Publications by authors named "R Henrik Nilsson"

420 Publications

Digging Up the Roots: Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Disentanglements in Corticiaceae s.s. (Corticiales, Basidiomycota) and Evolution of Nutritional Modes.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:704802. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Retired, Penticton, BC, Canada.

Corticiaceae is one of the traditional families of the Agaricomycetes and served for a long time as a convenient placement for basidiomycetes with a resupinate, corticioid form of fruiting body. Molecular studies have helped to assign many corticioid fungi to diverse families and orders; however, Corticiaceae still lacks a phylogenetic characterization and modern circumscription. Here, we provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic and taxonomic revision of the family Corticiaceae based on extensive type studies and sequences of nLSU, ITS, IGS, nSSU, and mtSSU regions. Our analyses support the recognition of ten monophyletic genera in the Corticiaceae, and show that nutritional mode is not a robust basis for generic delimitations in the family. The genus and the species , and are described as new to science, and five new combinations are proposed. Moreover, ancestral character state reconstruction revealed that saprotrophy is the plesiomorphic nutritional mode in the Corticiaceae, while several transitions have occurred to diverse nutritional modes in this family. Identification keys are provided to the genera in Corticiaceae s.s. as well as to the species in , and .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.704802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425454PMC
August 2021

Chronic Oral Administration of Mineral Oil Compared With Corn Oil: Effects on Gut Permeability and Plasma Inflammatory and Lipid Biomarkers.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:681455. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Early Cardiovascular Renal and Metabolism, BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.

We investigated the effects of chronic oral administration of mineral oil, versus corn oil as control, on intestinal permeability, inflammatory markers, and plasma lipids in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. Mice received mineral oil or corn oil 15 or 30 μL/mouse/day for 16 weeks (15 mice/group). Intestinal permeability was increased with mineral versus corn oil 30 µL/day, shown by increased mean plasma FITC-dextran concentrations 2 h post-administration (11 weeks: 1.5 versus 1.1 μg/ml, = 0.02; 15 weeks: 1.7 versus 1.3 μg/ml, = 0.08). Mean plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein levels were raised with mineral versus corn oil 30 µL/day (12 weeks: 5.8 versus 4.4 μg/ml, = 0.03; 16 weeks: 5.8 versus 4.5 μg/ml, = 0.09), indicating increased intestinal bacterial endotoxin absorption and potential pro-inflammatory effects. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were decreased with mineral oil, without affecting liver lipids among treated groups. Fecal neutral sterol measurements indicated increased fecal cholesterol excretion with mineral oil 30 µL/day (+16%; = 0.04). Chronic oral administration of mineral oil in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice increased intestinal permeability, with potential pro-inflammatory effects, and decreased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Our findings may raise concerns about the use of mineral oil as a placebo in clinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.681455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415260PMC
August 2021

: more than a node or a foot-shaped basal cell.

Stud Mycol 2021 Apr 17;98:100116. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway.

