Publications by authors named "R L Sutherland"

1,346 Publications

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High-fidelity laser-free universal control of trapped ion qubits.

Nature 2021 09 8;597(7875):209-213. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA.

Universal control of multiple qubits-the ability to entangle qubits and to perform arbitrary individual qubit operations-is a fundamental resource for quantum computing, simulation and networking. Qubits realized in trapped atomic ions have shown the highest-fidelity two-qubit entangling operations and single-qubit rotations so far. Universal control of trapped ion qubits has been separately demonstrated using tightly focused laser beams or by moving ions with respect to laser beams, but at lower fidelities. Laser-free entangling methods may offer improved scalability by harnessing microwave technology developed for wireless communications, but so far their performance has lagged the best reported laser-based approaches. Here we demonstrate high-fidelity laser-free universal control of two trapped-ion qubits by creating both symmetric and antisymmetric maximally entangled states with fidelities of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively (68 per cent confidence level), corrected for initialization error. We use a scheme based on radiofrequency magnetic field gradients combined with microwave magnetic fields that is robust against multiple sources of decoherence and usable with essentially any trapped ion species. The scheme has the potential to perform simultaneous entangling operations on multiple pairs of ions in a large-scale trapped-ion quantum processor without increasing control signal power or complexity. Combining this technology with low-power laser light delivered via trap-integrated photonics and trap-integrated photon detectors for qubit readout provides an opportunity for scalable, high-fidelity, fully chip-integrated trapped-ion quantum computing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03809-4DOI Listing
September 2021

The food and nutrient intake of 5 to 12 year old Australian children during school hours: A secondary analysis of the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Sep 8:1-24. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Caring Futures Institute, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia.

Objective: School food intake of Australian children is not comprehensively described in literature, with limited temporal, nationally representative data. Greater understanding of intake at school can inform school-based nutrition promotion. This study aimed to describe the dietary intake of primary-aged children during school hours and its contribution to daily intake.

Design: This secondary analysis used nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Dietary intake was assessed using validated 24-hour dietary recalls on school days. Descriptive statistics were undertaken to determine energy, nutrients, food groups, and food products consumed during school hours, as well as their contributions to total daily intake. Associations between school food intake and socio-demographic characteristics were explored.

Setting: Australia.

Participants: Seven hundred and ninety-five children aged 5-12 years.

Results: Children consumed 37% of their daily energy and 31-43% of select nutrient intake during school hours, with discretionary choices contributing 44% of school energy intake. Most children consumed less than one serve of vegetables, meat and alternatives or milk and alternatives during school hours. Commonly consumed products were discretionary choices (34%, including biscuits, processed meat), bread (17%) and fruit (12%). There were limited associations with SES variables, apart from child age.

Conclusions: Children's diets were not aligned with national recommendations, with school food characterised by high intake of discretionary choices. These findings are consistent with previous Australian evidence and support transformation of the Australian school food system to better align school food consumption with recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021003888DOI Listing
September 2021

Effectiveness of a Multistrategy Behavioral Intervention to Increase the Nutritional Quality of Primary School Students' Web-Based Canteen Lunch Orders (Click & Crunch): Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 7;23(9):e26054. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Hunter New England Population Health, Wallsend, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: School food outlets represent a key setting for public health nutrition intervention. The recent proliferation of web-based food ordering systems provides a unique opportunity to support healthy purchasing from schools. Embedding evidence-based choice architecture strategies within these routinely used systems provides the opportunity to impact the purchasing decisions of many users simultaneously and warrants investigation.

Objective: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multistrategy behavioral intervention implemented via a web-based school canteen lunch ordering system in reducing the energy, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content of primary students' web-based lunch orders.

Methods: The study used a parallel-group, cohort, cluster randomized controlled trial design with 2207 students from 17 Australian primary schools. Schools with a web-based canteen lunch ordering system were randomly assigned to receive either a multistrategy behavioral intervention that included choice architecture strategies embedded in the web-based system (n=9 schools) or the standard web-based ordering system only (n=8 control schools). Automatically collected student purchasing data at baseline (term 2, 2018) and 12 months later (term 2, 2019) were used to assess trial outcomes. Primary trial outcomes included the mean energy (kJ), saturated fat (g), sugar (g), and sodium (mg) content of student lunch orders. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of all web-based lunch order items classified as everyday, occasional, and caution (based on the New South Wales Healthy School Canteen Strategy) and canteen revenue.

