Publications by authors named "Rűdiger M Schmelz"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Legacy effects of temporary grassland in annual crop rotation on soil ecosystem services.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 10;780:146140. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

UMR SAS, INRAE, INSTITUT AGRO AGROCAMPUS OUEST, 35000 Rennes, France.

The introduction of temporary grassland into an annual crop rotation is recognized to improve soil ecosystem services, and resulting legacies can be beneficial for the following crops. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate legacy effects of introducing temporary grassland into an annual crop rotation on five ecosystem services (i) soil structure maintenance (aggregate stability), (ii) water regulation (saturated hydraulic conductivity), (iii) biodiversity conservation (microbial biomass and microbial metabolic activity, as well as microorganism, enchytraeid, springtail and earthworm communities), (iv) pathogen regulation (soil suppressiveness to Verticillium dahliae), and (v) forage production and quality. Three crop rotation schemes, maintained for twelve years, were compared in four random blocks, one being an annual crop rotation without grassland (0%), another with a medium percentage of grassland (50%, corresponding to 3 years of continuous grassland in the crop rotation), and a third one with a high percentage of grassland in the crop rotation (75%, corresponding to 6 years of continuous grassland in the crop rotation). The results showed that the grassland introduction into an annual crop rotation improved, whatever the duration of the grassland, soil structure maintenance and biodiversity conservation, while it decreased pathogen regulation and did not modify water regulation. Comparing the two crop rotations that included grassland, indicated a stronger beneficial grassland legacy effect for the higher proportion of grassland concerning soil structure maintenance and biodiversity conservation. By contrast, water regulation, pathogen regulation and forage production were not affected by the legacy of the 75% grassland during the rotation. Overall, our findings demonstrated the extent to which grassland legacies are affecting the current state of soil properties and possible ecosystem services provided. To improve ecosystem services, soil management should take legacy effects into account and consider longer timeframes to apply beneficial practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146140DOI Listing
August 2021

Description of sp. nov. (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae) from central China, with comments on species records of from China.

Zookeys 2021 4;1015:87-97. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Wuhan China.

is described from hardwood forest soil in Wuhan, China. This moderately sized enchytraeid species of 6-9 mm body length is characterized by: (1) an oesophageal appendage with tertiary branches, (2) three pairs of secondary pharyngeal gland lobes in V, VI, VII, (3) five pairs preclitellar nephridia, from 5/6 to 9/10, (4) dorsal vessel originating in clitellar segments, (5) a girdle-shaped clitellum, (6) a relatively small male reproductive apparatus without seminal vesicle, and (7) spermathecae that extend to VI-VII. DNA barcodes of paratype specimens of the new species are provided. Previous species records of from China are critically discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1015.59019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878466PMC
February 2021

Global diversity of earthworms and enchytraeids (Clitellata): papers in honor of András Zicsi (1928-2015). Editorial.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 4;4496(1):6-10. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

IfAB, Institute for Applied Soil Biology, Tomberg 24a, 22337 Hamburg, Germany Universidad de A Coruña, Fac. Ciencias, GIBE, Evolutionary Biology Group, CICA, As Carballeiras s/n, Campus de Elviña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain.

This Special Volume of Zootaxa unites forty papers written in honor of the late András Zicsi (1928-2015), the eminent earthworm taxonomist. They deal with the taxonomy, systematics and distribution of earthworms and enchytraeids, the two major groups of soil-dwelling Oligochaeta. Altogether, 71 new species-group taxa are described, 60 species and subspecies of earthworms and 11 species of enchytraeids. They are from 15 countries all around the globe: Spain, Italy, Hungary, Turkey, Botswana, Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4496.1.3DOI Listing
October 2018

A new species of Enchytraeus (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from the profundal of Lake Van, the world's largest soda Lake (Turkey, East Anatolia).

Zootaxa 2018 Feb 21;4382(2):367-380. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Science and Art Faculty, Biology Department, Eskişehir-Turkiye..

Enchytraeus polatdemiri sp. nov. (Enchytaeidae, Oligochaeta) was discovered in the framework of a sampling campaign of the benthic invertebrate fauna of the hyperalkaline Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, the third-largest closed lake and the largest soda lake on Earth. It was the only oligochaete species found in all samples. DNA sequencing included a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and a fragment of the nuclear histone 3 (H3) gene. For comparison, specimens from laboratory cultures of E. albidus Henle, 1837, a widespread and morphologically similar species, were sequenced as well. The new species differs from E. albidus in comparatively small body size, 2 or 3 chaetae per bundle, saddle-shaped clitellum, absence of a copulatory field between the male pores and vasa deferentia usually not extending beyond the clitellum. The individual gene trees of COI and H3, as well as the combined phylogenetic analysis of both trees, recovered Enchytraeus polatdemiri sp. nov. as a monophyletic group within the genus Enchytraeus, closely related to E. albidus, but with an average p-distance for COI of 14.5 %. E. polatdemiri sp. nov. may have evolved from a local population of Enchytraeus albidus, a species well-adapted to changing salinity conditions, or from a common ancestor into an extremophile species that dwells and reproduces in the profundal of a strongly alkaline soda lake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4382.2.8DOI Listing
February 2018

Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

Environ Res 2017 05 20;155:365-372. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Department of Environmental Geochemistry, Fluminense Federal University, Outeiro São João Baptista, s/n., Centro, 24020-007 Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.03.005DOI Listing
May 2017

Soil networks become more connected and take up more carbon as nature restoration progresses.

Nat Commun 2017 02 8;8:14349. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

NIOO-KNAW, Microbial Ecology, Droevendaalsesteeg 10, Wageningen 6708 PB, The Netherlands.

