Publications by authors named "Qurban Ali"

34 Publications

Novel approaches to circumvent the devastating effects of pests on sugarcane.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12428. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a cash crop grown commercially for its higher amounts of sucrose, stored within the mature internodes of the stem. Numerous studies have been done for the resistance development against biotic and abiotic stresses to save the sucrose yields. Quality and yield of sugarcane production is always threatened by the damages of cane borers and weeds. In current study two problems were better addressed through the genetic modification of sugarcane for provision of resistance against insects and weedicide via the expression of two modified cane borer resistant CEMB-Cry1Ac (1.8 kb), CEMB-Cry2A (1.9 kb) and one glyphosate tolerant CEMB-GTGene (1.4 kb) genes, driven by maize Ubiquitin Promoter and nos terminator. Insect Bio-toxicity assays were carried out for the assessment of Cry proteins through mortality percent of shoot borer Chilo infuscatellus at 2nd instar larvae stage. During V, V and V generations young leaves from the transgenic sugarcane plants were collected at plant age of 20, 40, 60, 80 days and fed to the Chilo infuscatellus larvae. Up to 100% mortality of Chilo infuscatellus from 80 days old transgenic plants of V generation indicated that these transgenic plants were highly resistant against shoot borer and the gene expression level is sufficient to provide complete resistance against target pests. Glyphosate spray assay was carried out for complete removal of weeds. In V-generation, 70-76% transgenic sugarcane plants were found tolerant against glyphosate spray (3000 mL/ha) under field conditions. While in V-generation, the replicates of five selected lines 4L/2, 5L/5, 6L/5, L8/4, and L9/6 were found 100% tolerant against 3000 mL/ha glyphosate spray. It is evident from current study that CEMB-GTGene, CEMB-Cry1Ac and CEMB-Cry2A genes expression in sugarcane variety CPF-246 showed an efficient resistance against cane borers (Chilo infuscatellus) and was also highly tolerant against glyphosate spray. The selected transgenic sugarcane lines showed sustainable resistance against cane borer and glyphosate spray can be further exploited at farmer's field level after fulfilling the biosafety requirements to boost the sugarcane production in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91985-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203629PMC
June 2021

Nematicidal Volatiles from GBSC56 Promote Growth and Stimulate Induced Systemic Resistance in Tomato against .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 10;22(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

volatiles to control plant nematodes is a topic of great interest among researchers due to its safe and environmentally friendly nature. strain GBSC56 isolated from the Tibet region of China showed high nematicidal activity against , with 90% mortality as compared with control in a partition plate experiment. Pure volatiles produced by GBSC56 were identified through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 3 volatiles, i.e., dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methyl isovalerate (MIV), and 2-undecanone (2-UD) showed strong nematicidal activity with a mortality rate of 87%, 83%, and 80%, respectively, against . The VOCs induced severe oxidative stress in nematodes, which caused rapid death. Moreover, in the presence of volatiles, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., SOD, CAT, POD, and APX, was observed to be enhanced in -infested roots, which might reduce the adverse effect of oxidative stress-induced after infection. Moreover, genes responsible for plant growth promotion , , and showed an upsurge in expression, while was downregulated in infested plants. Furthermore, the defense-related genes (, , and ) in infested tomato plants were upregulated after treatment with MIV and 2-UD. These findings suggest that GBSC56 possesses excellent biocontrol potential against . Furthermore, the study provides new insight into the mechanism by which GBSC56 nematicidal volatiles regulate antioxidant enzymes, the key genes involved in plant growth promotion, and the defense mechanism -infested tomato plants use to efficiently manage root-knot disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22095049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126219PMC
May 2021

