Publications by authors named "R Manaquin"

10 Publications

High prevalence of syphilis in women, minors and precarious patients: a cross-sectional study in a Reunion Island sexually transmitted infection clinic, 2017-2020.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Service des Maladies Infectieuses - Dermatologie, CHU Réunion, Saint Pierre, France.

Background: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) with a global prevalence estimated at 0.5% in 2012. Syphilis has been on the rise among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries and remains at endemic levels in low- and middle-income countries. This trend, however, has not been observed in Reunion Island.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of syphilis in at-risk patients visiting the South Reunion STI clinic in Reunion Island.

Methods: This monocentric cross-sectional study included all patients who visited our STI clinic between 2017 and 2020. Syphilis serology was performed on all included patients, and data were collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire.

Results: Over the 3-year study period, 2593 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of syphilis was 7.52% (n = 195, 95% CI, 6.50-8.65%) in the overall study population, 11.76% (n = 18, 95% CI, 6.97-18.59%) in minors (aged under 18 years) and 36.36% (n = 16, 95% CI, 21-59%) in pregnant women. The risk factors identified in multivariate analysis were being female [adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) 1.85, 95% CI, 1.10-3.11], being MSM (aPR 2.87, 95% CI, 1.71-4.80), being aged under 18 years (aPR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.90-6.57), living in precarious conditions [aPR 3.12, 95% CI, 2.11-4.62] and being born in Reunion Island (aPR 2.43, 95% CI, 1.42-4.13). The clinical presentation was heterogeneous (plaques and papules, chancre, atypical ulcerations, multiple ulcerations, condyloma lata, etc.).

Conclusions: These findings suggest a high prevalence of syphilis in at-risk patients visiting our STI clinic. Unlike the situation in other high-income countries, the people most at risk of syphilis in Reunion Island are local-born residents, minors, women and precarious patients. This is a source of concern, especially given the risk of resurgence of congenital syphilis on the island.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.17572DOI Listing
July 2021

Distinguishing non severe cases of dengue from COVID-19 in the context of co-epidemics: A cohort study in a SARS-CoV-2 testing center on Reunion island.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 04 26;15(4):e0008879. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

COVID-19 testing center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Réunion, Saint Pierre, Reunion, France.

Background: As coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally, several countries are handling dengue epidemics. As both infections are deemed to share similarities at presentation, it would be useful to distinguish COVID-19 from dengue in the context of co-epidemics. Hence, we performed a retrospective cohort study to identify predictors of both infections.

Methodology/principal Findings: All the subjects suspected of COVID-19 between March 23 and May 10, 2020, were screened for COVID-19 within the testing center of the University hospital of Saint-Pierre, Reunion island. The screening consisted in a questionnaire surveyed in face-to-face, a nasopharyngeal swab specimen for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and a rapid diagnostic orientation test for dengue. Factors independently associated with COVID-19 or with dengue were sought using multinomial logistic regression models, taking other febrile illnesses (OFIs) as controls. Adjusted Odds ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI) were assessed. Over a two-month study period, we diagnosed 80 COVID-19, 61 non-severe dengue and 872 OFIs cases eligible to multivariate analysis. Among these, we identified delayed presentation (>3 days) since symptom onset (Odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.39), contact with a COVID-19 positive case (OR 3.81, 95%CI 2.21-6.55) and anosmia (OR 7.80, 95%CI 4.20-14.49) as independent predictors of COVID-19, body ache (OR 6.17, 95%CI 2.69-14.14), headache (OR 5.03, 95%CI 1.88-13.44) and retro-orbital pain (OR 5.55, 95%CI 2.51-12.28) as independent predictors of dengue, while smoking was less likely observed with COVID-19 (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.79) and upper respiratory tract infection symptoms were associated with OFIs.

Conclusions/significance: Although prone to potential biases, these data suggest that non-severe dengue may be more symptomatic than COVID-19 in a co-epidemic setting with higher dengue attack rates. At clinical presentation, nine basic clinical and epidemiological indicators may help to distinguish COVID-19 or dengue from each other and other febrile illnesses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102001PMC
April 2021

Increase in early syphilis diagnoses in the young heterosexual population of Reunion Island: surveillance data, 2010-2018.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Sep 8;35(9):e573-e575. Epub 2021 May 8.

