Publications by authors named "Régis Peffault de Latour"

257 Publications

Adding eltrombopag to immunosuppression: the importance of predicting outcome.

Haematologica 2021 04 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Leiden, Neitherland; Department of Hematology and Central Hematology Laboratory, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern.

Not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2021.278761DOI Listing
April 2021

Outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-Cell lymphoma, nasal type: A French study from the Société Francophone de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

Am J Hematol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Hematology, Inserm U1163, IMAGINE Institute, Paris University, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

We evaluated the outcome of 65 French patients with Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (19 allogeneic and 46 autologous). Fifty-four patients (83%), most of which receiving L-asparaginase (L-aspa) containing regimens (81%), achieved complete or partial response at time of HCST. After a median follow-up of 79.9 months, 4-years progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were similar in both autologous and allogeneic groups (PFS: 34% vs. 26%, p = .12 and OS: 52% vs. 53%, p = .74). Response status at HSCT was the major independent prognostic factor on survival (OS: HR: 4.013 [1.137; 14.16], p = .031 and PFS: HR: 5.231 [1.625; 16.838], p = .006). As compared to control patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy containing regimens only, upfront HSCT did not improve the outcome of responder patients, including those treated by L-aspa. However, it tends to provide survival benefit for relapsed patients with initial high-risk clinical features who achieved second remission. Whereas the place of HSCT in upfront therapy has still to be clarified, these data confirm that HSCT should be considered for consolidation in selected patients with relapsed ENKTL. Based on a large non Asian ENKTL cohort since the L-aspa era, this study provides some insight into the survival patterns of ENKTL patients with HSCT in the Western hemisphere and may give future direction for the next clinical trial design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26200DOI Listing
April 2021

Treatment for pure red cell aplasia after major ABO-incompatible allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a multicentre study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Haematology Transplant Unit, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) with major ABO incompatibility is responsible for transfusion dependent anaemia, impaired quality of life and iron overload. We conducted a retrospective study, over a 10-year period, which included all consecutive patients who received a major ABO mismatched aHSCT, to assess the impact of specific treatment on PRCA. We did not observe any PRCA in the 57 aHSCT issued from cord blood. Among the remaining 631 patients, cumulative incidence of PRCA was 10·5% [range 8·2-13.0]. The median duration of resolved PRCA was 171 days [IQR 116; 261]. Pre-transplant high isohaemagglutinins titre was associated with an increased risk of PRCA (P < 10 ). PRCA did not affect overall survival (P = 0·95). Twenty-two patients (33·3%) received at least one specific treatment. The most commonly used treatments were rituximab (17 patients) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI; seven patients). Regarding PRCA resolution, we did not observe a significant difference between treated or untreated subjects (HR = 0·93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·48- 1·80; P = 0·82). Similar results were observed with erythropoietin treatment (22 patients, HR = 0·86 95% CI: [0·47-1·57] P = 0·62). Our data do not support the use of erythropoietin, rituximab or DLI for the treatment of PRCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17463DOI Listing
April 2021

Sexuality- and Fertility-Related Issues in Women after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 6;27(5):432.e1-432.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Service d'Hématologie Adolescents Jeunes Adultes, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Sexual dysfunction and fertility related issues appear as major post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) late effects in young women, with a heavy impact on quality of life. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of disease and treatments on sexual quality of life, ovarian function, and family planning initiatives in the context of allogeneic HSCT. Between January 2014 and January 2016, adult female patients who underwent HSCT before age 35 and had been followed for more than 2 years in our center were offered participation in the study through a self-reported survey and/or ovarian function assessment if age <40 at inclusion. A total of 63 patients were included, with a median age of 23.4 years at transplantation and 30.9 years at inclusion. Twenty-nine patients (46%) underwent HSCT for acute leukemia and 16 (25%) underwent HSCT for aplastic anemia (AA). The conditioning regimen was myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in 37 patients (59%) and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in 26 (41%). Fifty-eight patients completed the survey, and 34 were evaluated for ovarian function. Symptoms of hypoestrogenism were reported by 86% of the patients and changes in sexual life were reported by 76%, due mainly to low sex drive, negative impact of infertility problems, physical sequelae, and loss of self-confidence. Premature ovarian failure (POF) occurred in 74% of patients and was significantly associated with conditioning regimen (MAC versus RIC; P = .001) and baseline disease (bone marrow failure versus acute leukemia versus others; P < .001). However, one-half of the patients developed a POF despite the use of a RIC regimen. For 27 patients (47%), disease and treatments modified their desire for pregnancy, due mainly to fear of relapse and of disease transmission to offspring. Thirteen pregnancies were reported (21%), of which 8 were spontaneous and 5 were obtained through assisted reproductive technologies, mainly oocyte donation. With a median post-transplantation follow-up of 12.2 years, the 10-year cumulative incidence of first pregnancy was 16.6% (95% CI, 8.8-30.0). Among 20 patients (32%) who engaged in a family planning initiative, 13 (65%) succeeded in having children: 11 got pregnant and 2 adopted. Sixteen patients benefited from fertility preservation techniques consisting of ovarian tissue cryopreservation, and a single autologous ovarian tissue transplantation had been performed at the time of this report. This study shows a strong impact of disease and treatments on sexual quality of life, ovarian function, and family planning initiatives in the context of HSCT. It demonstrates the need to improve clinicians' awareness of sexual health- and fertility-related issues after HSCT. The difficulty of predicting ovarian function and fertility issues after RIC supports wide indications of pretransplantation fertility preservation. Evaluation of the use of cryopreserved ovarian tissues is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.003DOI Listing
May 2021