Results: From baseline to follow-up, the intervention lunch orders had significantly lower energy content (-69.4 kJ, 95% CI -119.6 to -19.1; P=.01) and saturated fat content (-0.6 g, 95% CI -0.9 to -0.4; P<.001) than the control lunch orders, but they did not have significantly lower sugar or sodium content. There was also a small significant between-group difference in the percentage of energy from saturated fat (-0.9%, 95% CI -1.4% to -0.5%; P<.001) but not in the percentage of energy from sugar (+1.1%, 95% CI 0.2% to 1.9%; P=.02). Relative to control schools, intervention schools had significantly greater odds of having everyday items purchased (odds ratio [OR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-2.0; P<.001), corresponding to a 9.8% increase in everyday items, and lower odds of having occasional items purchased (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8; P<.001), corresponding to a 7.7% decrease in occasional items); however, there was no change in the odds of having caution (least healthy) items purchased (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-1.0; P=.05). Furthermore, there was no change in schools' revenue between groups.

Conclusions: Given the evidence of small statistically significant improvements in the energy and saturated fat content, acceptability, and wide reach, this intervention has the potential to influence dietary choices at a population level, and further research is warranted to determine its impact when implemented at scale.

Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12618000855224; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=375075.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030538.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/26054DOI Listing
September 2021

Motional Squeezing for Trapped Ion Transport and Separation.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Aug;127(8):083201

Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA.

Transport, separation, and merging of trapped ion crystals are essential operations for most large-scale quantum computing architectures. In this Letter, we develop a theoretical framework that describes the dynamics of ions in time-varying potentials with a motional squeeze operator, followed by a motional displacement operator. Using this framework, we develop a new, general protocol for trapped ion transport, separation, and merging. We show that motional squeezing can prepare an ion wave packet to enable transfer from the ground state of one trapping potential to another. The framework and protocol are applicable if the potential is harmonic over the extent of the ion wave packets at all times. As illustrations, we discuss two specific operations: changing the strength of the confining potential for a single ion and separating same-species ions with their mutual Coulomb force. Both of these operations are, ideally, free of residual motional excitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.083201DOI Listing
August 2021

Barriers and facilitators: Clinicians' opinions and experiences of telehealth before and after their use of a telehealth platform for child language assessment.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Aug 29. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Child Development Unit, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Background: Despite emerging evidence of validity and reliability, speech and language therapists' (SLT) uptake of telehealth has been limited and barriers remain to the effective and confident use of this service model. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption to essential health services, including speech and language therapy assessment and intervention, meaning that telehealth must now be considered as part of the suite of service delivery options for all clinicians.

Aims: To explore the perceived barriers and facilitators of telehealth among community paediatric SLTs before and after their use of a telehealth platform with an embedded standardised assessment tool.

Methods & Procedures: Mixed-methods questionnaires were developed for this study and completed by SLTs before and after the 3-month trial of the telehealth platform. A total of 38 SLTs completed the pre-trial questionnaire and training in the use of telehealth platform (Coviu), including instruction in using a standardised, norm referenced language test as an integrated tool within the Coviu platform. A total of 27 SLTs went on to use the telehealth platform, and 25 of these completed the post-trial questionnaire on which subsequent qualitative and quantitative analysis was completed.

Outcomes & Results: Prior to using the platform, perceived barriers included technology issues, limited clinician experience and concerns around parent acceptance of the service. Potential facilitators included access to appropriate platforms, tools and resources as well as increased clinician confidence with telehealth. Following the trial, barriers to telehealth use continued to include technology barriers, particularly internet stability, and client issues, including suitability for telehealth services. Facilitators for future telehealth use included access to appropriate platforms for telehealth, stable and appropriate internet connectivity, and more extensive telehealth resources for both assessment and intervention for this mode of service delivery.

Conclusions & Implications: This study provides insights into the perceptions of the barriers and facilitating factors for telehealth use among community-based SLTs. This information will be useful in developing strategies to promote uptake and effective and confident use of telehealth as a mode of service delivery beyond the pandemic.

What This Paper Adds: What is already known on the subject Research about telehealth has shown that it is a reliable and valid way of delivering speech pathology services, yet many clinicians have been wary of its use and uptake of telehealth prior to COVID-19 had been limited. We wanted to know what SLTs thought about using telehealth before and after participating in a 3-month trial of a telehealth platform with an embedded formal language assessment. What this study adds to existing knowledge This study indicates that technology issues including internet stability are a barrier to effective telehealth services, but that appropriate telehealth platforms, resources and experience are facilitators of uptake and successful use of telehealth. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? This information will be useful in developing strategies to promote uptake and effective and confident use of telehealth as a mode of service delivery for children during and beyond the pandemic, including those isolated by geographical or transport barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12666DOI Listing
August 2021
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