Publications by authors named "R Silva"

7,460 Publications

Brazilian Survey on Preventive Actions for the Population With Access to Primary Healthcare: Inefficient Spending in a Country in Economic Crisis.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Medicine, Faculdade Israelita de Ciências da Saúde Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Cancer ranks second as a cause of death in Brazil. Although preventive practices are part of the daily routine of primary healthcare (PHC) teams, organized screening programs are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the adequacy of preventive interventions in the main cancer types, as defined by the Brazilian government.

Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a larger project conducted in 2016 with PHC service users and physicians from all over Brazil, interviewed by trained research staff. The sample was stratified by the number of PHC physicians per geographic region, who were eligible for inclusion if they had been working in the same PHC unit for at least one year. Twelve adult patients with at least two encounters were included per participating physician. Only the data from service users were analyzed in this study. We evaluated the questions about preventive practices and calculated the following indicators: coverage, focus, screening errors, and screening ratio. National guidelines and international evidence were used as a comparison parameter.

Results: The study population consisted of 6160 service users. The data indicate that the recommendations for cervical, breast, and prostate cancer screening and for treatment of tobacco dependence are not adequately followed. Coverage for breast and cervical cancer screening presented an overutilization bias, with rates 50% and 9% above the expected, respectively. The screening focus was also inadequate: 24%, 47%, and 54% of the screening tests for the three cancer types were performed in individuals outside the recommended age range. 31% of smokers were not approached for treatment.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that the Brazilian population has been subjected to inadequate and potentially iatrogenic interventions in PHC. New policies based on stricter criteria of adequacy and increased use of the concept of quaternary prevention may improve the effectiveness and equity of the health system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2021.94DOI Listing
August 2021

Virulence Genes Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Community-Acquired Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections in a Brazilian Hospital.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais, FHEMIG, Fazenda da Lagoa, Zona Rural, Bambuí, Minas Gerais, CEP 38900-000, Brazil.

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common diseases worldwide and Escherichia coli is the most common causative bacteria. Empirical treatment is challenging due to antimicrobial or multidrug-resistance. The aims of this study were to determine the uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, as well as to identify the phylogroups and virulence genes of E. coli strains, associated with community-acquired UTI in outpatients admitted at a Brazilian Hospital in southeast Brazil. In total, 47 bacterial strains were isolated from 47 patients, 44 women and 2 men (no gender record from one patient). The age of the patients whose urine culture were positive varied from 0 (less than one month) to 104 years. Most of the isolates were E. coli (41/47), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (2/47), Klebsiella variicola/Klebsiella aerogenes (1/47), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1/47), Proteus mirabilis (1/47), and Citrobacter koseri (1/47). Most E. coli strains were classified as phylogroup B2 (15/41 = 36.59%) and B1 (12/41 = 29.27%) and the most common virulence genes among E. coli strains were fimH (31/41 = 75.61%), iutA (21/41 = 51.22%), and tratT (16/41 = 39.02%). Among the E. coli strains, 59% were multidrug-resistance and strains that were ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, or tetracycline-resistant exhibited more chance to be multidrug-resistance, with an odds ratio of 100.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.44-1059.26], 22.50 (95% CI 3.95-128.30), and 12.83 (95% CI 2.68-61.45), respectively. Our results showed that E. coli was the main etiological agent identified and demonstrated high frequency of multidrug-resistance and virulence factors in bacterial strains isolated from UTIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-021-02650-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Dynamic capacity allocation in a radiology service considering different types of patients, individual no-show probabilities, and overbooking.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Sep 14;21(1):968. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Mathematics Department, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil.

Background: We propose a mathematical model formulated as a finite-horizon Markov Decision Process (MDP) to allocate capacity in a radiology department that serves different types of patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at considering radiology resources with different capacities and individual no-show probabilities of ambulatory patients in an MDP model. To mitigate the negative impacts of no-show, overbooking rules are also investigated.

Methods: The model's main objective is to identify an optimal policy for allocating the available capacity such that waiting, overtime, and penalty costs are minimized. Optimization is carried out using traditional dynamic programming (DP). The model was applied to real data from a radiology department of a large Brazilian public hospital. The optimal policy is compared with five alternative policies, one of which resembles the one currently used by the department. We identify among alternative policies the one that performs closest to the optimal.

Results: The optimal policy presented the best performance (smallest total daily cost) in the majority of analyzed scenarios (212 out of 216). Numerical analyses allowed us to recommend the use of the optimal policy for capacity allocation with a double overbooking rule and two resources available in overtime periods. An alternative policy in which outpatients are prioritized for service (rather than inpatients) displayed results closest to the optimal policy, being also recommended due to its easy implementation.

Conclusions: Based on such recommendation and observing the state of the system at any given period (representing the number of patients waiting for service), radiology department managers should be able to make a decision (i.e., define number and type of patients) that should be selected for service such that the system's cost is minimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06918-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Construction and validation of conceptual and operational definitions of the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis "Ineffective health self-management" in people living with HIV/AIDS.

Int J Nurs Knowl 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Nursing Department, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Purpose: Build and validate the content of conceptual and operational definitions of the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis of NANDA-I "Ineffective health self-management" in people living with HIV/AIDS.

Methods: Methodological study, with a quantitative approach. The validation was performed by 26 specialist nurses selected through the Lattes do Brazil platform. The process followed two steps: (a) proposal of new defining characteristics to the Nursing Diagnosis "Ineffective Health Self-Management" and elaboration of conceptual and operational definitions; (b) content validation of the new defining characteristics of the Nursing Diagnosis "Ineffective Health Self-Management" and the conceptual and operational definitions. Data were collected between October 2020 and May 2021.

Findings: The researchers included six defining characteristics as components of the diagnosis, adding to the 10 already existing in the NANDA-I version (2021-2023). Then, the experts judged these components and 13 defining characteristics were validated using the binominal test with adequacy ratio above 85% and p value <0.05. After this stage, the conceptual and operational definitions of these defining characteristics were constructed, validating them by the content validation index ≥0.80 by the expert nurses.

Conclusions: Three new defining characteristics for Ineffective health self-management were proposed and validated by specialists. Conceptual and operational definitions of the new and current defining characteristics were elaborated and validated for people living with HIV/AIDS.

Implications For Nursing Practice: The knowledge and study of the conceptual and operational definitions of nursing diagnoses can contribute to good nursing practices, assisting in the care and evaluation of nurses in the provision of care to people living with HIV/AIDS, and can avoid misunderstandings and inappropriate interpretations and can guarantee assertive clinical judgment.

Search Terms: Nursing diagnosis, validation studies, nursing processes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2047-3095.12345DOI Listing
September 2021
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