Publications by authors named "R L P Santos-Cortez"

63 Publications

The role of CDHR3 in susceptibility to otitis media.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus (CU-AMC), 12700 E. 19th Ave, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Otitis media (OM) is common in young children and can cause hearing loss and speech, language, and developmental delays. OM has high heritability; however, little is known about OM-related molecular and genetic processes. CDHR3 was previously identified as a locus for OM susceptibility, but to date, studies have focused on how the CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr variant increases epithelial binding of rhinovirus-C and risk for lung or sinus pathology. In order to further delineate a role for CDHR3 in OM, we performed the following: exome sequencing using DNA samples from OM-affected individuals from 257 multi-ethnic families; Sanger sequencing, logistic regression and transmission disequilibrium tests for 407 US trios or probands with OM; 16S rRNA sequencing and analysis for middle ear and nasopharyngeal samples; and single-cell RNA sequencing and differential expression analyses for mouse middle ear. From exome sequence data, we identified a novel pathogenic CDHR3 splice variant that co-segregates with OM in US and Finnish families. Additionally, a frameshift and six missense rare or low-frequency variants were identified in Finnish probands. In US probands, the CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr variant was associated with the absence of middle ear fluid at surgery and also with increased relative abundance of Lysobacter in the nasopharynx and Streptomyces in the middle ear. Consistent with published data on airway epithelial cells and our RNA-sequence data from human middle ear tissues, Cdhr3 expression is restricted to ciliated epithelial cells of the middle ear and is downregulated after acute OM. Overall, these findings suggest a critical role for CDHR3 in OM susceptibility. KEY MESSAGES: • Novel rare or low-frequency CDHR3 variants putatively confer risk for otitis media. • Pathogenic variant CDHR3 c.1653 + 3G > A was found in nine families with otitis media. • CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr was associated with lack of effusion and bacterial otopathogens. • Cdhr3 expression was limited to ciliated epithelial cells in mouse middle ear. • Cdhr3 was downregulated 3 h after infection of mouse middle ear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-021-02118-7DOI Listing
July 2021

ADAMTS1, MPDZ, MVD, and SEZ6: candidate genes for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Center for Statistical Genetics, Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, and the Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Hearing impairment (HI) is a common disorder of sensorineural function with a highly heterogeneous genetic background. Although substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the genetic etiology of hereditary HI, many genes implicated in HI remain undiscovered. Via exome and Sanger sequencing of DNA samples obtained from consanguineous Pakistani families that segregate profound prelingual sensorineural HI, we identified rare homozygous missense variants in four genes (ADAMTS1, MPDZ, MVD, and SEZ6) that are likely the underlying cause of HI. Linkage analysis provided statistical evidence that these variants are associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic HI. In silico analysis of the mutant proteins encoded by these genes predicted structural, conformational or interaction changes. RNAseq data analysis revealed expression of these genes in the sensory epithelium of the mouse inner ear during embryonic, postnatal, and adult stages. Immunohistochemistry of the mouse cochlear tissue, further confirmed the expression of ADAMTS1, SEZ6, and MPDZ in the neurosensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, while MVD expression was more prominent in the spiral ganglion cells. Overall, supported by in silico mutant protein analysis, animal models, linkage analysis, and spatiotemporal expression profiling in the mouse inner ear, we propose four new candidate genes for HI and expand our understanding of the etiology of HI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00913-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of Novel Candidate Genes and Variants for Hearing Loss and Temporal Bone Anomalies.

Genes (Basel) 2021 04 13;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Philippine National Ear Institute, University of the Philippines (UP) Manila-National Institutes of Health (NIH), Manila 1000, Philippines.

Hearing loss remains an important global health problem that is potentially addressed through early identification of a genetic etiology, which helps to predict outcomes of hearing rehabilitation such as cochlear implantation and also to mitigate the long-term effects of comorbidities. The identification of variants for hearing loss and detailed descriptions of clinical phenotypes in patients from various populations are needed to improve the utility of clinical genetic screening for hearing loss. Clinical and exome data from 15 children with hearing loss were reviewed. Standard tools for annotating variants were used and rare, putatively deleterious variants were selected from the exome data. In 15 children, 21 rare damaging variants in 17 genes were identified, including: 14 known hearing loss or neurodevelopmental genes, 11 of which had novel variants; and three candidate genes , and , two of which were identified in children with both hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueducts. Patients with variants within and had poorer outcomes after cochlear implantation. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying novel variants and genes in ethnic groups that are understudied for hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12040566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069784PMC
April 2021

Multi-omic studies on missense PLG variants in families with otitis media.

Sci Rep 2020 09 14;10(1):15035. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Neurology, Center for Statistical Genetics, Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Taub Institute for Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Otitis media (OM), a very common disease in young children, can result in hearing loss. In order to potentially replicate previously reported associations between OM and PLG, exome and Sanger sequencing, RNA-sequencing of saliva and middle ear samples, 16S rRNA sequencing, molecular modeling, and statistical analyses including transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT) were performed in a multi-ethnic cohort of 718 families and simplex cases with OM. We identified four rare PLG variants c.112A > G (p.Lys38Glu), c.782G > A (p.Arg261His), c.1481C > T (p.Ala494Val) and c.2045 T > A (p.Ile682Asn), and one common variant c.1414G > A (p.Asp472Asn). However TDT analyses for these PLG variants did not demonstrate association with OM in 314 families. Additionally PLG expression is very low or absent in normal or diseased middle ear in mouse and human, and salivary expression and microbial α-diversity were non-significant in c.1414G > A (p.Asp472Asn) carriers. Based on molecular modeling, the novel rare variants particularly c.782G > A (p.Arg261His) and c.2045 T > A (p.Ile682Asn) were predicted to affect protein structure. Exploration of other potential disease mechanisms will help elucidate how PLG contributes to OM susceptibility in humans. Our results underline the importance of following up findings from genome-wide association through replication studies, preferably using multi-omic datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70498-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490366PMC
September 2020

Otitis media susceptibility and shifts in the head and neck microbiome due to variants.

J Med Genet 2021 Jul 24;58(7):442-452. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Otitis media (OM) susceptibility has significant heritability; however, the role of rare variants in OM is mostly unknown. Our goal is to identify novel rare variants that confer OM susceptibility.

Methods: We performed exome and Sanger sequencing of >1000 DNA samples from 551 multiethnic families with OM and unrelated individuals, RNA-sequencing and microbiome sequencing and analyses of swabs from the outer ear, middle ear, nasopharynx and oral cavity. We also examined protein localisation and gene expression in infected and healthy middle ear tissues.

Results: A large, intermarried pedigree that includes 81 OM-affected and 53 unaffected individuals cosegregates two known rare variants, a common variant and a rare, novel pathogenic variant c.1682A>G (p.Glu561Gly) within (LOD=4.09). Carriage of the missense variant resulted in increased relative abundance of Microbacteriaceae in the middle ear, along with occurrence of Microbacteriaceae in the outer ear and oral cavity but not the nasopharynx. Eight additional novel variants were identified in 12 families and individuals with OM. A role for in OM susceptibility is further supported by lower RNA counts in variant carriers, strong SPINK5 localisation in outer ear skin, faint localisation to middle ear mucosa and eardrum and increased expression in human cholesteatoma.

Conclusion: variants confer susceptibility to non-syndromic OM. These variants potentially contribute to middle ear pathology through breakdown of mucosal and epithelial barriers, immunodeficiency such as poor vaccination response, alteration of head and neck microbiota and facilitation of entry of opportunistic pathogens into the middle ear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218788PMC
July 2021
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