Publications by authors named "R G Crosby"

1,021 Publications

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Associations of sleep with food cravings and loss-of-control eating in youth: An ecological momentary assessment study.

Pediatr Obes 2021 Sep 8:e12851. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Section on Growth and Obesity, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Division of Intramural Research, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Inconsistent sleep patterns may promote excess weight gain by increasing food cravings and loss-of-control (LOC)-eating; however, these relationships have not been elucidated in youth.

Objective: We tested whether sleep duration and timing were associated with food cravings and LOC-eating.

Method: For 14 days, youths wore actigraphy monitors to assess sleep and reported severity of food cravings and LOC-eating using ecological momentary assessment. Generalized linear mixed models tested the associations between weekly and nightly shifts in facets of sleep (i.e., duration, onset, midpoint, and waketime) and next-day food cravings and LOC-eating. Models were re-run adjusting for relevant covariates (e.g., age, sex, adiposity).

Results: Among 48 youths (12.88 ± 2.69 years, 68.8% female, 33.3% with overweight/obesity), neither weekly nor nightly facets of sleep were significantly associated with food cravings (ps = 0.08-0.93). Youths with shorter weekly sleep duration (est. ß = -0.31, p = 0.004), earlier weekly midpoints (est. ß = -0.47, p = 0.010) and later weekly waketimes (est. ß = 0.49, p = 0.010) reported greater LOC-eating severity; findings persisted in adjusted models.

Conclusions: In youth, weekly, but not nightly, shifts in multiple facets of sleep were associated with LOC-eating severity; associations were not significant for food cravings. Sleep should be assessed as a potentially modifiable target in paediatric LOC-eating and obesity prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12851DOI Listing
September 2021

Adverse childhood experiences in relation to mood-, weight-, and eating-related outcomes in emerging adulthood: Does self-compassion play a buffering role?

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Sep 4;122:105307. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with a range of health problems, yet protective factors such as self-compassion may help buffer these associations.

Objective: This study examined associations of distinct patterns of ACEs with depressive symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and disordered eating symptoms and investigated self-compassion as a potential protective factor.

Participants And Setting: Data from a diverse sample of 1440 emerging adults (M = 22.2 years; 53.7% female; 80.3% with race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white) came from the population-based EAT 2018 (Eating and Activity over Time) study.

Methods: Seven types of ACEs were retrospectively self-reported and used as model indicators in latent class analysis to identify patterns of ACEs. Self-compassion, depressive symptoms, height and weight (to calculate BMI), and disordered eating symptoms were also assessed. Demographic-adjusted regression models were conducted.

Results: Three latent classes emerged: "low ACEs" (66.5% of the sample), "household dysfunction" (24.3%), and "household dysfunction and abuse" (9.1%). Compared to participants in the "low ACEs" class, participants in either latent class involving household dysfunction demonstrated higher levels of depressive and disordered eating symptoms. Participants in the "household dysfunction and abuse" class also had higher BMI. Associations differed by self-compassion for depressive symptoms (p = 0.01), BMI (p = 0.03), and disordered eating symptoms (p = 0.005), such that associations for latent classes characterized by ACEs were weaker with higher levels of self-compassion.

Conclusions: These findings suggest self-compassion may act as a buffer against adverse mood-, weight-, and eating-related outcomes in the face of adversity and therefore may be an important intervention target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105307DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of high risk and early stage eating disorders: first validation of a digital screening tool.

J Eat Disord 2021 Sep 6;9(1):109. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

InsideOut Institute for Eating Disorders, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Level 2, The Charles Perkins Centre, D17, The University of Sydney, Johns Hopkins Drive, Camperdown, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Background: Eating disorders are amongst the deadliest of all mental disorders, however detection and early intervention rates remain extremely low. Current standardised screening questionnaires can be arduous or confronting and are ill-validated for online use, despite a universal shift to digital healthcare. The present study describes the development and pilot validation of a novel digital screening tool (the InsideOut Institute-Screener) for high risk and early stage eating disorders to drive early intervention and reduced morbidity.

Methods: We utilised a mixed cross-sectional and repeated measures longitudinal survey research design to assess symptom severity and recognised parameters of statistical validity. Participants were recruited through social media and traditional advertising, and through MTurk. An Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) global score of 2.3 and assessment of eating disorder behaviours was used to determine probable ED. 1346 participants aged 14-74 (mean [SE] age 26.60 [11.14] years; 73.8% female, 22.6% male) completed the survey battery. 19% were randomised to two-week follow-up for reliability analysis.

