Publications by authors named "R Hill"

4,883 Publications

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A complete proteomic profile of human and bovine milk exosomes by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Centre for Children's Health Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia.

Background: The current study investigates the proteomic content of milk-derived exosomes. A detailed description of the content of milk exosomes is essential to improve our understanding of the various components of milk and their role in nutrition.

Methods: The exosomes used in this study were isolated as previously described and characterized by their morphology, particle concentration, and the presence of exosomal markers. Human and bovine milk exosomes were evaluated by Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA) Mass Spectrometry. A direct comparison was made between their proteomic profiles.

Results: IDA analyses revealed similarities and differences in protein content. 229 and 239 proteins were identified in the human and bovine milk exosome proteome respectively, of which 176 and 186 were unique to each species. Fifty-three proteins were common to both groups. These include proteins associated with specific biological processes and molecular functions. Most notably, the 4 abundant milk proteins lactadherin, butyrophillin, perilipin-2 and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were present in the top 20 list for both human and bovine milk exosomes.

Conclusion: The milk exosome protein profiles we have provided are crucial new information for the field of infant nutrition. They provide new insight into the components of milk from both humans and bovines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789450.2021.1980389DOI Listing
September 2021

Cold stress in maize (Zea mays) is alleviated by the over-expression of Phytoglobin 1 (ZmPgb1.1).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 1;167:901-910. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T2N2, MB, Canada. Electronic address:

Maize (Zea mays) plants over-expressing or suppressing the class 1 Phytoglobin (ZmPgb1.1) were evaluated for their ability to cope with low temperature stress. Cold treatment (10 °C day/4 °C night) depressed several gas exchange parameters including photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration, while elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-induced damage. These effects were attenuated by the over-expression of ZmPgb1.1, and aggravated when the level of the same gene was suppressed. Combination of transcriptomic and pharmacological studies revealed that over-expression of ZmPgb1.1 suppressed the level of nitric oxide (NO), which lowers the transcription of several Brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthetic and response genes. Cellular BR was required to induce the expression of ZmMPK5, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which is known to be involved in the regulation of ROS-producing pathways. Experimental reduction of NO content, suppression of BR or inhibition of ZmMPK5 reverted the beneficial effects of ZmPgb1.1 over-expression, and increased plant susceptibility to cold stress through accumulation of ROS. Conversely, tolerance to cold was augmented in the ZmPgb1.1 down-regulating line when the levels of NO or BR were elevated. Together, this study demonstrates a novel role of ZmPgb1.1 in modulating plant performance to cold stress, and integrates the ZmPgb1.1 response in a model requiring NO and BR to alleviate oxidative stress through ZmMPK5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.08.046DOI Listing
September 2021

Disappearing Nail Bed: Review of Etiology, Grading System, and Treatment Options.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2021 Oct;38(4):521-527

Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 North 8th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

Disappearing nail bed (DNB) is a condition characterized by irreversible epithelialization of the nail bed following long-standing onycholysis. This phenomenon can occur in fingernails and toenails. Factors implicated in the development of DNB include trauma, manicuring, and onychotillomania and dermatologic conditions like psoriasis and dermatitis. Specifically for the toenail, contributing factors also include increasing age, history of trauma, surgery, onychomycosis, and onychogryphosis. A grading system that stages the progression of onycholysis to DNB has been proposed to aid clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Several methods have been designated for the treatment of DNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpm.2021.06.001DOI Listing
October 2021

DISCO App: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a patient intervention to reduce the financial burden of cancer in a diverse patient population.