Stem Cell Transplantation for Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. A Retrospective Study on Behalf of the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (EBMT).

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 25;27(3):274.e1-274.e5. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Data on stem cell transplantation (SCT) for Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is limited. We studied patients transplanted for DBA and registered in the EBMT database. Between 1985 and 2016, 106 DBA patients (median age, 6.8 years) underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched-sibling donors (57%), unrelated donors (36%), or other related donors (7%), using marrow (68%), peripheral blood stem cells (20%), both marrow and peripheral blood stem cells (1%), or cord blood (11%). The cumulative incidence of engraftment was 86% (80% to 93%), and neutrophil recovery and platelet recovery were achieved on day +18 (range, 16 to 20) and +36 (range, 32 to 43), respectively. Three-year overall survival and event-free survival were 84% (77% to 91%) and 81% (74% to 89%), respectively. Older patients were significantly more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.23; P < .001). Outcomes were similar between sibling compared to unrelated-donor transplants. The incidence of acute grades II to IV of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 30% (21% to 39%), and the incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was 15% (7% to 22%). This study shows that SCT may represent an alternative therapeutic option for transfusion-dependent younger patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.024DOI Listing
March 2021

Addition of iptacopan, an oral factor B inhibitor, to eculizumab in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and active haemolysis: an open-label, single-arm, phase 2, proof-of-concept trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 May 23;8(5):e344-e354. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Hôpital Saint-Louis, Department of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Paris, France; French Reference Center for Aplastic and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria, Paris, France.

Background: The haematological benefit of standard-of-care anti-C5 treatment for haemolytic paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria is limited by residual intravascular haemolysis or emerging C3-mediated extravascular haemolysis. Therefore, the aim of this phase 2 study was to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and activity of the new complement factor B inhibitor, iptacopan, in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria who have active haemolysis despite anti-C5 therapy.

Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial, we enrolled adult patients (aged 18-80 years) with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria who showed signs of active haemolysis despite receiving eculizumab treatment. Patients were enrolled at Federico II University Hospital (Naples, Italy), Hôpital Saint-Louis (Paris, France), and University Hospital Essen (Essen, Germany). For enrolment, patients were required to show lactate dehydrogenase more than 1·5-times the upper limit of normal and a paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria type 3 erythrocyte or granulocyte clone size of 10% or greater. Patients with bone marrow failure, on systemic steroid or immunosuppressive drugs, or with severe comorbidities were excluded from the study. Iptacopan was given orally as an add-on therapy at a dose of 200 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was the effect of iptacopan on the reduction of chronic residual intravascular haemolysis measured as change in lactate dehydrogenase from baseline value to week 13. At 13 weeks, patients could opt into a long-term study extension (ongoing), allowing for modifications of standard treatment. This trial is registered at ClinicialTrials.gov, NCT03439839.

Findings: Between May 31, 2018, and April 9, 2019, ten patients had twice daily 200 mg iptacopan. Iptacopan resulted in marked reduction of lactate dehydrogenase from baseline versus at week 13 (mean 539 IU/L [SD 263] vs 235 IU/L [44], change from baseline -309·2 IU/L [SD 265·5], 90% CI -473·77 to -144·68, p=0·0081), associated with significant improvement of haemoglobin concentrations (mean 97·7 g/L [SD 10·5] vs 129·5 g/L [18·3] change from baseline 31·9 g/L [14·5], 90% CI 23·42-40·28, p<0·0001). All biomarkers of haemolysis improved on iptacopan treatment. Observed haematological benefits were maintained longer than the 13-week study period, throughout the study extension, including seven patients who stopped concomitant standard-of-care treatment and continued iptacopan as monotherapy. There were no deaths or treatment-related serious adverse events during the study period. Of three non-related serious adverse events, two occurred in the same patient (one during run-in and before exposure to iptacopan).

