Publications by authors named "R Campo"

606 Publications

Improving IUI success by performing modified slow-release insemination and a patient-centred approach in an insemination programme with partner semen: a prospective cohort study.

Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2021 Dec;13(4):359-367

Background: Pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment continue to improve, while intrauterine insemination (IUI) programmes show no such trend. There is a need to improve success rates with IUI to retain it as a viable option for couples who prefer avoiding IVF as a first line treatment.

Objective: To investigate if a modified slow-release insemination (SRI) increases the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) after intrauterine insemination (IUI) with partner semen.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective cohort study in a Belgian tertiary fertility centre. Between July 2011 and December 2018, we studied data from an ongoing prospective cohort study including 989 women undergoing 2565 IUI procedures for unexplained or mild/moderate male infertility. These data were analysed in order to study the importance of different covariates influencing IUI success. Generalised estimating equations (GEEs) were used for statistical analysis. Results of two periods (2011-2015, period 1 and 2016-2018, period 2) were examined and compared. From January 2016 (period 2) onwards, a standardised SRI procedure instead of bolus injection of sperm was applied. The primary outcome parameter was the difference in clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) per cycle between period 1 (bolus IUI) and period 2 (modified SRI). Secondary outcome results included all other parameters significantly influencing CPR after IUI.

Results: Following the application of modified SRI the CPR increased significantly, from 9.03% (period 1) to 13.52% (period 2) (p = 0.0016). Other covariates significantly influencing CPR were partner's age, smoking/non-smoking partner, BMI patient, ovarian stimulation protocol and Inseminating Motile Count (after semen processing).

Conclusions: Conclusions: The intentional application of modified slow-release of processed semen appears to significantly increase CPRs after IUI with homologous semen. Future studies should investigate whether SRI, patient-centred measures, or a combination of both, are responsible for this improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.52054/FVVO.13.4.045DOI Listing
December 2021

Epidermis as a Platform for Bacterial Transmission.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:774018. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain.

The epidermis constitutes a continuous external layer covering the body, offering protection against bacteria, the most abundant living organisms that come into contact with this barrier. The epidermis is heavily colonized by commensal bacterial organisms that help protect against pathogenic bacteria. The highly regulated and dynamic interaction between the epidermis and commensals involves the host's production of nutritional factors promoting bacterial growth together to chemical and immunological bacterial inhibitors. Signal trafficking ensures the system's homeostasis; conditions that favor colonization by pathogens frequently foster commensal growth, thereby increasing the bacterial population size and inducing the skin's antibacterial response, eliminating the pathogens and re-establishing the normal density of commensals. The microecological conditions of the epidermis favors Gram-positive organisms and are unsuitable for long-term Gram-negative colonization. However, the epidermis acts as the most important host-to-host transmission platform for bacteria, including those that colonize human mucous membranes. Bacteria are frequently shared by relatives, partners, and coworkers. The epidermal bacterial transmission platform of healthcare workers and visitors can contaminate hospitalized patients, eventually contributing to cross-infections. Epidermal transmission occurs mostly the hands and particularly through fingers. The three-dimensional physical structure of the epidermis, particularly the fingertips, which have frictional ridges, multiplies the possibilities for bacterial adhesion and release. Research into the biology of bacterial transmission the hands is still in its infancy; however, tribology, the science of interacting surfaces in relative motion, including friction, wear and lubrication, will certainly be an important part of it. Experiments on finger-to-finger transmission of microorganisms have shown significant interindividual differences in the ability to transmit microorganisms, presumably due to genetics, age, sex, and the gland density, which determines the physical, chemical, adhesive, nutritional, and immunological status of the epidermal surface. These studies are needed to optimize interventions and strategies for preventing the hand transmission of microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.774018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8671829PMC
December 2021

Microplastics in the Florence wastewater treatment plant studied by a continuous sampling method and Raman spectroscopy: A preliminary investigation.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Feb 29;808:152025. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Florence, Via di S. Marta 3, 50139 Florence, Italy.