Trials 2021 Sep 17;22(1):636. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Wayne State University School of Medicine/Karmanos Cancer Institute, 4100 John R St., Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Background: Financial toxicity, the material and psychological burden of the cost of treatment, affects 30-50% of people with cancer, even those with health insurance. The burden of treatment cost can affect treatment adherence and, ultimately, mortality. Financial toxicity is a health equity issue, disproportionately affecting patients who are racial/ethnic minorities, have lower incomes, and are < 65 years old. Patient education about treatment cost and patient-oncologist cost discussions are recommended as ways to address financial toxicity; however, research shows cost discussions occur infrequently (Altice et al. J Natl Cancer Inst 109:djw205, 2017; Schnipper et al. J Clin Oncol 34:2925-34, 2016; Zafar et al. Oncologist 18:381-90, 2013; American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network 2010). Our overall goal is to address the burden of financial toxicity and work toward health equity through a tailorable education and communication intervention, the DISCO App. The aim of this longitudinal randomized controlled trial is to test the effectiveness of the DISCO App on the outcomes in a population of economically and racially/ethnically diverse cancer patients from all age groups.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal, or prostate cancer at a NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in Detroit, MI, will be randomized to one of three study arms: one usual care arm (arm 1) and two intervention arms (arms 2 and 3). All intervention patients (arms 2 and 3) will receive the DISCO App before the second interaction with their oncologist, and patients in arm 3 will receive an intervention booster. The DISCO App, presented on an iPad, includes an educational video about treatment costs, ways to manage them, and the importance of discussing them with oncologists. Patients enter socio-demographic information (e.g., employment, insurance status) and indicate their financial concerns. They then receive a tailored list of questions to consider asking their oncologist. All patients will have up to two interactions with their oncologist video recorded and complete measures at baseline, after the recorded interactions and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the second interaction. Outcome measures will assess discussions of cost, communication quality, knowledge of treatment costs, self-efficacy for treatment cost management, referrals for support, short- and longer-term financial toxicity, and treatment adherence.

Discussion: If effective, this intervention will improve awareness of and discussions of treatment cost and alleviate the burden of financial toxicity. It may be especially helpful to groups disproportionately affected by financial toxicity, helping to achieve health equity.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04766190. Registered on February 23, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05593-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447769PMC
September 2021

DISCO App: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a patient intervention to reduce the financial burden of cancer in a diverse patient population.

Trials 2021 Sep 17;22(1):636. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Wayne State University School of Medicine/Karmanos Cancer Institute, 4100 John R St., Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Background: Financial toxicity, the material and psychological burden of the cost of treatment, affects 30-50% of people with cancer, even those with health insurance. The burden of treatment cost can affect treatment adherence and, ultimately, mortality. Financial toxicity is a health equity issue, disproportionately affecting patients who are racial/ethnic minorities, have lower incomes, and are < 65 years old. Patient education about treatment cost and patient-oncologist cost discussions are recommended as ways to address financial toxicity; however, research shows cost discussions occur infrequently (Altice et al. J Natl Cancer Inst 109:djw205, 2017; Schnipper et al. J Clin Oncol 34:2925-34, 2016; Zafar et al. Oncologist 18:381-90, 2013; American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network 2010). Our overall goal is to address the burden of financial toxicity and work toward health equity through a tailorable education and communication intervention, the DISCO App. The aim of this longitudinal randomized controlled trial is to test the effectiveness of the DISCO App on the outcomes in a population of economically and racially/ethnically diverse cancer patients from all age groups.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal, or prostate cancer at a NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in Detroit, MI, will be randomized to one of three study arms: one usual care arm (arm 1) and two intervention arms (arms 2 and 3). All intervention patients (arms 2 and 3) will receive the DISCO App before the second interaction with their oncologist, and patients in arm 3 will receive an intervention booster. The DISCO App, presented on an iPad, includes an educational video about treatment costs, ways to manage them, and the importance of discussing them with oncologists. Patients enter socio-demographic information (e.g., employment, insurance status) and indicate their financial concerns. They then receive a tailored list of questions to consider asking their oncologist. All patients will have up to two interactions with their oncologist video recorded and complete measures at baseline, after the recorded interactions and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the second interaction. Outcome measures will assess discussions of cost, communication quality, knowledge of treatment costs, self-efficacy for treatment cost management, referrals for support, short- and longer-term financial toxicity, and treatment adherence.

Discussion: If effective, this intervention will improve awareness of and discussions of treatment cost and alleviate the burden of financial toxicity. It may be especially helpful to groups disproportionately affected by financial toxicity, helping to achieve health equity.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04766190. Registered on February 23, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05593-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447769PMC
September 2021
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