Research advances and applications of biosensing technology for the diagnosis of pathogens in sustainable agriculture.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 19;28(8):9002-9019. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Plant diseases significantly impact the global economy, and plant pathogenic microorganisms such as nematodes, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and viroids may be the etiology for most infectious diseases. In agriculture, the development of disease-free plants is an important strategy for the determination of the survival and productivity of plants in the field. This article reviews biosensor methods of disease detection that have been used effectively in other fields, and these methods could possibly transform the production methods of the agricultural industry. The precise identification of plant pathogens assists in the assessment of effective management steps for minimization of production loss. The new plant pathogen detection methods include evaluation of signs of disease, detection of cultured organisms, or direct examination of contaminated tissues through molecular and serological techniques. Laboratory-based approaches are costly and time-consuming and require specialized skills. The conclusions of this review also indicate that there is an urgent need for the establishment of a reliable, fast, accurate, responsive, and cost-effective testing method for the detection of field plants at early stages of growth. We also summarized new emerging biosensor technologies, including isothermal amplification, detection of nanomaterials, paper-based techniques, robotics, and lab-on-a-chip analytical devices. However, these constitute novelty in the research and development of approaches for the early diagnosis of pathogens in sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12419-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Silicon mediated improvement in the growth and ion homeostasis by decreasing Na uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars exposed to salinity stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jan 26;158:208-218. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan; Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Silicon (Si), a major contributing constituent for plant resistance against abiotic stresses. In spite of this, the detailed mechanisms underlying the potential of Si in mitigating salt toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) are still poorly understood. The present study deals with the response of Si application on growth, gaseous exchange, ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzyme activities in two maize cultivars (P1574 and Hycorn 11) grown under saline conditions. Salt stress remarkably reduced the plant tissue (roots and shoots) biomass, relative water contents (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), gaseous exchange characteristics, and antioxidant enzymatic activities i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT). However, salt-induced phytotoxicity increased the plant tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (HO), Na/K ionic ratio, Na translocation (root to shoot), and its uptake. The detrimental effects were more prominent in Hycorn 11 cultivar than the P1574 cultivar at higher salinity level (S2; 160 mM NaCl). The addition of Si alleviated salt toxicity, which was more obvious in P1574 relative to Hycorn 11 as demonstrated by an increasing trend in RWC, MSI, and activities of SOD, POD, APX and CAT. Besides, Si-induced mitigation of salt stress was due to the depreciation in Na/K ratio, Na ion uptake at the surface of maize roots, translocation in plant tissues and thereby significantly reduced Na ion accumulation. The findings showed a new dimension regarding the beneficial role of Si in maize plants grown under salt toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.10.040DOI Listing
January 2021

Zinc-lysine Supplementation Mitigates Oxidative Stress in Rapeseed ( L.) by Preventing Phytotoxicity of Chromium, When Irrigated with Tannery Wastewater.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Contamination of soil and water with metals and metalloids is one of the most serious problems worldwide due to a lack of a healthy diet and food scarcity. Moreover, the cultivation of oilseed crops such as rapeseed ( L.) with tannery wastewater could contain a large amount of toxic heavy metals [e.g., chromium (Cr)], which ultimately reduce its yield and directly influence oilseed quality. To overcome Cr toxicity in , a pot experiment was conducted to enhance plant growth and biomass by using newly introduced role of micronutrient-amino chelates [Zinc-lysine (Zn-lys)], which was irrigated with different levels [0% (control), 33%, 66%, and 100%] of tannery wastewater. According to the results of present findings, very high content of Cr in the wastewater directly affected plant growth and composition as well as gas exchange parameters, while boosting up the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced oxidative damage in the roots and leaves of . However, activities of antioxidants initially increased (33% of wastewater), but further addition of tannery wastewater in the soil caused a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, which also manifested by Zn content, while the conscious addition of wastewater significantly increased Cr content in the roots and shoots of . To reduce Cr toxicity in plants, exogenous supplementation of Zn-lys (10 mg/L) plays an effective role in increasing morpho-physiological attributes of and also reduces the oxidative stress in the roots and leaves of the oilseed crop (). Enhancement in different growth attributes was directly linked with increased in antioxidative enzymes while decreased uptake and accumulation of Cr content in when cultivated in wastewater with the application of Zn-lys. Zn-lys, therefore, plays a protective role in reducing the Cr toxicity of through an increase in plant growth and lowering of Cr uptake in various plant organs. However, further studies at field levels are required to explore the mechanisms of Zn-lys mediated reduction of Cr and possibly other heavy metal toxicity in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9091145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569802PMC
September 2020

Foliar application of gibberellic acid endorsed phytoextraction of copper and alleviates oxidative stress in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) plant grown in highly copper-contaminated soil of China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 24;27(29):37121-37133. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Copper (Cu) is an abundant essential micronutrient element in various rocks and minerals and is required for a variety of metabolic processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, excess Cu can disturb normal development by adversely affecting biochemical reactions and physiological processes in plants. The present study was conducted to explore the potential of gibberellic acid (GA) on fibrous jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) seedlings grown on Cu mining soil obtained from Hubei Province China. Exogenous application of GA (10, 50, and 100 mg/L) on 60-day-old seedlings of C. capsularis which was able to grow in highly Cu-contaminated soil (2221 mg/kg) to study different morphological, physiological, and Cu uptake and accumulation in different parts of C. capsularis seedlings. According to the results, increasing concentration of GA (more likely 100 mg/L) alleviates Cu toxicity in C. capsularis seedlings by increasing plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gaseous exchange attributes. The results also showed that exogenous application of GA reduced oxidative stress in C. capsularis seedlings by the generation of extra reactive oxygen species (ROS). The reduction in oxidative stress in C. capsularis seedlings is because that plant has strong enzymatic antioxidants [superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT)], which ultimately increased their activities to overcome oxidative damage in the cells/tissues. In addition to the plant growth, biomass, and photosynthesis, foliar application of GA also helps to increase metal (Cu) concentration in different parts of the plants when compared to 0 mg/L of application of GA. From these findings, we can conclude that foliar application of GA plays a promising role in reducing ROS generation in the plant cells/tissues and increased phytoextraction of Cu in different plant parts. However, more investigation is needed on field experiments to find a combination of GA with a very higher concentration of Cu using fibrous C. capsularis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09764-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Microbial Proteases Applications.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2019 12;7:110. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

