological progress have an immediate impact on the environment and human health in particular. Our steadily rising needs of resources increase the pressure on the environment and narrow down untainted habitats for plants and wild animals. Balance and resilience of ecosystems are further threatened by climate change, as temperature and seasonal shifts increase the pressure for all species to find successful survival strategies. Arctic and subarctic regions are especially vulnerable to climate change, as thawing of permafrost significantly transforms soil structures, vegetation and habitats. With rising temperature, the risk of zoonotic diseases in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) has also increased. As vegetation periods prolong and habitats broaden, zoonotic pathogens and their vectors find more favourable living conditions. Moreover, permafrost degradation may expose historic burial grounds and allow for reviving the vectors of deadly infections from the past. To assess the current state of knowledge and emerging risks in the light of the "One Health" concept, a German-Russian Symposium took place on 13 August 2018 in Yakutsk, Russian Federation. This symposium report presents the main findings generated from presentations and discussions.
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December 2020

[Apathy in depression: a morphometric analysis].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019 ;119(5):141-147

Serbsky National Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia; Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry, Healthcare Department of Moscow, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: To study structural correlates of apathy in patients with late-life depression.

Material And Methods: Thirty-five patients (≥60 y.o.) with late-onset depression and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers underwent high resolution brain MRI-scanning, and a comprehensive neuropsychiatric examination including HAM-D and the Apathy Scale.

Results And Conclusion: A morphometric analysis showed that apathy was associated with atrophy of the lateral prefrontal cortex and reduced grey matter volume of the caudate nucleus on the right, and the nucleus accumbens on the left. Depression correlated with reduced thickness of the medial orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally, rostral anterior cingulate gyrus on the left, isthmus cingulate gyrus on the right, and larger surface area of the entorhinal cortex. Total grey matter volume, grey/white matter volumes of the cerebellum, and cortical thickness in temporal and occipital regions were negatively correlated with both apathy and depression severity. Thus, atrophy of basal ganglia and lateral prefrontal cortex, well known neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in different psychiatric and neurological conditions, characterized it in late-life depression too. This supports the idea of independent pathophysiology of apathetic syndrome.
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October 2019

Brown adipose tissue, energy expenditure, and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic health among the Yakut (Sakha) of northeastern Siberia.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 11 4;30(6):e23175. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Objectives: This study provides the first investigation of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity among an indigenous circumpolar population, the Yakut of northeastern Siberia. The study also examines the health significance of BAT activity in this population by testing the relationships between BAT thermogenesis and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease risk, such as percent body fat and blood glucose and cholesterol levels.

Methods: Data were collected in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) for 31 men and 43 women. Change in energy expenditure and BAT thermogenesis were quantified after a 30-minute mild cooling condition. Anthropometric dimensions, blood glucose, and lipid levels were also collected.

Results: On average, the skin temperature of the supraclavicular area was constant after cooling while the skin temperature of a point on the sternum dropped significantly (P < .001), thus suggesting the presence of active supraclavicular BAT among Yakut adults. Participants with evidence of greater BAT thermogenesis exhibited a larger percent change in energy expenditure (% ΔEE) and an increase in respiratory quotient (RQ) after cooling (P ≤ .05). While there was no relationship between BAT activity and blood lipid levels, BAT thermogenesis was positively associated with blood glucose levels (P < .01).

Conclusions: Yakut adults exhibit evidence of active BAT deposits. Given that there is a significant relationship between BAT activity and % ΔEE, it is possible that BAT plays a role in NST among Yakut adults. While the relationship between BAT and body composition is inconclusive, participants with greater BAT seemed to preferentially utilize glucose during cold stress exposure.
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November 2018

[The Attitude to One's Own Health Among Native Residents of Yakutia].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2017 Jul;25(4):199-202

The M.K. Ammosov Northern-East federal university, the research institute of health, Yakutsk, 677010, Russia.

The study was carried out concerning value reference points and attitudes of native population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) intended for health preservation. The analysis was applied to answers of 292 respondents residing in rural area of Yakutia. The analysis of answers of value motivation section demonstrated that for most respondents their health is a priority value of life. At that, most of respondents misunderstand and underestimate role of health in their life because they are unaware of health as an instrumental value. The health as an instrumental value gives its priority to persistence and diligence and hence ranks lower as compared with terminal value. The respondents assume that health mainly depends on diet, life-style, ecology. The results of analysis of answers to questions of "emotional" and "behavioral" sections testify in most of the respondents absence of comprehension about responsibility for one's own health, inadequate commitment to healthy life-style and passive attitude to health. The more active attitude to health is established in respondents of mature age that is rather related to deterioration of well-being feeling and presence of chronic diseases. In the younger age, most of respondents consider they are healthy and hence ignore prevention of diseases. Thereby, in spite of that health is mentioned by respondents as one of priority values most respondents are missing both attitudes to health preservation and clear-cut strategy of health-preserving behavior. In conditions of cardinal alteration of traditional way of life and life-style of native population of the North, behavioral habits of self-preserving behavior helping to survive in the severe climate conditions became inadequate. Nowadays, it is necessary to develop a new behavior strategy of health preservation.
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July 2017