Soil organisms have an important role in aboveground community dynamics and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most studies have considered soil biota as a black box or focussed on specific groups, whereas little is known about entire soil networks. Here we show that during the course of nature restoration on abandoned arable land a compositional shift in soil biota, preceded by tightening of the belowground networks, corresponds with enhanced efficiency of carbon uptake. In mid- and long-term abandoned field soil, carbon uptake by fungi increases without an increase in fungal biomass or shift in bacterial-to-fungal ratio. The implication of our findings is that during nature restoration the efficiency of nutrient cycling and carbon uptake can increase by a shift in fungal composition and/or fungal activity. Therefore, we propose that relationships between soil food web structure and carbon cycling in soils need to be reconsidered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5309817PMC
February 2017

Biosolids applied to agricultural land: Influence on structural and functional endpoints of soil fauna on a short- and long-term scale.

Sci Total Environ 2016 08 19;562:312-326. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada.

Biosolids have well-documented crop and soil benefits similar to other sources of organic amendment, but there is environmental concern due to biosolids-associated pollutants. The present study investigated two field sites that had received biosolids at commercial-scale rates in parallel to associated field sections which were managed similarly but without receiving biosolids (controls). The investigated endpoints were abundance and diversity of soil organisms (nematodes, enchytraeids and earthworms) and soil fauna feeding activity as measured by the bait lamina assay. Repeated sampling of one of the field sites following the only biosolids application demonstrated an enrichment effect typical for organic amendments, which was mostly exhausted after 44months. After an initial suppression, the proportion of free-living plant-parasitic nematodes tended to increase in the biosolids-amended soil over time. Yet, none of the endpoints at this site indicated significant negative effects resulting from the biosolids until 44months post application. In contrast to the repeatedly tilled first field site, the second one was left fallow after three biosolids applications, and was sampled 96months post last application. It was only at this field site that potential evidence for a long-term impact of biosolids was detected with regard to two endpoints: earthworm abundance and structure of the nematode assemblage. Agricultural management and correlation with abiotic soil parameters explained the observed difference in earthworm abundance. Yet, the development of a highly structured and mature nematode assemblage at the control but not at the biosolids-amended section of this fallow field could not be explained by such correlations nor by soil metal concentrations. Overall, the present study found only weak evidence for negative long-term impacts of biosolids applied at commercial rates on soil fauna. High-level community parameters such as the nematode structure index (SI) appeared more suitable to detect deleterious effects on soil fauna than simple abundance measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.226DOI Listing
August 2016

A TME study with the fungicide pyrimethanil combined with different moisture regimes: effects on enchytraeids.

Ecotoxicology 2016 Jan 7;25(1):213-24. Epub 2015 Nov 7.

LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-F, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt, Germany.

Today's ecosystems are influenced by different factors that could evolve into stressors. Effects of pesticides, especially in agricultural areas, may interact with environmental factors, such as soil moisture fluctuation caused by global climate change. In this contribution, two semi-field studies conducted in Germany and Portugal with terrestrial model ecosystems are presented. Their aim was to assess the effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil under different soil moisture levels on Enchytraeidae. In Portugal a no observed effect concentration design was chosen, using two concentration levels: the maximum application rate (MAR) according to the safe use registration within the European Union and five times the MAR (1.82 and 9.09 mg/kg dry soil, respectively). Both concentrations did neither affect the total enchytraeid abundance nor single populations. In Germany an ECx design (effect concentration) was conducted, using 11 concentrations. In general, 14 EC50 values for different combinations of single species, moisture level and sampling date were determined. The strongest effects were found in dry soil, particularly for Fridericia connata (EC50: 3.48 mg/kg dry soil after 8 weeks of exposure). The advantages and challenges of these test designs are discussed with regard to the registration process of pesticides in the European Union. In any case, enchytraeids are suitable test organisms in such higher tier studies for the combined evaluation of chemical and climatic stressors due to their usually high diversity and abundances and their close contact with the soil solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-015-1581-yDOI Listing
January 2016

Microdrile Oligochaeta in bromeliad pools of a Honduran cloud forest.

Zootaxa 2015 Apr 17;3947(4):508-26. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Universidade da Coruña, Fac. Ciencias, Dep. de Bioloxía Animal, Biol. Vexetal y Ecoloxía, Alejandro da Sota, 10; E-15008 A Coruña, Spain; Email: unknown.

Phytotelmata, or plant-held water bodies, often house complex aquatic invertebrate communities. Microdrile oligochaetes (Clitellata, Annelida) are known to be part of that community, but specimens are rarely identified to species level. Here we report three species of Enchytraeidae and three species of Naididae from a collection sampled in phytotelms of bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Two species of enchytraeids are new to science. Bryodrilus hondurensis sp. nov. is distinguished from other members of the genus by the high number of ventral chaetae, up to 11 per bundle. The genus is Holarctic and this is the southernmost record so far of a Bryodrilus species. Hemienchytraeus phytotelmatus sp. nov. is distinguished by a combination of characters, among which the huge spermathecae and seminal vesicles are most conspicuous. The genus is common in tropical and subtropical soils around the world. A third species of enchytraeids in the collection, Cernosvitoviella atrata (Bretscher), is redescribed, together with three known species of Naididae, Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson), Pristina osborni (Walton) and Pristina terrena Collado & Schmelz. Presence of ingested debris and humus in the intestine of most specimens suggests that the collected animals live and reproduce in the phytotelms. We provide a list of oligochaete species recorded so far from bromeliad pools in Central and South America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3947.4.3DOI Listing
April 2015