Interpretation: Iptacopan at a chronic dose of 200 mg twice daily was well tolerated without any major drug-related safety findings and shows lactate dehydrogenase reduction and haemoglobin normalisation in most patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria at week 13 and beyond, even in monotherapy. On the basis of these data, iptacopan will be tested as monotherapy in pivotal trials investigating its haematological benefit in a broader paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria population.

Funding: Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00028-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy survey of the EBMT: monitoring of activities and trends over 30 years.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Numbers of Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in Europe and collaborating countries continues to rise with 48,512 HCT in 43,581 patients, comprising of 19,798 (41%) allogeneic and 28,714 (59%) autologous, reported by 700 centers in 51 countries during 2019. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,764 (25%), lymphoid malignancies 27,895 (64%), and nonmalignant disorders 3173 (7%). A marked growth in CAR-T cellular therapies from 151 in 2017 to 1134 patients in 2019 is observed. This year's analyses focus on changes over 30 years. Since the first survey in 1990 where 143 centers reported 4234 HCT, the number has increased to 700 centers and 48,512 HCT. Transplants were reported in 20 countries in 1990, and 51, 30 years later. More than 800,000 HCT in 715,000 patients were reported overall. Next to the massive expansion of HCT technology, most notable developments include the success of unrelated donor and haploidentical HCT, an increase followed by decrease in the number of cord blood transplants, use of reduced intensity HCT in older patients, and the phenomenal rise in cellular therapy. This annual report of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) reflects current activity and highlights important trends vital for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01227-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Haplo-identical or mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi anemia: Results from the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Am J Hematol 2021 05 4;96(5):571-579. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

French Reference Center for Aplastic Anemia and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria, Saint Louis Hospital and University Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative option for bone marrow failure or hematopoietic malignant diseases for Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. Although results have improved over the last decades, reaching more than 90% survival when a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donor is available, alternative HCT donors are still less reported. We compared HCT outcomes using HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMUD; n = 123) or haplo-identical donors (HDs), either using only in vivo T cell depletion (n = 33) or T cells depleted in vivo with some type of graft manipulation ex vivo (n = 59) performed for FA between 2000 and 2018. Overall survival (OS) by 24 months was 62% (53-71%) for MMUD, versus 80% (66-95%) for HDs with only in vivo T cell depletion and 60% (47-73%) for HDs with in vivo and ex vivo T cell depletion (p = .22). Event-free survival (EFS) was better for HD-transplanted FA patients with only in vivo T cell depletion 86% (73-99%) than for those transplanted from a MMUD 58% (48-68%) or those with graft manipulation 56% (42-69%) (p = .046). Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 41% (MMUD) versus 40% (HDs with no graft manipulation) versus 17% (HDs with T cell depleted graft), (p = .005). No differences were found for the other transplant related outcomes. These data suggest that HDs might be considered as an alternative option for FA patients with better EFS using unmanipulated grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26135DOI Listing
May 2021

Scoring system for clinically significant CMV infection in seropositive recipients following allogenic hematopoietic cell transplant: an SFGM-TC study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 Dec 18. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Hematology, Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, F-59000, Lille, France.

In order to identify cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients who are at risk of developing CMV infection following first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), we built up a scoring system based on patient/donor characteristics and transplantation modalities. To this end, 3690 consecutive patients were chronologically divided into a derivation cohort (2010-2012, n = 2180) and a validation cohort (2013-2014, n = 1490). Haploidentical donors were excluded. The incidence of first clinically significant CMV infection (CMV disease or CMV viremia leading to preemptive treatment) at 1, 3, and 6 months in the derivation cohort was 13.8%, 38.5%, and 39.6%, respectively. CMV-seropositive donor, unrelated donor (HLA matched 10/10 or HLA mismatched 9/10), myeloablative conditioning, total body irradiation, antithymocyte globulin, and mycophenolate mofetil significantly and independently affected the incidence of 3-month infection. These six factors were selected to build up the prognostic model. Four risk groups were defined: low, intermediate-low, intermediate-high, and high-risk categories, with a 3-month predicted incidence of first clinically significant CMV infection in the derivation cohort of 22.2%, 31.1%, 45.4%, and 56.9%, respectively. This score represents a framework for the evaluation of patients who are at risk of developing clinically significant CMV infection following allo-HCT. Prospective studies using this score may be of benefit in assessing the value of anti-CMV prophylaxis in well-defined patient cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01178-6DOI Listing
December 2020

Identification of Distinct Immunophenotypes in Critically Ill Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients.