Recent publications have argued that there are potentially serious consequences for researchers in recognising distinct genera in the terminal fusarioid clade of the family . Thus, an alternate hypothesis, namely a very broad concept of the genus was proposed. In doing so, however, a significant body of data that supports distinct genera in based on morphology, biology, and phylogeny is disregarded. A DNA phylogeny based on 19 orthologous protein-coding genes was presented to support a very broad concept of at the F1 node in . Here, we demonstrate that re-analyses of this dataset show that all 19 genes support the F3 node that represents as defined by (sexual morph synonym ). The backbone of the phylogeny is resolved by the concatenated alignment, but only six of the 19 genes fully support the F1 node, representing the broad circumscription of Furthermore, a re-analysis of the concatenated dataset revealed alternate topologies in different phylogenetic algorithms, highlighting the deep divergence and unresolved placement of various lineages proposed as members of . Species of are characterised by sexual morphs, asexual morphs with thin- or thick-walled macroconidia that have variously shaped apical and basal cells, and trichothecene mycotoxin production, which separates them from other fusarioid genera. Here we show that the Wollenweber concept of presently accounts for 20 segregate genera with clear-cut synapomorphic traits, and that fusarioid macroconidia represent a character that has been gained or lost multiple times throughout . Thus, the very broad circumscription of is blurry and without apparent synapomorphies, and does not include all genera with fusarium-like macroconidia, which are spread throughout (, , , ). In this study four new genera are introduced, along with 18 new species and 16 new combinations. These names convey information about relationships, morphology, and ecological preference that would otherwise be lost in a broader definition of . To assist users to correctly identify fusarioid genera and species, we introduce a new online identification database, Fusarioid-ID, accessible at www.fusarium.org. The database comprises partial sequences from multiple genes commonly used to identify fusarioid taxa (, , , , , , , ITS, and LSU). In this paper, we also present a nomenclator of names that have been introduced in up to January 2021 as well as their current status, types, and diagnostic DNA barcode data. In this study, researchers from 46 countries, representing taxonomists, plant pathologists, medical mycologists, quarantine officials, regulatory agencies, and students, strongly support the application and use of a more precisely delimited (= ) concept to accommodate taxa from the robust monophyletic node F3 on the basis of a well-defined and unique combination of morphological and biochemical features. This F3 node includes, among others, species of the and species complexes, but not species of [ species complex (SC)], ( SC), ( SC), ( SC) or ( SC). The present study represents the first step to generating a new online monograph of and allied fusarioid genera (www.fusarium.org).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2021.100116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379525PMC
April 2021

Influence of Drug Load on the Printability and Solid-State Properties of 3D-Printed Naproxen-Based Amorphous Solid Dispersion.

Molecules 2021 Jul 26;26(15). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box, 1068 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.

Fused deposition modelling-based 3D printing of pharmaceutical products is facing challenges like brittleness and printability of the drug-loaded hot-melt extruded filament feedstock and stabilization of the solid-state form of the drug in the final product. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the drug load on printability and physical stability. The poor glass former naproxen (NAP) was hot-melt extruded with Kollidon VA 64 at 10-30% / drug load. The extrudates (filaments) were characterised using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was confirmed that an amorphous solid dispersion was formed. A temperature profile was developed based on the results from TGA, DSC, and DMA and temperatures used for 3D printing were selected from the profile. The 3D-printed tablets were characterised using DSC, X-ray computer microtomography (XµCT), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). From the DSC and XRPD analysis, it was found that the drug in the 3D-printed tablets (20 and 30% NAP) was amorphous and remained amorphous after 23 weeks of storage (room temperature (RT), 37% relative humidity (RH)). This shows that adjusting the drug ratio can modulate the brittleness and improve printability without compromising the physical stability of the amorphous solid dispersion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347219PMC
July 2021

Fear of Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Cross-sectional Study After Radical Prostatectomy or Active Surveillance.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;25:44-51. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Urology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway.

Background: Fear of recurrence (FoR) is a distressing consequence of cancer. Little is known about the prevalence of FoR in different treatment groups and factors associated with FoR among prostate cancer (PCa) survivors.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of high FoR among PCa survivors after radical prostatectomy (RP) or under active surveillance (AS) and to explore clinical and psychological factors potentially associated with FoR.

Design Setting And Participants: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 606 patients with PCa, treated with either RP ( = 442) or AS ( = 164) at two Norwegian regional hospitals. The 440 patients (73%) who gave consent to participate were invited in 2017 to complete a questionnaire measuring FoR, self-rated health, adverse effects, and psychological factors at a mean of 4.1 yr (standard deviation 1.7) after their treatment decision. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: FoR was measured using the Concerns About Recurrence Questionnaire, with high FoR defined as a sum score of =12 points (range 0-40). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, factors associated with high FoR were identified.

Results And Limitations: One-third of the participants had high FoR; scores were higher in the AS group and in the RP group with treatment failure. Younger age was significantly associated with high FoR in the AS group, while high prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, biochemical recurrence, positive surgical margin, higher fatigue, and a type D personality were significantly associated with high FoR in the RP group.

Conclusions: At 4 yr after a diagnosis of PCa, high FoR was common, especially among AS patients and among RP patients with treatment failure.

Patient Summary: In this study, we examined fear that their disease will return or progress among prostate cancer survivors. We found that such fear was common, especially among young patients under active surveillance and among radical prostatectomy patients with treatment failure or with certain psychological features.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317872PMC
March 2021
-->