Publications by authors named "R Garcia-Carbonero"

166 Publications

Association of the Lung Immune Prognostic Index with Immunotherapy Outcomes in Mismatch Repair Deficient Tumors.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 27;13(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Early Drug Development Department, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

MSI-H/dMMR is considered the first predictive marker of efficacy for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). However, around 39% of cases are refractory and additional biomarkers are needed. We explored the prognostic value of pretreatment LIPI in MSI-H/dMMR patients treated with ICIs, including identification of fast-progressors. A multicenter retrospective study of patients with metastatic MSI-H/dMMR tumors treated with ICIs between April 2014 and May 2019 was performed. LIPI was calculated based on dNLR > 3 and LDH > upper limit of normal. LIPI groups were good (zero factors), intermediate (one factor) and poor (two factors). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), including the fast-progressor rate (OS < 3 months). A total of 151 patients were analyzed, mainly female (59%), with median age 64 years, performance status (PS) 0 (42%), and sporadic dMMR status (68%). ICIs were administered as first or second-line for 59%. The most frequent tumor types were gastrointestinal (66%) and gynecologic (22%). LIPI groups were good (47%), intermediate (43%), and poor (10%). The median follow-up was 32 months. One-year OS rates were 81.0%, 67.1%, and 21.4% for good, intermediate, and poor-risk groups ( < 0.0001). After adjustment for tumor site, metastatic sites and PS, LIPI remained independently associated with OS (HR, poor-LIPI: 3.50, 95%CI: 1.46-8.40, = 0.02. Overall, the fast-progressor rate was 16.0%, and 35.7% with poor-LIPI vs. 7.5% in the good-LIPI group ( = 0.02). LIPI identifies dMMR patients who do not benefit from ICI treatment, particularly fast-progressors. LIPI should be included as a stratification factor for future trials.
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July 2021

Coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms: Preliminary results of the INTENSIVE study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 09 30;154:246-252. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Division of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: Specific data regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with NENs who tested severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive.

Material And Methods: This is a worldwide study collecting cases of patients with NENs along with a positive nasopharyngeal swab reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 between June 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021. Centres treating patients with NENs were directly contacted by the principal investigator. Patients with NENs of any primary site, grade and stage were included, excluding small-cell lung carcinoma and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma.

Results: Among 81 centres directly contacted, 88.8% responded and 48.6% of them declined due to lack of cases or interest. On March 31, 2021, eight recruiting centres enrolled 89 patients. The median age was 64 years at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. Most patients had metastatic, non-functioning, low-/intermediate-grade gastroenteropancreatic NENs on treatment with somatostatin analogues and radioligand therapy. Most of them had comorbidities. Only 8% of patients had high-grade NENs and 12% were receiving chemotherapy. Most patients had symptoms or signs of COVID-19, mainly fever and cough. Only 3 patients underwent sub-intensive treatment, whereas most of them received medical therapies, mostly antibiotics. In two third of cases, no changes occurred for the anti-NEN therapy. More than 80% of patients completely recovered without sequelae, whereas 7.8% patients died due to COVID-19.

Conclusions: Patients included in this study reflect the typical NEN population regardless of SARS-CoV-2. In most cases, they overcome COVID-19 without need of intensive care, short-term sequelae and discontinuation of systemic oncological therapy.
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September 2021

Sunitinib and Evofosfamide (TH-302) in Systemic Treatment-Naïve Patients with Grade 1/2 Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: The GETNE-1408 Trial.

Oncologist 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Instituto de Investigación 12 de Octubre (i+12), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Sunitinib (SUN)-induced hypoxia within the tumor could promote the activation of the prodrug evofosfamide (EVO), locally releasing the cytotoxic DNA alkylator bromo-isophosphoramide mustard. SUNEVO, a phase II, open-label, single-arm trial, investigated the potential synergy of SUN plus EVO in advanced progressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs).

Methods: Systemic treatment-naïve patients with advanced or metastatic, unresectable, grade 1/2 panNETs with a Ki67 ≤20%, received EVO 340 mg/m on days 8, 15, and 22 every 4 weeks and sunitinib 37.5 mg/day continuously. The primary endpoint was objective response rate, measured every 8 weeks by RECIST version 1.1.

