Publications by authors named "R V Paul Chan"

3,021 Publications

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A Meta-analysis of Mental Time Travel in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with cognitive dysfunctions, including mental time travel (MTT). However, findings on diminished MTT ability may be confounded by a number of factors, including the individuals' language ability, factors related to the MTT task and the demographic factors of participants. The present study provided a meta-analysis of MTT ability in people with ASD. The results showed significant overall reductions in MTT ability in people with ASD. Moderator analyses revealed that the variables examined did not explain the reduction in MTT ability. These findings suggest that MTT ability is diminished in people with ASD and that the degree of this diminishment may not depend on the characteristics of measures or demographic variables of people with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05375-0DOI Listing
November 2021

Single-Examination Risk Prediction of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Pediatrics 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Departments of Ophthalmology.

Background And Objectives: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness. Screening and treatment reduces this risk, but requires multiple examinations of infants, most of whom will not develop severe disease. Previous work has suggested that artificial intelligence may be able to detect incident severe disease (treatment-requiring retinopathy of prematurity [TR-ROP]) before clinical diagnosis. We aimed to build a risk model that combined artificial intelligence with clinical demographics to reduce the number of examinations without missing cases of TR-ROP.

Methods: Infants undergoing routine ROP screening examinations (1579 total eyes, 190 with TR-ROP) were recruited from 8 North American study centers. A vascular severity score (VSS) was derived from retinal fundus images obtained at 32 to 33 weeks' postmenstrual age. Seven ElasticNet logistic regression models were trained on all combinations of birth weight, gestational age, and VSS. The area under the precision-recall curve was used to identify the highest-performing model.

Results: The gestational age + VSS model had the highest performance (mean ± SD area under the precision-recall curve: 0.35 ± 0.11). On 2 different test data sets (n = 444 and n = 132), sensitivity was 100% (positive predictive value: 28.1% and 22.6%) and specificity was 48.9% and 80.8% (negative predictive value: 100.0%).

Conclusions: Using a single examination, this model identified all infants who developed TR-ROP, on average, >1 month before diagnosis with moderate to high specificity. This approach could lead to earlier identification of incident severe ROP, reducing late diagnosis and treatment while simultaneously reducing the number of ROP examinations and unnecessary physiologic stress for low-risk infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-051772DOI Listing
November 2021

Choreoathetosis and deep vein thrombosis: an unusual presentation of proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis.

Intern Med J 2021 Nov;51(11):1973-1974

Department of Nephrology, Dunedin Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imj.15575DOI Listing
November 2021

Glutamate correlates negatively with cognitive theory of mind in schizotypy.

Psych J 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

This study showed a negative correlation between the glutamate level in the anterior cingulate cortex and cognitive theory of mind in individuals with high level of schizotypy but not in non-schizotypy individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pchj.503DOI Listing
November 2021

Dual methylation and hydroxymethylation study of alcohol use disorder.

Addict Biol 2021 Nov 17:e13114. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Center for Biomarker Research and Precision Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Using an integrative, multi-tissue design, we sought to characterize methylation and hydroxymethylation changes in blood and brain associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD). First, we used epigenomic deconvolution to perform cell-type-specific methylome-wide association studies within subpopulations of granulocytes/T-cells/B-cells/monocytes in 1132 blood samples. Blood findings were then examined for overlap with AUD-related associations with methylation and hydroxymethylation in 50 human post-mortem brain samples. Follow-up analyses investigated if overlapping findings mediated AUD-associated transcription changes in the same brain samples. Lastly, we replicated our blood findings in an independent sample of 412 individuals and aimed to replicate published alcohol methylation findings using our results. Cell-type-specific analyses in blood identified methylome-wide significant associations in monocytes and T-cells. The monocyte findings were significantly enriched for AUD-related methylation and hydroxymethylation in brain. Hydroxymethylation in specific sites mediated AUD-associated transcription in the same brain samples. As part of the most comprehensive methylation study of AUD to date, this work involved the first cell-type-specific methylation study of AUD conducted in blood, identifying and replicating a finding in DLGAP1 that may be a blood-based biomarker of AUD. In this first study to consider the role of hydroxymethylation in AUD, we found evidence for a novel mechanism for cognitive deficits associated with AUD. Our results suggest promising new avenues for AUD research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.13114DOI Listing
November 2021
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