Chest 2021 05 11;159(5):1884-1893. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Université de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes direct lung damage, overwhelming endothelial activation, and inflammatory reaction, leading to acute respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating targeted therapies to hinder this exaggerated inflammatory response. Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have shown heterogeneous severity trajectories, suggesting that response to therapies is likely to vary across patients.

Research Question: Are critically ill COVID-19 patients biologically and immunologically dissociable based on profiling of currently evaluated therapeutic targets?

Study Design And Methods: We did a single-center, prospective study in an ICU department in France. Ninety-six critically ill adult patients admitted with a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. We conducted principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering on a vast array of immunologic variables measured on the day of ICU admission.

Results: We found that patients were distributed in three clusters bearing distinct immunologic features and associated with different ICU outcomes. Cluster 1 had a "humoral immunodeficiency" phenotype with predominant B-lymphocyte defect, relative hypogammaglobulinemia, and moderate inflammation. Cluster 2 had a "hyperinflammatory" phenotype, with high cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF⍺]) associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte defects. Cluster 3 had a "complement-dependent" phenotype with terminal complement activation markers (elevated C3 and sC5b-9).

Interpretation: Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibiting cytokine release marks, complement activation, or B-lymphocyte defects are distinct from each other. Such immunologic variability argues in favor of targeting different mediators in different groups of patients and could serve as a basis for patient identification and clinical trial eligibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.11.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831685PMC
May 2021

One-year outcomes from a phase 3 randomized trial of ravulizumab in adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria who received prior eculizumab.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Mar 3;106(3):389-397. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Ravulizumab every 8 weeks showed non-inferiority to eculizumab every 2 weeks in a 26-week, phase 3, randomized controlled trial in adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) who were clinically stable on eculizumab (NCT03056040). We report results from the first 26 weeks of the extension period in which patients continued ravulizumab (n = 96) or switched from eculizumab to ravulizumab (n = 95). At week 52, mean (SD) lactate dehydrogenase levels increased 8.8% (29%) with ravulizumab-ravulizumab and 5.8% (27%) with eculizumab-ravulizumab from primary evaluation period baseline. During the extension period, four patients (ravulizumab-ravulizumab, n = 3; eculizumab-ravulizumab, n = 1) experienced breakthrough hemolysis, but none associated with serum free C5 ≥ 0.5 μg/mL. Mean Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue scores remained stable through week 52. During the extension period, proportions of patients avoiding transfusion remained stable (ravulizumab-ravulizumab, 86.5%; eculizumab-ravulizumab, 83.2%); 81.2% and 81.1%, respectively, had stabilized hemoglobin. All patients maintained serum free C5 levels < 0.5 μg/mL. Adverse events were generally similar between groups, and rates were lower in the extension period. Adults with PNH on stable eculizumab therapy who received ravulizumab over 52 weeks experienced durable efficacy, with consistent efficacy in patients who received eculizumab during the primary evaluation period and then switched to ravulizumab. Ravulizumab was well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13564DOI Listing
March 2021

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia Following Liver Transplantation for Nonviral Hepatitis: A Retrospective Analysis and a Review of the Literature by the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (SAAWP-EBMT).

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Hopital St. Louis, Paris.

Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) has been reported in 23% to 33% of patients who received orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver disease of unknown origin (nonviral hepatitis). In this situation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) might be a curative option. Here the authors report on 6 patients who received HSCT after LT for nonviral HAAA hepatitis. The outcomes were interpreted in the context of recently reported immune suppressive therapy (IST) outcomes in 8 patients with HAAA and to HSCT outcomes in patients with HAAA who recovered from hepatitis without undergoing LT. All patients transplanted by using HLA-identical sibling donors (3 out of 6) were alive and had normal liver function and hematopoiesis without graft versus host disease. Both patients receiving bone marrow from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) experienced extensive graft versus host disease that was fatal for one patient. Thereby, the authors conclude that HSCT can be considered as a first-choice treatment for this category of patients when HLA-identical donors are available. When no HLA-identical donor is available, IST should be applied as HSCT with other donor sources might be reserved for IST nonresponders or poor responders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001991DOI Listing
December 2020

Pyoderma Gangrenosum Revealing Myeloid Activation of Fanconi Anaemia: Two Case Reports.

Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Dec 1;100(19):adv00338. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Dermatology, Hôpital Cochin, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, AP-HP Centre-Université de Paris, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3671DOI Listing
December 2020

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 3;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Dermatology, APHP, Saint-Louis Hospital, F-75010 Paris, France.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are non-Hodgkin lymphomas that develop primarily in the skin. They account for almost 80% of primary cutaneous lymphomas. Epidermotropic CTCLs (mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS)) are the most common form of CTCL. The course of the disease ranges from an indolent clinical behavior in early-stage disease to an aggressive evolution in the advanced stages. Advanced-stage disease is defined by the presence of tumors, erythroderma, or significant blood, nodal or visceral involvement. Advanced-stage disease is characterized by frequent disease relapses, refractory disease, a severely impaired quality of life and reduced overall survival. In the last twenty-five years, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has led to prolonged remissions in advanced CTCL, presumably linked to a graft-versus-lymphoma effect and is thus emerging as a potential cure of the disease. However, the high post-transplant relapse rate and severe morbidity and mortality associated with graft-versus-host disease and infections are important issues. Allogeneic HSCT is thus mostly considered in young patients with no comorbidities and an aggressive, advanced-stage CTCL. Allogeneic HSCT gives the best results in patients with a pre-transplant complete remission of the lymphoma. For this reason, one of the challenges is to define the best time to consider allogeneic HSCT in the disease course. Early identification of patients at high risk for progression is important to identify candidates who may benefit from allogeneic HSCT before their disease becomes treatment-refractory. This review describes the role of allogeneic HSCT in CTCL, summarizes the published data and future perspectives in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601655PMC
October 2020

Development of a patient-reported outcome questionnaire for aplastic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PRO-AA/PNH).

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 09 17;15(1):249. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Division of Hematology, University Hospital Basel, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The introduction of new therapy modalities has significantly improved the outcome of aplastic anemia (AA) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients. However, relatively little is known about the exact disease burden of AA/PNH since standardized assessments of symptoms including health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are frequently missing or inadequately designed for this rare patient group. We aimed to develop AA/PNH-specific questionnaires for self-reporting of symptoms, which could be included in electronic platforms for data collection and patient care.

Methods: By scoping review, we extracted any reported symptoms in AA/PNH and their prevalence from the literature (Phase I). Consensus rounds with patients and medical experts were conducted to identify core symptoms reported in the literature and to add missing items (Phase II). Ultimately, AA/PNH-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires including the selected measures were designed (Phase III).

Results: AA symptoms from 62 and PNH symptoms from 45 observational studies were extracted from the literature. Twenty-four patients and seven medical experts identified 11 core symptoms including HRQoL issues after three consensus rounds. Significant differences in the symptom ranking of patients versus medical experts could be observed. Therefore, patient- as well as expert-centered PRO questionnaires in AA and PNH were created following the concepts of validated instruments.

Conclusion: The development of symptom self-reporting questionnaires for AA and PNH was feasible and the disease-specific PRO questionnaires can now be validated within a web-based workflow in a subsequent feasibility study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01532-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495826PMC
September 2020

Cellular and molecular profiling of T-cell subsets at the onset of human acute GVHD.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(16):3927-3942

Immunoregulation Unit, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

The cellular and molecular processes involved in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) development early after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in humans remain largely unknown. We have performed multiparameter immunophenotyping and molecular profiling of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 2 independent cohorts of patients undergoing HCT, as well as in their HLA-identical sibling donors. Cellular profiling using spectral flow cytometry showed an incomplete reconstitution of the T-cell compartment in recipients without aGVHD early after transplantation, as well as a shift toward an effector memory phenotype, paralleled by depletion of the naive T-cell pool. Molecular profiling of T-cell populations in donors vs recipients without aGVHD revealed increased pathway activity of >40 gene modules in recipients. These pathways were associated in particular with T-cell activation, adhesion, migration, and effector functions. Cellular profiles from recipients developing aGVHD displayed an enrichment of cells with a T memory stem cell-like phenotype compared with recipients without aGVHD. Comparison of gene profiles from these recipients revealed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling was most significantly downregulated, whereas the pathway activity of NF-κB-associated transcription factors and signaling pathways were increased, at aGVHD onset. This study suggests that the integration of cellular and molecular profiles provides new insights into the development of aGVHD in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448585PMC
August 2020