CHU Réunion, Service des Maladies Infectieuses - Dermatologie - Médecine interne, Saint Pierre, La Réunion, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.17294DOI Listing
September 2021

Azithromycin resistance in Treponema pallidum in Reunion Island: A cross-sectional study.

Ann Dermatol Venereol 2021 Sep 16;148(3):165-167. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Service des maladies infectieuses-dermatologie, CHU de la Réunion, Saint Pierre, 97, avenue du Président-Mitterrand, La Réunion, France; Inserm CIC1410, CHU de Réunion, Saint-Pierre, 97, avenue du Président-Mitterrand, La Réunion, France. Electronic address:

Objective: Since the beginning of the 21st century, Reunion Island has experienced a syphilis epidemic. Infected patients are mostly heterosexual, with a high proportion of women, suggesting that congenital syphilis is present on the island. To determine whether azithromycin can be used for mass treatment of syphilis on Reunion Island, we assessed the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum (TP).

Methods: This monocentric cross-sectional study was conducted at the Reunion Island University Hospital. Samples were collected from lesions suggestive of primary or secondary syphilis. Samples positive for TP by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were sent to the French National Reference Centre (NRC) for further analysis. Nested PCR-tpp47 was performed on these samples for detection of TP-DNA; 23s rRNA was amplified by PCR in confirmed positive samples. The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique was performed on samples with amplified 23s rRNA for detection of the A2058G mutation.

Results: A total of 129 samples were collected from 119 patients. Of these, 18 tested positive for TP using multiplex PCR and were sent to the NRC. Fifteen (83.3%) of the 18 samples were confirmed positive by nested PCR-tpp47, and 23s rRNA was amplified in only 7 (38.9%) samples. Azithromycin resistance was detected in all TP strains with amplified 23s rRNA.

Conclusion: Amplification of 23s rRNA was successful in only 7 TP strains, all of which displayed resistance to macrolides. Keeping in mind the small sample size of our study, this suggests that azithromycin should not be used for mass treatment of syphilis in Reunion Island.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annder.2020.12.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence of urogenital, anal, and pharyngeal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium: a cross-sectional study in Reunion island.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jan 21;21(1):95. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

CHU Réunion, Service des Maladies Infectieuses - Dermatologie, Saint Pierre, La Réunion, France.

Background: Recommendations for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening vary significantly across countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of urogenital and extragenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in patients visiting a French STI clinic in the Indian Ocean region to determine whether current STI screening practices should be updated.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined all patients who visited the STI clinic between 2014 and 2015. Triplex polymerase chain reaction screening for CT, NG, and MG was performed on urine, vaginal, pharyngeal, and anal specimens (FTD Urethritis Basic Kit, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxembourg).

Results: Of the 851 patients enrolled in the study, 367 were women (367/851, 43.2%) and 484 were men (484/851, 56.0%). Overall, 826 urogenital specimens (826/851, 97.1%), 606 pharyngeal specimens (606/851, 71.2%), and 127 anal specimens (127/851, 14.9%) were taken from enrolled patients. The prevalence of urogenital CT and MG was high in women ≤25 years (19/186, 10.21%; 5/186, 2.69%) and in men who have sex with women ≤30 years (16/212, 7.54%; 5/212, 2.36%). Among patients with urogenital CT infection, 13.7% (7/51) had urethritis. All patients with urogenital MG infection were asymptomatic. Men who have sex with men had a high prevalence of pharyngeal CT (2/45, 4.44%) and NG (3/44, 6.81%) and a high prevalence of anal CT (2/27, 7.41%), NG (2/27, 7.40%), and MG (1/27, 3.70%). After excluding patients with concomitant urogenital infection, extragenital infections with at least 1 of the 3 pathogens were found in 20 swabs (20/91, 21.9%) taken from 16 patients (16/81, 19.7%), all of them asymptomatic.

Conclusions: Routine multisite screening for CT, NG, and MG should be performed to mitigate the transmission of STIs in high-risk sexually active populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-05801-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818901PMC
January 2021
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