Publications by authors named "R P Moser"

826 Publications

Effects of a multi-strain -based direct-fed microbial on weanling pig growth performance and nutrient digestibility.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Jul 20;5(3):txab058. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a multi-strain -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility of nursery pigs. Eighty pigs, of equal number of barrows and gilts (initial body weight: 7.0 ± 0.60 kg), were weaned at 21 ± 1 d and randomly allotted to 1 of the 16 pens, with 5 pigs per pen. Two dietary treatments were implemented, a basal control (CON) and a control plus DFM (CDFM). Both diets were corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains based. Diets were fed for 42 d and growth performance measures were recorded weekly. On days 21 and 42 of the experiment, one pig per pen, with equal number of males and females, was randomly selected and euthanized. Digestibility of nitrogen (N), amino acids (AA), and energy were evaluated within the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ascending and distal colon. Relative to CON, CDFM tended to increase ADG during week 2 ( 0.08) and significantly increased ADFI during week 2 ( 0.04) and week 3 ( 0.02). In addition, CDFM decreased the gain to feed ratio (G:F) during week 6 relative to CON ( 0.04). Within the jejunum, pigs fed the DFM had greater digestibility of tryptophan ( 0.04) and cysteine ( 0.04) and tended to have greater digestibility of lysine ( 0.07), methionine ( 0.06), and threonine ( 0.08), relative to CON. The content pH in the ascending colon did not differ between CDFM and CON. Compared with CON, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy did not differ from CDFM, whereas ATTD of nitrogen of CDFM was lower ( 0.05). The addition of a multi-strain -based DFM appears to impact growth performance, AA, and N digestibility depending upon the location in the gastrointestinal tract, with primary AA differences occurring within the mid-jejunum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txab058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281103PMC
July 2021

Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control: Emerging Challenges and Opportunities.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Chief, Health Communication and Informatics Research Branch, National Cancer Institute.

It is estimated that behaviors such as poor diet, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, sedentary behavior, and excessive ultraviolet exposure account for nearly half of all cancer morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the behavioral, social, and communication sciences have been important contributors to cancer prevention and control research, with methodological advances and implementation science helping to produce optimally effective interventions. To sustain these contributions, it is vital to adapt to the contemporary context. Efforts must consider ancillary effects of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic, profound changes in the information environment and public understanding of and trust in science, renewed attention to structural racism and social determinants of health, and the rapidly increasing population of cancer survivors. Within this context, it is essential to accelerate reductions in tobacco use across all population subgroups; consider new models of energy balance (diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior); increase awareness of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer, and identify better communication practices in the context of cancer-related decisions such as screening and genetic testing. Successful integration of behavioral research and cancer prevention depends on working globally and seamlessly across disciplines, taking a multilevel approach where possible. Methodological and analytic approaches should be emphasized in research training programs and should employ new and underutilized data sources and technologies. As the leadership core of the National Cancer Institute's Behavioral Research Program, we reflect on these challenges and opportunities and consider implications for the next phase of behavioral research in cancer prevention and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab139DOI Listing
July 2021

Promiscuous phospholipid biosynthesis enzymes in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jul 22;1866(7):158926. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Microbial Biology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Bacterial membranes are primarily composed of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL). In the canonical PE biosynthesis pathway, phosphatidylserine (PS) is decarboxylated by the Psd enzyme. CL formation typically depends on CL synthases (Cls) using two PG molecules as substrates. Only few bacteria produce phosphatidylcholine (PC), the hallmark of eukaryotic membranes. Most of these bacteria use phospholipid N-methyltransferases to successively methylate PE to PC and/or a PC synthase (Pcs) to catalyze the condensation of choline and CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) to PC. In this study, we show that membranes of Pseudomonas species able to interact with eukaryotes contain PE, PG, CL and PC. More specifically, we report on PC formation and a poorly characterized CL biosynthetic pathway in the plant pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato. It encodes a Pcs enzyme responsible for choline-dependent PC biosynthesis. CL formation is catalyzed by a promiscuous phospholipase D (PLD)-type enzyme (PSPTO_0095) that we characterized in vivo and in vitro. Like typical bacterial CL biosynthesis enzymes, it uses PE and PG for CL production. This enzyme is also able to convert PE and glycerol to PG, which is then combined with another PE molecule to synthesize CL. In addition, the enzyme is capable of converting ethanolamine or methylated derivatives into the corresponding phospholipids such as PE both in P. syringae and in E. coli. It can also hydrolyze CDP-DAG to yield phosphatidic acid (PA). Our study adds an example of a promiscuous Cls enzyme able to synthesize a suite of products according to the available substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2021.158926DOI Listing
July 2021

Dominance Hierarchies in Marine Invertebrates.

Biol Bull 2021 02 3;240(1):2-15. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

AbstractDominance hierarchies have been well studied in myriad terrestrial animals, but surprisingly little is known about hierarchies in marine invertebrates; examples are limited to a few species of decapod crustaceans and cephalopods. Is the marine environment less conducive to the establishment of dominance hierarchy structures, or does this just underline the lack of detailed behavioral information about most marine invertebrates? In this review, we highlight the published information about marine invertebrate dominance hierarchies, which involve ranks established through fights or displays. We focus on the method of hierarchy formation, examine the ecological implications of this population structure, and compare the habitat and behavioral characteristics of species that exhibit this behavior. Because dominance hierarchies can influence habitat use, population distributions, energetics, mating, resource exploitation, and population genetic structure, it is crucial to understand how this trait evolves and which species are likely to exhibit it. A better understanding of marine invertebrate hierarchies could change the way we think about population dynamics of some species and could have important implications for fisheries, conservation, or even modeling of social and economic inequality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/712973DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictors of Patient-Centered Communication among U.S. Adults: Analysis of the 2017-2018 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

J Health Commun 2021 Jan 1;26(1):57-64. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Behavioral Research Program, Health Communication and Informatics Research Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD USA.

An essential component of patient-centered care is the communication between patients and their providers, which can affect patients' health outcomes A cancer care model, developed by Epstein and Street, includes a multi-dimensional patient-centered communication (PCC) framework with six functions: foster healing relationships, exchange information, respond to emotions, manage uncertainty, make decisions, and enable patient self-management. Seven domains that describe the functions were included on the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to assess PCC. We examined the association between sociodemographic and health-related factors and PCC as well as how U.S. adults, by different age groups, ranked different domains of PCC.Nationally representative data (n = 5,738) from 2017 to 2018 HINTS were merged to examine predictors of PCC among U.S. adults. Weighted statistics describe the study sample and prevalence for ratings of PCC domains. A multivariate linear regression model was computed to assess associations among predictors and PCC.Participants rated their communication with doctors in the last year with an overall mean of 80 out of 100. Older age, those reporting excellent health, and those with higher confidence in taking care of one's health predicted better PCC. Individuals who reported being non-Hispanic Asian and having lower household income were associated with poorer communication. Participants' lowest rating of PCC concentrated on providers dealing with their emotional needs.Findings suggest that many patients do not feel that their providers adequately manage, communicate, nor respond to their emotional needs. Future efforts should enhance interpersonal exchanges among sub-populations who report poorer communication with providers during clinical visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2021.1878400DOI Listing
January 2021
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