The presence of an ever increasing amount of plastic in the Italian river system makes it necessary to understand the contribution of their different sources. We focus on the contribution from the wastewater treatment plants to the microplastics (MPs), size less than 5 mm, conveyed to the fluvial system, and on the development of methods for their detection in this matrix. This study, one of the first in Italy, is aimed to investigate the content of MPs present in the effluent of the main wastewater treatment plant in Florence (Italy). We sampled wastewater during dry season to mainly quantify the contribution from civil and municipal activities to the MPs release. The samples were continuously collected over a period of 24 h at the exit of the water line using a series of 8 sieves with different mesh sizes (almost 1000 L filtered volume). The sampled material was analyzed by optical microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy by use of low-cost, portable instruments. The spatial resolution of the spectrometer matches the minimum dimension of the mesh size in use (38 μm). The analysis detected an average concentration of 5 MPs per liter in the 38-1000 μm diameter range, corresponding to a daily release of about 35 kg/day into the River Arno, a result in line with other studies carried out on Europe's major rivers. We provide a classification of the polymer composition showing the predominant presence of Polypropylene (29%), Polyethylene (18%) and Polyester (14%). The MP shape classification reveals the relevance of fibers in effluents. The number of sieves used provided an accurate size distribution curve of the sampled MPs allowing to estimate, by extrapolation, a relevant quantity of MPs finer than 38 μm whose determination would otherwise require much more sophisticated methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152025DOI Listing
February 2022

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Commensal, Community-Acquired and Nosocomial spp.

Microorganisms 2021 Nov 12;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

spp. is a relevant pathogen that can present acquired resistance to almost all available antibiotics, thus representing a serious threat for public health. While most studies have been focused on isolates causing community-acquired and nosocomial infections, little is known about the commensal isolates colonizing healthy subjects. We describe the molecular identification and the phenotypic characterization of commensal spp. from breast milk of healthy women and faeces from healthy breast-fed infants, which were compared with isolates from community-acquired infections and from a nosocomial NICU outbreak. The phylogenetic analysis of a 454-bp sequence of the gene was useful for species identification (, , , , , , and ), previously misidentified as or by biochemical methods. Globally, we report that commensal strains present virulence traits (virulence genes, siderophores and biofilms) comparable to community-acquired and NICU-infective isolates, thus suggesting that the human microbiota could constitute a reservoir for infection. Isolates causing NICU outbreak were multi-drug resistant (MDR) and ESBLs producers, although an imipenem-resistant commensal MDR isolate was also found. A commensal strain showed a potent bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against MDR isolates, thus highlighting the potential role of commensal spp. in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625991PMC
November 2021

Evaluation of different phenotypic methods to detect methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from cystic fibrosis patients.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2022 Jan 23;102(1):115559. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain; Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain; Red Española de Investigación en Patología Infecciosa, REIPI, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging. We compared different phenotypic methods among 157 S. aureus from 136 CF-patients: cefoxitin (FOX) and oxacillin (OXA) broth-microdilution; MicroScan-WalkAway®; FOX and OXA disk-diffusion (DD), and PBP2a-latex agglutination. PCR detection of mecA/mecC was the gold standard. Growth on ChromID-MRSA agar was evaluated and compared with that of 157 blood culture (BC) isolates. ChromID-MRSA was also tested on sputa from 111 CF-patients. 32 isolates (20%) were mecA-positive. Both FOX DD and MicroScan-WalkAway® (FOX/OXA) showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (100% and 100%, 96.9% and 99.2%, 96.9% and 100%). ChromID-MRSA showed an excellent sensitivity for BC and CF-isolates (100% and 96.9%) but a poorer specificity for CF ones (95.5% vs. 73.7%), which was also observed when samples were seeded on this medium. FOX DD and MicroScan-WalkAway® are suitable for MRSA detection among CF-isolates and should be used to confirm ChromID-MRSA positive CF-cultures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2021.115559DOI Listing
January 2022
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