Results: From 2015 to 2018, 17 patients were enrolled. The median age was 62.4 years, 47% had a Ki67 >10%, and 70.6% had liver metastasis. Patients received a median of five and four cycles of SUN and EVO, respectively. After a median follow-up of 15.7 months, 17.6% of patients achieved a complete (n = 1) or partial response (n = 2), and 11 patients had stable disease (64.7%). The median progression-free survival was 10.4 months (95% confidence interval, 2.6-18.0). Treatment-related adverse events (grade ≥3) were observed in 64.7% of the patients, the most frequent being neutropenia (35.3%), fatigue (17.6%), and thrombopenia (11.8%). Treatment discontinuation due to toxicity was reported in 88.2% of the patients. No correlation was found between treatment response and DAXX, ATRX, MEN1, SETD2, and PTEN gene mutations.

Conclusion: SUN plus EVO had a negative toxicity profile that should be taken into account for further clinical research in advanced panNETs. The combination showed moderate activity in terms of treatment response that did not correlate with somatic mutations. (Clinical trial identification number: NCT02402062) IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Addition of hypoxia-activated prodrugs has been proposed as a potential mechanism to overcome tumor resistance to antiangiogenic agents. Sunitinib and evofosfamide, which were widely proposed as a potential synergistic option, showed modest efficacy in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs), reaching a median objective response rate of 17.6% and median progression-free survival of 10.4 months. Treatment response does not correlate with the biomarkers analyzed. The high systemic toxicity, with 88.2% of patients discontinuing the treatment, makes this therapeutic approach unfeasible and encourages future research to overcome panNETs' resistance to antiangiogenic agents with other therapies with a safer profile.
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June 2021

Comprehensive Plasma Metabolomic Profile of Patients with Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs). Diagnostic and Biological Relevance.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 27;13(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Clinical and Translational Oncology Laboratory, Gastrointestinal Unit, i+12 Research Institute Hospital 12 de Octubre, 28041 Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: High-throughput "-omic" technologies have enabled the detailed analysis of metabolic networks in several cancers, but NETs have not been explored to date. We aim to assess the metabolomic profile of NET patients to understand metabolic deregulation in these tumors and identify novel biomarkers with clinical potential.

Methods: Plasma samples from 77 NETs and 68 controls were profiled by GC-MS, CE-MS and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics. OPLS-DA was performed to evaluate metabolomic differences. Related pathways were explored using Metaboanalyst 4.0. Finally, ROC and OPLS-DA analyses were performed to select metabolites with biomarker potential.

Results: We identified 155 differential compounds between NETs and controls. We have detected an increase of bile acids, sugars, oxidized lipids and oxidized products from arachidonic acid and a decrease of carnitine levels in NETs. MPA/MSEA identified 32 enriched metabolic pathways in NETs related with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism. Finally, OPLS-DA and ROC analysis revealed 48 metabolites with diagnostic potential.

Conclusions: This study provides, for the first time, a comprehensive metabolic profile of NET patients and identifies a distinctive metabolic signature in plasma of potential clinical use. A reduced set of metabolites of high diagnostic accuracy has been identified. Additionally, new enriched metabolic pathways annotated may open innovative avenues of clinical research.
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May 2021

Multidisciplinary practice guidelines for the diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Oct 6;23(10):1995-2019. Epub 2021 May 6.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic/parasympathetic neural ganglia, respectively. The heterogeneity in its etiology makes PPGL diagnosis and treatment very complex. The aim of this article was to provide practical clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PPGLs from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the involvement of the Spanish Societies of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN), Medical Oncology (SEOM), Medical Radiology (SERAM), Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM), Otorhinolaryngology (SEORL), Pathology (SEAP), Radiation Oncology (SEOR), Surgery (AEC) and the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO). We will review the following topics: epidemiology; anatomy, pathology and molecular pathways; clinical presentation; hereditary predisposition syndromes and genetic counseling and testing; diagnostic procedures, including biochemical testing and imaging studies; treatment including catecholamine blockade, surgery, radiotherapy and radiometabolic therapy, systemic therapy, local ablative therapy and supportive care. Finally, we will provide follow-up recommendations.
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October 2021