The use of chemicals around the globe in different industries has increased tremendously, affecting the health of people. The modern world intends to replace these noxious chemicals with environmental friendly products for the betterment of life on the planet. Establishing enzymatic processes in spite of chemical processes has been a prime objective of scientists. Various enzymes, specifically microbial proteases, are the most essentially used in different corporate sectors, such as textile, detergent, leather, feed, waste, and others. Proteases with respect to physiological and commercial roles hold a pivotal position. As they are performing synthetic and degradative functions, proteases are found ubiquitously, such as in plants, animals, and microbes. Among different producers of proteases, sp. are mostly commercially exploited microbes for proteases. Proteases are successfully considered as an alternative to chemicals and an eco-friendly indicator for nature or the surroundings. The evolutionary relationship among acidic, neutral, and alkaline proteases has been analyzed based on their protein sequences, but there remains a lack of information that regulates the diversity in their specificity. Researchers are looking for microbial proteases as they can tolerate harsh conditions, ways to prevent autoproteolytic activity, stability in optimum pH, and substrate specificity. The current review focuses on the comparison among different proteases and the current problems faced during production and application at the industrial level. Deciphering these issues would enable us to promote microbial proteases economically and commercially around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6584820PMC
June 2019

Glycosylation of Recombinant Anticancer Therapeutics in Different Expression Systems with Emerging Technologies.

Cancer Res 2018 06 22;78(11):2787-2798. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Microbiology, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Glycosylation, a posttranslational modification, has a major role in recombinant anticancer therapeutic proteins, as most of the approved recombinant therapeutics are glycoproteins. The constant amino acid sequence of therapeutics determines the enzymatic activity, while the presence of glycans influences their pharmacokinetics, solubility, distribution, serum half-life, effector function, and binding to receptors. Glycoproteins expressed in different expression systems acquire their own oligosaccharides, which increases the protein diversity. The heterogeneity of glycans creates hurdles in downstream processing, ultimately leading to variable anticancer therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, glycoproteins require an appropriate expression system to obtain structurally and functionally identical glycans, as in humans. In many expression systems, the -glycosylation pathway remains conserved in the endoplasmic reticulum, but divergence is observed when the protein enters the Golgi complex. Hence, in recent decades, numerous approaches have been adopted to engineer the Golgi's -glycosylation pathway to attain human-like glycans. Several researchers have tried to engineer the -glycosylation pathway of expression systems. In this review, we examine the glycosylation pattern in various expression systems, along with emerging technologies for glycosylation engineering of anticancer therapeutic drugs. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0032DOI Listing
June 2018

Role of Molecular Biology in Cancer Treatment: A Review Article.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Nov;46(11):1475-1485

Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: Cancer is a genetic disease and mainly arises due to a number of reasons include activation of onco-genes, malfunction of tumor suppressor genes or mutagenesis due to external factors.

Methods: This article was written from the data collected from PubMed, Nature, Science Direct, Springer and Elsevier groups of journals.

Results: Oncogenes are deregulated form of normal proto-oncogenes required for cell division, differentiation and regulation. The conversion of proto-oncogene to oncogene is caused due to translocation, rearrangement of chromosomes or mutation in gene due to addition, deletion, duplication or viral infection. These oncogenes are targeted by drugs or RNAi system to prevent proliferation of cancerous cells. There have been developed different techniques of molecular biology used to diagnose and treat cancer, including retroviral therapy, silencing of oncogenes and mutations in tumor suppressor genes.

Conclusion: Among all the techniques used, RNAi, zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR hold a brighter future towards creating a Cancer Free World.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696686PMC
November 2017

Molecular Approaches for High Throughput Detection and Quantification of Genetically Modified Crops: A Review.

Front Plant Sci 2017 16;8:1670. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

As long as the genetically modified crops are gaining attention globally, their proper approval and commercialization need accurate and reliable diagnostic methods for the transgenic content. These diagnostic techniques are mainly divided into two major groups, i.e., identification of transgenic (1) DNA and (2) proteins from GMOs and their products. Conventional methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were routinely employed for DNA and protein based quantification respectively. Although, these Techniques (PCR and ELISA) are considered as significantly convenient and productive, but there is need for more advance technologies that allow for high throughput detection and the quantification of GM event as the production of more complex GMO is increasing day by day. Therefore, recent approaches like microarray, capillary gel electrophoresis, digital PCR and next generation sequencing are more promising due to their accuracy and precise detection of transgenic contents. The present article is a brief comparative study of all such detection techniques on the basis of their advent, feasibility, accuracy, and cost effectiveness. However, these emerging technologies have a lot to do with detection of a specific event, contamination of different events and determination of fusion as well as stacked gene protein are the critical issues to be addressed in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5650622PMC
October 2017

Phenotypic Stability of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits under Drought Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2017 22;8:1397. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabad, Pakistan.