Elastography improves accuracy of early hepato-biliary complications diagnosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Haematologica 2020 07 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Hematology and transplantation unit, Saint Louis Hospital, APHP, Paris, France;

Significant morbidity and mortality have been associated with liver complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Causes and consequences of these hepato-biliary complications are various and might be life-threatening. A high misdiagnosis rate has been reported because of a weak correlation between clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Liver elastography, a liver stiffness measure, is able to assess liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in most liver diseases, but data after allo-HSCT are scarce. Our aim was to determine the interest of sequential liver stiffness measurements for the diagnosis of early hepatic complications after allo-HSCT. Over a two years period of time, 161 consecutive adult patients were included and 146 were analyzed. Ultrasonography and elastography measurements were performed before transplantation, at day+7 and day+14 by three different experienced radiologists unaware of patients'clinical status. Eighty-one (55%) patients had liver involvements within the first 100 days after allo-HSCT. Baseline elastography was not predictive for the occurrence of overall liver abnormalities. A significant increase in 2D real-time shearwave elastography (2D-SWE) was found in patients with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Fifteen patients (10%) fulfilled EBMT score criteria and twelve (8%) reached Baltimore criteria for SOS diagnosis, but only six (4%) had a confirmed SOS. 2D-SWE at day+14 allowed early detection of SOS (AUROC=0.84, p=0.004) and improved sensibility (75%), specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (60%) over the Seattle, Baltimore or EBMT scores. A 2D-SWE measurement above 8.1kPa at day+14 after allo-HSCT seems a promising, non-invasive, and reproducible tool for early and accurate diagnosis of SOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.245407DOI Listing
July 2020

Risk factors for vascular liver diseases: Vascular liver diseases: position papers from the francophone network for vascular liver diseases, the French Association for the Study of the Liver (AFEF), and ERN-rare liver.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020 09 7;44(4):410-419. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Laboratory Hematology, Beaujon Hospital AP-HP, 100, boulevard du Général Leclerc, 92118 Clichy, France; French Network for Rare Liver Diseases FILFOIE, Saint-Antoine Hospital AP-HP, 184, rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France; Reference center of vascular liver diseases, European Reference Network (ERN) Rare-Liver.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.03.010DOI Listing
September 2020

Long-term outcomes and risk factor analysis of steroid-refractory graft versus host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 01 25;56(1):38-49. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Assistance Publique Hôpitaux des Paris, Saint Louis Hospital, Hematology and Transplantation Unit, Paris, France.

Steroid-refractory graft versus host disease (GVHD) represents a fearsome complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a retrospective study on outcomes and risk factors associated with acute and chronic steroid-refractory GVHD in a large cohort of 1207 patients receiving HSCT in Saint Louis Hospital between 2007 and 2017. Among patients who developed an acute and/or a chronic GVHD, the cumulative incidences of acute and chronic steroid-refractory disease were 31% and 48%, respectively, at day +100 and 1-year post-HSCT. Through a multivariable analysis we selected several risk factors associated with the development of a steroid-refractory disease. For acute GVHD steroid refractoriness, we identified (1) a very high disease risk index, (2) an unrelated donor, (3) the absence of in vivo T-depletion as GVHD prophylaxis, and (4) a reduced intensity conditioning regimen. For chronic GVHD, (1) the use of peripheral blood stem cells, (2) unrelated donors, and (3) absence of in vivo T-depletion were more likely associated with a steroid-refractory disease. After the construction of a multistate dynamic model, we found that the probability of being alive without relapse after the resolution of all GVHD episodes was about 36% in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0977-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Sequential allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for active refractory/relapsed myeloid malignancies: results of a reduced-intensity conditioning preceded by clofarabine and cytosine arabinoside, a retrospective study on behalf of the SFGM-TC.