Results: Strong positive correlations between the IOI-S and both the EDE-Q global (r = .88) and SCOFF (r = .75) total score were found, providing support for the concurrent validity of the scale. Inter-item correlations were moderate to strong (r = .46-.73). Correlations between the IOI-S and two measures of social desirability diverged, providing support for the discriminant validity of the scale. The IOI-S demonstrated high internal consistency (α = .908, ω = .910) and excellent two-week test-retest reliability (.968, 95% CI 0.959-0.975; p ≤ 0.1). The IOI-S accurately distinguished probable eating disorders (sensitivity = 82.8%, specificity = 89.7% [AUC = .944], LR  = 8.04, LR = 0.19) and two stepped levels of risk.

Conclusions And Relevance: The present study provides excellent initial support for the psychometric validity of the InsideOut Institute digital screening tool, which has the potential to streamline early intervention in the hopes of reducing current high morbidity and mortality. Further validation should be undertaken in known clinical populations. Eating disorders are amongst the deadliest of all mental disorders, however detection and early intervention rates remain extremely low. The present study describes the initial psychometric validation of a novel digital screening tool (the InsideOut Institute Screener) for high risk and early stage eating disorders, for self-referral and/or use in primary care. 1346 participants aged 14-74 of all genders completed a survey battery designed to assess common parameters of statistical validity. Strong support was found for the screener's ability to accurately measure eating disorder risk and symptomatology. The screener was highly positively correlated with a well known and extensively validated long form self-report questionnaire for eating disorder symptomatology. This study is a pilot validation and the genesis of a project that aims ultimately to drive early intervention leading to reduced morbidity and mortality rates in this illness group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40337-021-00464-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419810PMC
September 2021

A systematic review of instruments for the assessment of eating disorders among adults.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Sanford Center for Bio-behavioral Research, Fargo, ND, USA University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, North Dakota, USA Psychotherapy and Psychopathology Research Unit - Psychology Research Centre, School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Purpose Of Review: The availability of psychometrically sound assessment instruments for assessing eating disorder symptomatology is crucial for both clinical practice and research. The purpose of the current review is to provide the reader with a list of psychometrically validated assessments for adults that are available within the field of eating disorders. Eating disorder interviews and self-report questionnaires were identified using online literature searches, reviewing previous review articles, and via research and/or clinical experience of the authors. The focus of the review was on (1) standard assessments that were frequently used in eating disorder research (such as the Eating Disorder Examination and Eating Attitudes Test), and (2) newer assessments that were developed over the past 5 years. Information compiled on each instrument included the purpose of the assessment, scores that can be derived, psychometric information, translations in other languages, and availability for use in research and clinical settings.

Recent Findings: Several recent trends in assessment instruments were identified including updates based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria, briefer assessments, assessments for specific populations, and assessment of specific clinical features observed in people with eating disorders.

Summary: The current review provides eating disorder clinicians and researchers a guide for making informed decisions about the selection of eating disorder assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000746DOI Listing
September 2021

Examining prospective mediational relationships between momentary rumination, negative affect, and binge eating using ecological momentary assessment.

J Affect Disord Rep 2021 Jul 28;5. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Sanford Center for Bio-Behavioral Research, Sanford Health, Faro, North Dakota, United States.

Background: Rumination is linked to negative affect (NA), and there is accumulating support for an association between rumination and eating disorder (ED) behaviors. However, no research has examined the dynamic interrelationships between negative affect, rumination, and binge eating in naturalistic settings.

Methods: The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess the hypotheses that momentary rumination would mediate relationships between NA and binge eating, and momentary NA would mediate relationships between rumination and binge eating. Given that rumination may be focused on weight, shape, and food in ED samples, models were examined separately for general and ED-specific rumination. Forty women completed a 10-day EMA protocol that included measures of NA, general and ED-specific rumination, and binge eating.

Results: Multilevel mediation models indicated significant within-subjects indirect effects, such that momentary general rumination mediated the association between NA and binge eating, and NA also mediated the association between general but not ED-specific rumination and binge eating. Between-subjects effects indicated women with higher overall NA reported greater ED-specific rumination, which was associated with greater binge eating.

Limitations: The study was limited by a modest sample size, and the design precludes causal inferences.

Conclusions: Results highlight the momentary interplay between rumination and NA as a mechanism underlying binge eating, as well as the specificity of ruminative thought content in relationship to binge eating. Future work is needed to address the construct of rumination in the context of eating disorder interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadr.2021.100138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388245PMC
July 2021
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