Phenotypic stability under stress environment facilitate the fitness of genotype and opens new horizons to explore the cryptic genetic variation. Variation in tolerance to drought stress, a major grain yield constraint to global maize production, was identified, at the phenotypic and genotypic level. Here we found a prominent hybrid H that showed fitness over four growing seasons for grain yield under water stress conditions. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation of yield attributing traits over four seasons demonstrated that cobs per plant, 100 seed weight, number of grains rows per cob, total dry matter, cob diameter had positive association ( = 0.3-0.9) to grain yield. The perturbation was found for chlorophyll content as it showed moderate to strong association ( < 0.01) over four seasons, might be due to environment or genotype dependent. Highest heritability (95%) and genetic advance (79%) for grain yield was found in H over four consecutive crop growing seasons. Combined analysis over four seasons showed that studied variables together explained 85% of total variation in dependent structure (grain yield) obtained by Principal component analysis. This significant finding is the best example of phenotypic stability of grain yield in H and made it best fitted for grain yield under drought stress scenario. Detailed genetic analysis of H will help us to identify significant loci and alleles that made H the best fitted and it could serve as a potential source to generate novel transgressive levels of tolerance for drought stress in arid/semiarid regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5572255PMC
August 2017

MCMV Silencing Concludes Potential Host-Derived miRNAs in Maize.

Front Plant Sci 2017 28;8:372. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan.

Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) is a deleterious pathogen which causes Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) that results in substantial yield loss of Maize crop worldwide. The positive-sense RNA genome of MCMV (4.4 kb) encodes six proteins: P32 (32 kDa protein), RNA dependent RNA polymerases (P50 and P111), P31 (31 kDa protein), P7 (7 kDa protein), coat protein (25 kDa). P31, P7 and coat protein are encoded from sgRNA1, located at the 3'end of the genome and sgRNA2 is located at the extremity of the 3'genome end. The objective of this study is to locate the possible attachment sites of derived miRNAs in the genome of MCMV using four diverse miRNA target prediction algorithms. In total, 321 mature miRNAs were retrieved from miRBase (miRNA database) and were tested for hybridization of MCMV genome. These algorithms considered the parameters of seed pairing, minimum free energy, target site accessibility, multiple target sites, pattern recognition and folding energy for attachment. Out of 321 miRNAs only 10 maize miRNAs are predicted for silencing of MCMV genome. The results of this study can hence act as the first step towards the development of MCMV resistant transgenic Maize plants through expression of the selected miRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368279PMC
March 2017

HIV Diagnosis and Treatment through Advanced Technologies.

Front Public Health 2017 7;5:32. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab , Lahore , Pakistan.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the chief contributor to global burden of disease. In 2010, HIV was the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in people of all ages and leading cause for people aged 30-44 years. It is classified as a member of the family Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus based on the biological, morphological, and genetic properties. It infects different cells of the immune system, such as CD4+ T cells (T-helper cells), dendritic cells, and macrophages. HIV has two subtypes: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Among these strains, HIV-1 is the most virulent and pathogenic. Advanced diagnostic methods are exploring new ways of treatment and contributing in the reduction of HIV cases. The diagnostic techniques like PCR, rapid test, EIA, p24 antigen, and western blot have markedly upgraded the diagnosis of HIV. Antiretroviral therapy and vaccines are promising candidates in providing therapeutic and preventive regimes, respectively. Invention of CRISPR/Cas9 is a breakthrough in the field of HIV disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339269PMC
March 2017

Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Jan 28;10(1):73. Epub 2017 Jan 28.

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road,Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: The seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis were studied at animal and herd level using a combination of culture, serological and molecular methods. The study was conducted in 253 randomly selected cattle herds of the Potohar plateau, Pakistan from which a total of 2709 serum (1462 cattle and 1247 buffaloes) and 2330 milk (1168 cattle and 1162 buffaloes) samples were collected. Data on risk factors associated with seroprevalence of brucellosis were collected through interviews using questionnaires. Univariable and multivariable random effects logistic regression models were used for identifying important risk factors at animal and herd levels.

Results: One hundred and seventy (6.3%) samples and 47 (18.6%) herds were seropositive for brucellosis by Rose Bengal Plate test. Variations in seroprevalence were observed across the different sampling sites. At animal level, sex, species and stock replacement were found to be potential risk factors for brucellosis. At herd level, herd size (≥9 animals) and insemination method used were important risk factors. The presence of Brucella DNA was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) in 52.4% out of 170 serological positive samples. In total, 156 (6.7%) milk samples were positive by milk ring test. B. abortus biovar 1 was cultured from 5 positive milk samples.