Ann Hematol 2020 Aug 20;99(8):1855-1862. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Hematology, CHU Hôtel Dieu, Place A. Ricordeau, 44093, Nantes Cedex, France.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) represents the most beneficial treatment for patients with active relapsed/refractory (R/R) hematologic malignancies. Recently, sequential regimens combining debulking chemotherapy followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) have shown encouraging results for these patients. In this retrospective study, we report the extended results of a sequential regimen of clofarabine, cytosine arabinoside, and RIC in 131 adults with active R/R myeloid disease at transplant. Conditioning consisted of clofarabine (30 mg/m/day) and cytosine arabinoside (1 g/m/day) for 5 days, followed, after a rest of 3 days, by an RIC combining cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg) for 1 day, iv busulfan (3.2 mg/kg/day) for 2 days, and anti-thymocyte globulin (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 2 days. Between 2007 and 2016, 131 patients (males n = 75, median age: 52.6 years) were identified from the SFGM-TC registry. There were 111 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and 20 cases with myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative syndrome. Status at transplant was known for all but 4 patients and was primary refractory (n = 81) and 1st or 2nd relapse (n = 46). All patients received allo-SCT from a matched donor (sibling n = 64, unrelated n = 67). Engraftment was observed in 105/122 (86%) evaluable cases and 63% of the patients achieved complete remission (CR) after transplant. The 1-year overall survival, disease-free survival, relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, and graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival were 39.2%, 28.1%, 41.0%, 30.8%, and 22.2%, respectively. This study confirms that this sequential clofarabine-based regimen provides a high CR rate in this critical population, although relapse remains a matter of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04074-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Human-Derived α1-Antitrypsin is Still Efficacious in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Steroid-Resistant Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 09 25;26(9):1620-1626. Epub 2020 May 25.

Service d'Hématologie-greffe, Hôpital Saint Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; Université de Paris, INSERM U976, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Almost one-half of patients developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) will not respond to standard first-line steroid treatment. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is able to induce tolerance in preclinical models of GVHD. AAT alters the cytokine milieu, promotes a tolerogenic shift of dendritic cells, and skews effector T cells toward regulatory T cells. Gastrointestinal steroid-refractory (SR)-GVHD is a protein-losing enteropathy that might represent the optimal setting in which to use AAT. Here we analyze the outcomes of 16 patients treated with human-derived AAT in advanced-stage gut SR-GVHD, with two-thirds of the patients having failed at least 1 treatment for SR-GVHD. The overall response rate (ORR) was 44%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 27%. Gastrointestinal response was observed in 61% of patients. The median time to best response was 21 days (range, 6 to 26 days). At day 56 after AAT treatment, all CRs were maintained, and the ORR was 39%. The 1-year overall survival was 48% (95% confidence interval, 26% to 74%). Ancillary studies showed that AAT serum levels were in the normal range at the beginning of treatment, whereas fecal loss was elevated. AAT levels consistently rose after exogenous administration, but no correlation was found between serum levels and response. REG3α and IL-33 levels were associated with response while, in contrast to previous reports, regulatory T cells decreased during AAT treatment. This retrospective analysis supports a previous report of AAT as a promising agent in the management of gut SR-GVHD and should prompt its evaluation at an earlier stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.014DOI Listing
September 2020

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of ravulizumab and eculizumab on complement component 5 in adults with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria: results of two phase 3 randomised, multicentre studies.

Br J Haematol 2020 11 24;191(3):476-485. Epub 2020 May 24.

Clinical Haematology at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, The Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Ravulizumab, a novel long-acting complement component 5 (C5) inhibitor administered every 8 weeks (q8w), was non-inferior to eculizumab for all efficacy outcomes in two randomised, open-label, phase 3 trials in C5 inhibitor-naïve (Study 301) and eculizumab-experienced (Study 302) adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). This pre-specified analysis characterised ravulizumab pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD; free C5 levels), and PD differences between medications (Study 301, n = 246; Study 302, n = 195). Ravulizumab PK parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. Serum free C5 was quantified with a Gyros-based fluorescence assay (ravulizumab) and an electrochemiluminescence ligand-binding assay (eculizumab). Ravulizumab PK parameters were numerically comparable in both studies; the median time to maximum concentrations ranged from 2·3 to 2·8 and 2·3 to 2·6 h in studies 301 and 302, respectively. Ravulizumab steady-state serum concentrations were achieved immediately after the first dose and sustained throughout treatment. For ravulizumab, the mean (SD) post hoc terminal elimination half-life was 49·7 (8·9) days. Serum free C5 concentrations <0·5 µg/ml were achieved after the first ravulizumab dose and sustained throughout treatment in both studies. In a minority of patients, free C5 concentrations <0·5 µg/ml were not consistently achieved with eculizumab in either study. Ravulizumab q8w was more consistent in providing immediate, complete, sustained C5 inhibition than eculizumab every-2-weeks in patients with PNH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687070PMC
November 2020

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for peripheral T cell lymphomas: a retrospective study in 285 patients from the Société Francophone de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

J Hematol Oncol 2020 05 19;13(1):56. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Background: Peripheral T cell lymphomas form a heterogeneous group with a usually dismal prognostic. The place of allogeneic stem cell transplantation to treat PTCL is debated.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), relapse, and transplant-related mortality (TRM) and associated variables in 285 adults with non-primary cutaneous PTCL (PCTL-NOS (39%), angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphomas (29%), anaplastic T cell lymphomas (15%), and other subtypes (17%)), who received alloSCT in 34 centers between 2006 and 2014.

