Publications by authors named "R H Sarma"

284 Publications

Intergenerational effects of manipulating DNA methylation in the early life of an iconic invader.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Jun 19;376(1826):20200125. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia.

In response to novel environments, invasive populations often evolve rapidly. Standing genetic variation is an important predictor of evolutionary response but epigenetic variation may also play a role. Here, we use an iconic invader, the cane toad (), to investigate how manipulating epigenetic status affects phenotypic traits. We collected wild toads from across Australia, bred them, and experimentally manipulated DNA methylation of the subsequent two generations (G1, G2) through exposure to the DNA methylation inhibitor zebularine and/or conspecific tadpole alarm cues. Direct exposure to alarm cues (an indicator of predation risk) increased the potency of G2 tadpole chemical cues, but this was accompanied by reductions in survival. Exposure to alarm cues during G1 also increased the potency of G2 tadpole cues, indicating intergenerational plasticity in this inducible defence. In addition, the negative effects of alarm cues on tadpole viability (i.e. the costs of producing the inducible defence) were minimized in the second generation. Exposure to zebularine during G1 induced similar intergenerational effects, suggesting a role for alteration in DNA methylation. Accordingly, we identified intergenerational shifts in DNA methylation at some loci in response to alarm cue exposure. Substantial demethylation occurred within the gene () in alarm cue exposed individuals and their offspring. This gene is a key to the regulation of sodium in epithelial cells and may help to maintain the protective epidermal barrier. These data suggest that early life experiences of tadpoles induce intergenerational effects through epigenetic mechanisms, which enhance larval fitness. This article is part of the theme issue 'How does epigenetics influence the course of evolution?'
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0125DOI Listing
June 2021

Current practices and beliefs regarding the use of oropharyngeal throat pack in India: A nationwide survey.

Indian J Anaesth 2021 Mar 13;65(3):241-247. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Anaesthesiology, SGT Medical College and Research Institute, Gurugram, Haryana, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_1376_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7989489PMC
March 2021

Simulating contaminant transport in unsaturated and saturated groundwater zones.

Water Environ Res 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India.

The demand for clean and adequate water is rising rapidly with increasing population. This growing demand for water necessitates the measurement of the quantity and quality of water. Simulation modeling has become increasingly popular in the last two decades largely because of their predictive ability. This paper reviews the approaches for simulation modeling in groundwater resources management, focusing on models that have been used to simulate contaminant transport through the aquifer system. Recent research papers that have integrated the models for unsaturated and saturated zones have also been studied and described. Integrated models require assessment of the complex interactions between the groundwater zones and the movement of water and solute through them. Due to this, integrated models provide a more accurate modeling approach than models that have been independently developed for saturated and unsaturated zones. Application of such models is encouraged at the regional level to arrive at the best groundwater management decisions. PRACTITIONER POINTS: In the past few decades, modeling of contaminant transport in groundwater systems has seen tremendous applications. A number of models exist that independently simulate flow and solute transport in unsaturated and saturated zones. Recently, focus has been given on developing advanced coupled modeling approaches that require less inputs and run times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1555DOI Listing
March 2021

Breaking the Barrier: Challenges of Methadone Use - An Introductory Observation.

Indian J Palliat Care 2020 Oct-Dec;26(4):495-499. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Onco-Anaesthesia and Palliative Medicine, Dr. BRA IRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Background: Palliative care physicians in India have achieved access to methadone for pain relief in cancer patients. Despite being an effective drug in terms of analgesia, there are a number of reasons why this opioid medication is not as much as popular as morphine. We identified and tried to overcome a few such barriers in treating cancer pain with methadone.

Methods: The clinical information of ten adult cancer patients (six males and four females), who voluntarily received methadone for their severe pain in the month of August 2019 were analysed retrospectively. We converted morphine to methadone in all ten patients under the supervision of an experienced practitioner.

Results: During the methadone therapy, eight out of ten patients who were given methadone exclusively for their pain had adequate pain relief initially. The barriers identified included difficult titration methods due to distinct pharmacology, patient selection, clinical inertia, communication and co-ordination among physicians, communication among patient and physician, and patient and caregivers, and vigilant monitoring.

Conclusion: Methadone is still finding its place in India for cancer pain management. As the drug is new to Indian practitioners, we have to overcome these barriers and facilitate its judicious use in cancer pain management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_9_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888414PMC
November 2020

Carotid Blood Flow-Guided Fluid Therapy in Cytoreductive Surgery With Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: A Case Report.

A A Pract 2021 Feb 5;15(2):e01391. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

From the Department of Onco-Anaesthesia and Palliative Medicine, Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (BRAIRCH).

Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is associated with significant volume shifts and requires meticulous hemodynamic management. The conventional and arbitrary "liberal" and "restrictive" fluid regimens are now being challenged. With increasing recognition of the need to individualize perioperative fluid therapy, dynamic assessment of fluid status and hemodynamic response to administration of fluids have become vital. Herein, we describe a case in which point of care ultrasound of the carotid artery and derived parameters were used to guide intraoperative fluid management. We discuss the reliability of this technique and the potential advantages it could offer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/XAA.0000000000001391DOI Listing
February 2021