Conclusion: This study shows that the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis is high in some regions in Pakistan. Prevalence was associated with herd size, abortion history, insemination methods used, age, sex and stock replacement methods. The infected animal may act as source of infection for other animals and for humans. The development of control strategies for bovine brucellosis through implementation of continuous surveillance and education programs in Pakistan is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2394-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5273848PMC
January 2017

Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

BMC Infect Dis 2016 09 2;16:468. Epub 2016 Sep 2.

National Veterinary Laboratories, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.

Results: Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p <0.05). In multiple logistic regression models only the contact with animals remained as independent and robust risk factor (odds ratio 5.21; 95 % CI: 1.88-13.75; p = 0.001) for seropositivity.

Conclusion: Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1799-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010707PMC
September 2016

Evaluation of Risk Factors for Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Sheep and Goats at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Punjab Province, Pakistan.

Biomed Res Int 2016 15;2016:7826245. Epub 2016 May 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7054, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is causing infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in domestic and wild small ruminants of Pakistan with valuable economical losses. The present study was carried out to investigate risk factors of PPRV in domestic small ruminants which were present in the vicinity of wildlife parks. A total of 265 sera samples (27 wild ruminants and 238 domesticated small ruminants) from apparently healthy animals from two different wildlife parks were collected and analysed for PPRV antibodies. Also, 20 nasal swabs from domestic small ruminants showing respiratory signs were collected to check for presence of PPRV antigen. Competitive ELISA revealed highest proportions of anti-PPRV antibodies in domestic small ruminants around the Wildlife Park at Lahore (35%) as compared to Faisalabad (13%), with no existence of PPRV antibodies in tested serum of wild ruminants at these parks. Higher seropositivity was observed in females (25.6%) than in males (5.1%) and in goats (34.5%) compared to sheep (11.2%). The results of N-gene based RT-PCR highlight the absence of PPRV due to lack of current PPR outbreak in the region during study period. Even though grazing was not a significant risk factor, there is still a possibility of wildlife-livestock interactions for feed and water reservoirs, resulting in spillover of PPR to wildlife. Keeping in view the high seropositivity and risk of PPR, vaccination should be adopted to avoid circulation of PPRV among wild and domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7826245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884585PMC
March 2017

Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2015 20;2015:563869. Epub 2015 Dec 20.

Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010-2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P < 0.05) with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/563869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699226PMC
January 2016

Transformation and Evaluation of Cry1Ac+Cry2A and GTGene in Gossypium hirsutum L.

Front Plant Sci 2015 12;6:943. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan.

More than 50 countries around the globe cultivate cotton on a large scale. It is a major cash crop of Pakistan and is considered "white gold" because it is highly important to the economy of Pakistan. In addition to its importance, cotton cultivation faces several problems, such as insect pests, weeds, and viruses. In the past, insects have been controlled by insecticides, but this method caused a severe loss to the economy. However, conventional breeding methods have provided considerable breakthroughs in the improvement of cotton, but it also has several limitations. In comparison with conventional methods, biotechnology has the potential to create genetically modified plants that are environmentally safe and economically viable. In this study, a local cotton variety VH 289 was transformed with two Bt genes (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) and a herbicide resistant gene (cp4 EPSPS) using the Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. The constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was attached to the genes taken from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and to an herbicide resistant gene during cloning, and this promoter was used for the expression of the genes in cotton plants. This construct was used to develop the Glyphosate Tolerance Gene (GTGene) for herbicide tolerance and insecticidal gene (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) for insect tolerance in the cotton variety VH 289. The transgenic cotton variety performed 85% better compared with the non-transgenic variety. The study results suggest that farmers should use the transgenic cotton variety for general cultivation to improve the production of cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4641916PMC
November 2015

Evaluating the role of vaccine to combat peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in endemic disease situation.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 20;57. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

National Veterinary Laboratory, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Among the main intimidation to the sheep and goat population, PPR outbreaks are causing huge losses especially in endemic areas. During recent times, six outbreaks of PPR were confirmed at semi-organized goat farms/herds in various regions of Punjab province and Islamabad capital territory (ICT), Pakistan. The disease started after introduction of new animals at these farms with no history of previous PPR vaccination. The clinical signs appeared affecting respiratory and enteric systems and spread quickly. Disease caused mortality of 10-20% and morbidity of 20-40% within a time period of four weeks. Morbidity and mortality rates were 30.38% (86/283) and 15.55% (44/283), respectively. Three treatment regimes were executed to demonstrate the role of vaccination during outbreak at these farms. First was to use only the broad spectrum antibiotics (Penicillin & Streptomycin and/ or Trimethoprim and Sulfadiazine) at two farms (Texilla and Attock). Second treatment regime was to use the same broad spectrum antibiotic along with extensive fluid therapy (Farms at ICT-1 and ICT-2). The third regime was to use of broad spectrum antibiotic plus fluid therapy along with vaccinating the herd against PPR during first week of outbreak (ICT-3 and ICT-4). The third scheme of treatment gave the better results as there was no mortality in third week post-outbreak. Therefore, it is suggested to give proper importance to PPR vaccination along with conventional symptomatic treatment when dealing the PPR outbreaks in endemic disease conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-014-0036-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4540292PMC
August 2015