Results: AlloSCT was given as part of front-line therapy (n = 138) to 93 patients in first complete response (CR) and 45 in first partial response (PR), and of salvage therapy (n = 147) to 116 patients for second or more CR/PR and 31 for progressive disease. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) was given to 172 patients (62%), while 107 (38%) received myeloablative conditioning (MAC). The median follow-up was 72.4 months. The 2- and 4-year OS were 65% and 59%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of relapse was 18% after 1 year and 19% after 2 years. TRM was 21% at 1 year, 24% after 2 years, and 28% after 4 years. In multivariate analysis, grade III-IV acute GvHD (HR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.53-4.31; p = 0.00036), low Karnofsky score < 80% (HR = 5.14, 95% CI 2.02-13.06; p = 0.00058), and progressive disease status before transplant (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.25-3.89; p = 0.0062) were significantly associated with a reduced OS.

Conclusions: The data demonstrate in the largest retrospective cohort of non-cutaneous PTCL so far reported that alloSCT after RIC or MAC is an effective strategy, even in chemoresistant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00892-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236365PMC
May 2020

Expansion of Circulating CD49bLAG3 Type 1 Regulatory T Cells in Human Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jan 16;141(1):193-197.e2. Epub 2020 May 16.

INSERM U976, Human Immunology, Pathophysiology and Immunotherapy, Institut de Recherche Saint-Louis, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France; Institut de Recherche Saint-Louis, Université de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France; Service de Dermatologie, AP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2020.04.018DOI Listing
January 2021

Ruxolitinib for steroid-resistant acute GVHD.

Blood 2020 05;135(20):1721-1722

Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005364DOI Listing
May 2020

The challenge of COVID-19 and hematopoietic cell transplantation; EBMT recommendations for management of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, their donors, and patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 13;55(11):2071-2076. Epub 2020 May 13.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread over the world causing the disease by WHO called COVID-19. This pandemic poses unprecedented stress on the health care system including programs performing allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and cellular therapy such as with CAR T cells. Risk factors for severe disease include age and predisposing conditions such as cancer. The true impact on stem cell transplant and CAR T-cell recipients in unknown. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) has therefore developed recommendations for transplant programs and physicians caring for these patients. These guidelines were developed by experts from the Infectious Diseases Working Party and have been endorsed by EBMT's scientific council and board. This work intends to provide guidelines for transplant centers, management of transplant candidates and recipients, and donor issues until the COVID-19 pandemic has passed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0919-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220575PMC
November 2020

Added prognostic value of secondary AML-like gene mutations in ELN intermediate-risk older AML: ALFA-1200 study results.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):1942-1949

Department of Hematology, Saint-Louis Institute for Research, Université de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

In this study, we aimed to refine prognostication of older with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after intensive chemotherapy. Five hundred and nine patients aged 60 years or older (median age, 68 years) were prospectively enrolled in the intensive Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA)-1200 trial between 2012 and 2016, and 471 patient samples were submitted to multigene analysis. Mutations in any of 8 genes frequently altered in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including ASXL1, SRSF2, STAG2, BCOR, U2AF1, EZH2, SF3B1, and ZRSR2, defined a secondary AML (sAML)-like disease, as reported. Of the samples analyzed, 48% included sAML-like gene mutations. These mutations were associated with a shorter event-free survival, both overall (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.79; P < .001) and within the European LeukemiaNet (ELN)-2017 intermediate-risk subgroup (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.28; P = .044), which excludes ASXL1-mutated cases by definition. We therefore included patients with intermediate-risk AML carrying sAML-like mutations in a single high-risk patients group together with adverse-risk patients with AML, whereas other intermediate-risk patients were included in a standard-risk group together with favorable-risk patients (high-risk/standard-risk patient ratio, 1.00). Using this 2-class risk assessment, we observed that transplantation prolonged overall survival from remission in patients with high-risk AML only, not in patients with standard-risk AML. Routine analysis of sAML-like gene mutations may thus improve the definition of high-risk older patients with AML, and better identify the half of older patients who clearly derive survival benefit from allogeneic transplantation in first remission. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01966497.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218423PMC
May 2020