Publications by authors named "R E Halling"

25 Publications

A short story of nearly everything in ().

Fungal Syst Evol 2021 Jun 1;7:133-164. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Ghent University, Department of Biology, Research group Mycology, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Fungi are a large and hyper-diverse group with major taxa present in every ecosystem on earth. However, compared to other eukaryotic organisms, their diversity is largely understudied. Since the rise of molecular techniques, new lineages are being discovered at an increasing rate, but many are not accurately characterised. Access to comprehensive and reliable taxonomic information of organisms is fundamental for research in different disciplines exploring a variety of questions. A globally dominant ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal family in terrestrial ecosystems is the (, ) family. Amongst the mainly agaricoid genera, the ectomycorrhizal genus was historically least studied due to its largely tropical distribution in many underexplored areas and the apparent occurrence of several species complexes. Due to increased studies in the tropics, with a focus on this genus, knowledge on grew. We demonstrate here that is now one of the best-known ECM genera. This paper aims to provide a thorough overview of the current knowledge of , with information on diversity, distribution, ecology, phylogeny, taxonomy, morphology, and ethnomycological uses of species in this genus. This is a result of our larger study, aimed at building a comprehensive and complete dataset or taxonomic framework for , based on molecular, morphological, biogeographical, and taxonomical data as a tool and reference for other researchers. De Crop E, Delgat L, Nuytinck J, Halling RE, Verbeken A (2021). A short story of nearly everything in . 133-164. doi: 10.3114/fuse.2021.07.07.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2021.07.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166210PMC
June 2021

An Unexpectedly High Number of New (Boletaceae) Species From Northern and Northeastern Thailand.

Front Microbiol 2021 12;12:643505. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand.

is a poroid genus in Boletaceae that typically has chocolate brown to reddish brown or purplish brown basidiomata with a finely scaly stipe and produces a reddish brown spore deposit. During the survey on diversity of boletes in Northern and Northeastern Thailand, several collections were obtained. Combined evidence from morphology and phylogenetic analyses of a combined three-gene data set (6, 1 and 2) of the collections along with selected Boletaceae in the group indicated that Thai collections represent seven new species. The analyses also indicated that belongs in . Therefore, the transfer of to is proposed. Full descriptions and illustrations of the seven new species and are presented in this study. With the seven new species and the new combination, eight of the eleven described species are known to occur in Northern and Northeastern Thailand, whereas only one species is known from each of two continents, the Americas and Australia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.643505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072293PMC
April 2021

Squamanitaceae and three new species of Squamanita parasitic on Amanita basidiomes.

IMA Fungus 2021 Mar 3;12(1). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Fungal Diversity and Green Development, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, Yunnan, China.

The systematic position of the enigmatically mycoparasitic genus Squamanita (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) together with Cystoderma, Phaeolepiota, Floccularia, and Leucopholiota is largely unknown. Recently they were recognized as Squamanitaceae, but previous studies used few DNA markers from a restricted sample of taxa from the family and lacked a formal taxonomic treatment. In this study, with newly generated sequences of the type of the genus Squamanita, S. schreieri, and several additional species of the family, the phylogeny is reinvestigated with a concatenated (18S-5.8S-nrLSU-RPB2-TEF1-α) dataset. This study reveals that Cystoderma, Phaeolepiota, Squamanita, Floccularia, and Leucopholiota are a monophyletic clade with strong statistical support in Bayesian analysis and form Squamanitaceae. Phaeolepiota nested within Cystoderma; Squamanita, Leucopholiota, and Floccularia clustered together as two monophyletic subclades; and Squamanita was present as a monophyletic clade with strong statistical support in both Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The family name Squamanitaceae is formally emended and a detailed taxonomic treatment is presented to accommodate the five genera. Meanwhile, another concatenated (18S-ITS-nrLSU-RPB2-TEF1-α) dataset is used to investigate phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation in Squamanita. Our data indicates that "S. umbonata" from the Northern hemisphere forms two species complexes, one complex includes six specimens from North America, Europe, and East Asia, the other includes two specimens from Central America and North America respectively. Futhermore, species of Squamanita can parasitize species of Amanita, besides other fungal species. Squamanita mira parasitizes A. kitamagotake (A. sect. Caesareae), while S. orientalis and S. sororcula are parasites of species belonging to the A. sepiacea complex (A. sect. Validae). "Squamanita umbonata" from Italy occurs on A. excelsa (A. sect. Validae). Three new species of Squamanita from East Asia, viz. S. mira, S. orientalis and S. sororcula are documented with morphological, multi-gene phylogenetic, and ecological data, along with line drawings and photographs, and compared with similar species. A key for identification of the global Squamanita species is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00057-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927255PMC
March 2021

Phylogeny and species delimitation of (), with an emphasis on the Asian species.

Persoonia 2020 Jun 16;44:113-139. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

is broadly distributed geographically and serves an important ecological function. However, it has been difficult to delimit species within the genus, primarily due to developmental variations and phenotypic plasticity. To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among species within the genus and to understand its species diversity, especially in Asia, materials of the genus collected from five continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North/Central America) were investigated. The phylogeny of was reconstructed based on nucleotide sequences of four genes coding for: the largest and the second largest subunits of the RNA polymerase II (1 and 2); the translation elongation factor subunit 1-α (1); and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 3 (3). The combined results based on molecular phylogenetics, morphological characters, host tree associations, and geographical distribution patterns support a new classification consisting of two sections, sect. and sect. . Using the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR) approach, at least 33 phylogenetic species in Asia can be delimited, all of which are supported by morphological features, and five phylogenetic species remain to be described. The mountainous region of Southwest China is especially special, containing at least 21 species and likely represents a centre of diversification. We further compared our specimens with the type specimens of 25 species of . Our comparisons suggest that, there are a total of 31 distinct species, while , , and /, are synonyms of , , and , respectively. Eight new species, namely, , , , , , , and , are described. A dichotomous key to the Asian species is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2020.44.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567967PMC
June 2020

Looks can be deceiving: the deceptive milkcaps (, Russulaceae) exhibit low morphological variance but harbour high genetic diversity.

IMA Fungus 2019 18;10:14. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Biology, Research group Mycology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

The ectomycorrhizal genus is known to contain many species complexes, consisting of morphologically very similar species, which can be considered cryptic or pseudocryptic. In this paper, a thorough molecular study is performed of the clade around (originally described by Peck from North America) or the deceptive milkcaps. Even though most collections were identified as , the clade is shown to contain at least 15 species, distributed across Asia and America, indicating that the clade represents a species complex. These species are morphologically very similar and are characterized by a tomentose pileus with thin-walled hyphae and a velvety stipe with thick-walled hyphae. An ITS1 sequence was obtained through Illumina sequencing for the lectotype of , dating from 1885, revealing which clade represents the true . In addition, it is shown that three other described species also belong to the clade: , and and molecularly confirmed that represents a synonym of . Furthermore, two new Neotropical species are described: and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-019-0017-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325672PMC
September 2019
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