Serological, cultural, and molecular evidence of Brucella infection in small ruminants in Pakistan.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2015 May 18;9(5):470-5. Epub 2015 May 18.

University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Introduction: The objectives of the present study were to determine the seroprevalence and identify the causative agent of brucellosis in small ruminants in Pakistan.

Methodology: A total of 278 serum and 212 milk samples were collected from sheep and goats that had close contact with seropositive bovine herds. Data related to age, sex, location, and breed were collected on the sampling day. Serum and milk samples were initially screened using two different Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) antigens and a milk ring test (MRT). Seropositive samples were subjected to bacterial isolation and PCR analysis using Brucella genus-specific (bcsp31) and Brucella species-specific (IS711 for Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR).

Results: Twenty-four (8.6%) serum samples were positive by RBPT. Twenty (9.4%) animals were positive for Brucella antibodies using MRT. No Brucella isolates were obtained from the examined blood and milk samples. Of the 24 seropositive serum samples, 18 (75%) were positive in the Brucella genus-specific (bcsp31) and Brucella abortus-specific (IS711) qRT-PCR, respectively.

Conclusions: Brucella abortus was identified as causative agent of ovine and caprine brucellosis in Pakistan. Results of this study can be used for the development of an effective control and eradication strategy for brucellosis in livestock, especially small ruminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.5110DOI Listing
May 2015

An appraisal on the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, Pakistan.

Arch Virol 2015 Jun 9;160(6):1561-4. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

National Veterinary Laboratory, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan,

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a livestock disease that has serious economic repercussions. Here, we report the laboratory results for samples from suspected outbreaks that were sent for confirmation of FMD in Pakistan. From January 2010 to December 2011, 132 suspected outbreaks were investigated, and samples from 58 out of the 76 outbreaks sent to the National Veterinary Laboratory (NVL) were positive. The highest proportion of positives were of serotype O (65.52 %), followed by serotype A (24.14 %) and serotype Asia-1 (10.35 %), whereas amongst the samples sent to the World Reference Laboratory, Pirbright, UK (WRL), samples from 48 out of 56 outbreaks were confirmed to be FMD positive, with the following serotypes identified: O (56.25 %), Asia-1 (37.50 %) and A (6.25 %). The outbreaks affected cattle, buffalo and mixed (cattle and buffalo) herds at rates of 91, 70 and 76 %, respectively. The trend of positive outbreaks was higher in the months of winter and late spring (November to April). Although the serotype O isolates and some of the serotype A isolates from the field samples resembled the vaccine strains (r-value ≥ 0.3), this was not the case for the Asia-1 isolates. These results help to improve our understanding of the occurrence and distribution of FMD in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan and to provide baseline information for the FMD progressive control program in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-015-2409-zDOI Listing
June 2015

Molecular typing of haemorrhagic septicaemia-associated Pasteurella multocida isolates from Pakistan and Thailand using multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

Res Vet Sci 2013 Dec 3;95(3):986-90. Epub 2013 Aug 3.

School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia.

A comparative genetic study of 23 field isolates and vaccine strains of Pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia cases from Pakistan and Thailand was done using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST sequence type (ST) for all 20 of the 23 isolates tested was 122. The PFGE results showed one band difference between the Pakistani and the Thai isolates. Sequence type 122 is the dominant associated profile with haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) cases in South Asia. The study supports the concept of using PFGE for short-term epidemiology and MLST for long-term epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.07.003DOI Listing
December 2013

Isolation and identification of bovine Brucella isolates from Pakistan by biochemical tests and PCR.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2014 Jan 19;46(1):73-8. Epub 2013 Jul 19.

Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, 46300, Pakistan,

Brucellosis is endemic in bovines in Pakistan. The Brucella species and biovars involved, however, are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to isolate and characterize brucellae from seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses, and vaginal swabs of cattle and buffaloes which had recently aborted. The seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses, and vaginal swabs of cattle and buffaloes were collected from the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Isolation of brucellae was done on modified Farrell's serum dextrose agar. Isolates were characterized by conventional biotyping methods, while molecular typing was done by genus (B4/B5) and species-specific (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella ovis, and Brucella suis) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 30 isolates were recovered from milk (n = 5), aborted fetuses (n = 13), and vaginal swabs (n = 12). Most isolates were from cattle (56.7 %). All of them were identified as B. abortus biovar 1 based on conventional biotyping methods and genus and species-specific PCR. This preliminary study provides the first report on the prevalence of B. abortus biovar 1 in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0448-6DOI Listing
January 2014

Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with brucellosis as a professional hazard in Pakistan.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2013 Jun 6;10(6):500-5. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University-PMAS-AAUR, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

The present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in humans at high risk in the Potohar plateau of northeastern Pakistan. A total of 262 serum samples were collected from persons of different occupational groups: veterinary personnel, milkers, abattoir workers, livestock farmers, and others (drivers, security guards, housewives). Data related to gender, age, occupation, contact with animals, brucellosis-related symptoms, consumption of raw milk, and geographical region were collected. The Rose Bengal plate test and the serum agglutination test were performed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis. The overall seroprevalence was found to be 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1, 10.6). Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay showed that all cases were affected by Brucella abortus. Individuals who consumed raw milk had higher odds of brucellosis seropositivity. This is the first report of human brucellosis related to B. abortus in high-risk professionals from Pakistan by the combined use of serological and molecular methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2012.1360DOI Listing
June 2013

Spatial trend of Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, Pakistan.

Virol Sin 2012 Oct 11;27(5):320-3. Epub 2012 Oct 11.

National Veterinary Laboratory, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

The present study describes the frequency of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus serotypes (O, A and Asia-1) in major regions (all provinces) of Pakistan using Indirect Sandwich ELISA. Also, spatial distribution of various FMD serotypes and their comparison is discussed. A total of 590 samples (Epithelial tissue) have been analyzed during a period of five years (2005-2009). Out of 590 samples, 180 were found positive, giving an overall confirmation of FMDV about 33.2 %. Of the prevalent serotypes, FMDV 'O' serotype caused most outbreaks (20.7 %), followed by serotype A (6.6 %) and serotype Asia-1 (4.6 %) while there was no positive case of type 'C'. The study clearly showed that the disease was more frequent in the agro-climatic zones than in hilly areas. Based on the data of 590 samples (>50 outbreaks), the overall prevalence of FMDV in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan was 33.2 %, while in cattle alone, it was 37.1 %, higher than in buffalo (28.7 %). There were eight cases of mixed serotypes infection, indicating the presence of endemic state of disease. Another significant feature was the change over time. In phase-I (2005-2007), there was an overall prevalence of 29.4 %, while the occurrence of the serotype O, A and Asia-1 was 20.4 %, 2.9 % and 4.7 %, respectively. During phase-II (2008-2009), the overall prevalence was 59.21 %, while those of serotype O, A and Asia-1 were 22.4 %, 31.6 % and 4.0 %, respectively. This clearly indicated a shift from serotype O to A, which may help to explain the occurrence of more severe outbreaks, despite vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-012-3271-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218023PMC
October 2012

Natural infection with peste des petits ruminants virus: a pre and post vaccinal assessment following an outbreak scenario.

Virus Res 2012 Jul 5;167(1):43-7. Epub 2012 Apr 5.

PARC Institute of Advance Studies in Agriculture, National Agriculture Research Center, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed in a herd of goats (n = 55) at an organised farm in Islamabad, Pakistan. PPRV infection was confirmed using both antigen- and antibody-based detection methods, haemagglutination (HA) tests and molecular methods. Animals that survived natural infection developed a typical serological response and virus antigen was detected in fecal matter. Following determination of serological response to infection animals were grouped and either vaccinated or left unvaccinated: group 1 animals succumbed to infection (n = 5) and samples were analysed for PPRV antigen; group 2 animals developed clinical disease (n = 10) and were divided into 2 groups, half being vaccinated (group 2a) whilst the remainder were unvaccinated (group 2b); group 3 (n = 15) animals included those that developed only very mild clinical disease or no clinical disease; group 4 animals (n = 5) were negative for clinical disease and were housed as a negative control group. A variable antibody response was detected following resolution of the initial outbreak. Excretion of virus antigen was assessed at different time points following vaccination. Importantly, animals that were vaccinated (group 2a) excreted antigen in fecal matter for 1 month following vaccination whilst unvaccinated animals (group 2b) continued to shed virus antigen for 2 months. The potential for virus excretion in fecal matter and effects of vaccination upon virus infection are discussed. We postulate that excretion in fecal material may represent a mechanism of virus transmission following natural infection and that this mechanism may demonstrate a potential method by which PPRV outbreaks occur spontaneously in areas not previously known to have circulating virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2012.03.018DOI Listing
July 2012

Evidence of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) in Pakistan as confirmed by detection of antigen and antibody.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2011 Apr 9;43(4):745-7. Epub 2011 Jan 9.

National Veterinary Laboratory, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan.

An outbreak resulting in mortality in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) was investigated. There was a history of about 36 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of 1 month. Disease appeared in a generalized form, affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. Major lesions were respiratory distress, pustules on and in the mouth, ocular-nasal discharges, and severe diarrhea. The most significant lesion was the oculonasal discharges and diarrhea. Deaths were mainly due to blindness, anorexia, diarrhea, and respiratory arrest. Both adult (mortality = 21) and young (mortality = 15) animals were affected with the disease. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) antigen was detected in the spleen, lung, lymph node, and swab samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spleen and lung samples were also tested and found positive for the presence of F-gene of PPRV by polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen of 20 serum samples from nearby sheep and goats were found positive for antibodies to PPRV. The disease threatened the huge population of ibex in the wild life park, which was spread over a large area, but vaccination of the domestic population of sheep and goats in the surrounding villages appeared to control the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9776-yDOI Listing
April 2011

Status of foot-and-mouth disease in Pakistan.

Arch Virol 2010 Sep 23;155(9):1487-91. Epub 2010 Jun 23.

National Veterinary Laboratory, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The present study reports the distribution of different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Pakistan during the period 1952-2007. During this time, a total of 1,543 epithelial samples out of 2,484 tested were found positive for various serotypes of FMDV. Serotype O was found to be the most prevalent (p < 0.001) followed by serotype Asia-1 and A. Serotype C was detected only in 1954, 1963 and 1995. The disease was found to be more prevalent (p < 0.0001) in cattle than buffaloes. The geographical distribution of 153 laboratory confirmed FMD outbreaks from 2002 to 2007 and the serotypes of the virus involved has been mapped. Higher number of outbreaks of the disease was noted between the months of January to March during this period, which may be attributed to the livestock movement in the country particularly due to religious festival, Eidul Azha, in which the animals are sacrificed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-010-0732-yDOI Listing
September 2010

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection; its association with species, seasonal variations and geography.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2009 Oct 7;41(7):1197-202. Epub 2009 Jan 7.

National Veterinary Laboratory, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The present investigation included a detailed description of the factors directly associated with PPRV infection in Pakistan. A total of 1,056 suspected serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to PPRV with no history of vaccination against PPR. The samples were collected from sixty two (62) suspected outbreaks from twenty five (25) major regions of the country. Samples were collected from the animals suffering from diarrhea and showing severe respiratory signs. Competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay (cELISA) was performed to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Findings suggested that the overall PPR antibody sero-prevalence recorded in sheep was 54.09% as compared to 44.15% in goats. Geography, species, sex, age and season are the major factors associated with PPRV infection. Among various age groups, the animals showed the higher prevalence (67.48% and 52.28% in sheep and goats, respectively) at >2 years as compared with the other age groups. The area-wise highest sero-prevalence was in Sindh province which was 55.10%. It was highest in the plains of Punjab and Sindh province and also in hilly areas (AJK, northern areas and northern Punjab). These findings may be correlated with variations in the sheep and goats husbandry practices within different geographic regions and the topography of different areas. The study also indicated the scenario of antibodies circulation in the population and proving that PPR is now becoming endemic and is one of the major emerging TAD in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-008-9300-9DOI Listing
October 2009

Histological and haematological disturbance caused by arsenic toxicity in mice model.

Pak J Biol Sci 2008 Jun;11(11):1405-13

Department of Microbiology, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.

Histological and hematological disturbance caused by Arsenic containing water were studied in mice model. Animal were divided into four groups. Control group exposed to arsenic free distilled water and 3 treatmental group exposed to the arsenic containing water with 30, 150 and 300 ppb. Blood samples and organs were collected after 40 days. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis and degenerative changes in kidney and liver of arsenic feed animals. Kidney of the 300 ppb group showed severe type of necrosis and degenerative changes in distal and proximal tubules. The renocytes of proximal and distal tubules were showing hydropic and fatty degeneration. Due to degenerative changes cells were showing cytoplasmic vacoulation and cytoplasmic and nuclear blebbing. Glomeruli cells were contracted and increased the bowman's spaces. Varied degrees of changes were also observed in 30 and 150 ppb exposed group. Necrosis of hepatocytes and cytoplasmic blebbing were also observed. The sinusoidal spaces were expanded due to shrinkage and necrosis of hepatocytes. Spleenocytosis occurred in spleen and the parenchymal and mesenchymal cells were replaced by connective tissue. The lymphocytes were severely damaged by arsenic toxicity. White Blood Cells (WBCs), Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin level in control groups were in normal range where as level were significantly decreased with the increase dose of arsenic in the respective treatmental groups. The data was analyzed statistically and was found that significant was found among the group (p<0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2008.1405.1413DOI Listing
June 2008