Publications by authors named "Quanyu Zhou"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multifocal structured illumination optoacoustic microscopy.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Aug 31;9(1):152. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Optoacoustic (OA) imaging has the capacity to effectively bridge the gap between macroscopic and microscopic realms in biological imaging. High-resolution OA microscopy has so far been performed via point-by-point scanning with a focused laser beam, thus greatly restricting the achievable imaging speed and/or field of view. Herein we introduce multifocal structured illumination OA microscopy (MSIOAM) that attains real-time 3D imaging speeds. For this purpose, the excitation laser beam is shaped to a grid of focused spots at the tissue surface by means of a beamsplitting diffraction grating and a condenser and is then scanned with an acousto-optic deflector operating at kHz rates. In both phantom and in vivo mouse experiments, a 10 mm wide volumetric field of view was imaged with 15 Hz frame rate at 28 μm spatial resolution. The proposed method is expected to greatly aid in biological investigations of dynamic functional, kinetic, and metabolic processes across multiple scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00390-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Noninvasive multimodal fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging of whole-organ intervertebral discs.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Jun 7;12(6):3214-3227. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

Low back pain (LBP) is a commonly experienced symptom posing a tremendous healthcare burden to individuals and society at large. The LBP pathology is strongly linked to degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD), calling for development of early-stage diagnostic tools for visualizing biomolecular changes in IVD. Multimodal measurements of fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on IVD whole organ culture model using an in-house built FMT system and a high-field MRI scanner. The resulted multimodal images were systematically validated through epifluorescence imaging of the IVD sections at a microscopic level. Multiple image contrasts were exploited, including fluorescence distribution, anatomical map associated with T1-weighted MRI contrast, and water content related with T2 relaxation time. The developed multimodality imaging approach may thus serve as a new assessment tool for early diagnosis of IVD degeneration and longitudinal monitoring of IVD organ culture status using fluorescence markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.421205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221942PMC
June 2021

Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on the Long-Range Transport of Common Air Pollutants in KUWAMS.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2021 ;69(3):237-245

Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University.

As a background sampling site in western Japan, the Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS) continuously observes the air pollutants, including PM, PM, organic carbon (OC) and element carbon (EC). Data for September 2019 to April 2020 were compared with data for September 2018 to April 2019. The mean concentrations of both PM and PM were 4.10 µg/m (47%) and 5.82 µg/m (33%) lower, respectively in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) period (January to April) than in the same period in 2019. Notably, the average concentrations of both classes of particulate matter (PM) in the COVID-19 period were the lowest for that period in all years since 2016. OC and EC also considerably lower (by 69 and 63%, respectively) during the COVID-19 period than during the same period in 2019. All pollutants were then started to increase after the resumption of the work in 2020. The pollutant variations correspond to the measure implemented during the COVID-19 period, including the nationwide lockdown and work resumption. Furthermore, the reductions in the ratios PM/PM and OC/EC during COVID-19 period indicate lighter pollution and fewer emission sources. This analysis of the changes in the pollutant concentrations during the epidemic and non-epidemic periods illustrates the significance of the dominant pollution emissions at KUWAMS and the impact of pollution from China that undergoes long-range transport to KUWAMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c20-00692DOI Listing
March 2021

Xianglian Pill Suppresses Inflammation and Protects Intestinal Epithelial Barrier by Promoting Autophagy in DSS Induced Ulcerative Colitis Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2020 27;11:594847. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Heilongjiang Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China.

Xianglian pill (XLP) is a typical traditional Chinese herbal medicine prescription composed of Coptidis Rhizoma and Aucklandiae Radix. It has been used to treat gastrointestinal disease for centuries. In the present study, the potential mechanisms of XLP in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) were predicted by integrative pharmacology-based approach. Then, the main compounds of XLP were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Finally, we verified the mechanism of XLP in the treatment of UC in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the control group, DSS group, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) group which was used as the positive drug control, XLP low, medium, and high dose group, with 10 mice per group. Except for the control group, acute colitis model was induced in the other mice by administering 3% DSS for consecutive 7 days. Mice in 5-ASA and XLP groups were administered with 5-ASA (50 mg/kg) or XLP (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/kg) via oral gavage once per day respectively. Body wight and disease activity index were assay during drug intervention. On day 8, all animals in this experiment were sacrificed and colon tissues were collected for analysis after measurement of the length. The results showed that XLP alleviate DSS -induced acute colitis in mice, including inhibition the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, repairing the dysfunction of intestinal epithelial barrier, enhanced autophagy, and blocked the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, inhibiting autophagy by 3-methyladenine attenuated the protective effects of XLP on colitis. The underlying mechanism may be that Xianglian pill promote autophagy by blocking the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.594847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872966PMC
January 2021

Atmospheric Behaviour of Polycyclic and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in Winter in Kirishima, a Typical Japanese Commercial City.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 14;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.

Kirishima is a typical Japanese commercial city, famous for frequent volcanic activity. This is the first study to determine the characteristics of PM-bound polycyclic and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and NPAHs) and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) in this city. In this study, the non-volcanic eruption period was taken as the target and daily PM samples were collected from 24 November to 21 December 2016. The daily concentrations in PM of ƩPAHs, ƩNPAHs, and ƩWSIIs ranged from 0.36 to 2.90 ng/m, 2.12 to 22.3 pg/m, and 1.96 to 11.4 μg/m, respectively. Through the results of the diagnostic ratio analyses of the PAHs, NPAHs, and WSIIs and the backward trajectory analysis of the air masses arriving in Kirishima, the emission sources of PAHs, NPAHs, and WSIIs in PM in Kirishima were influenced by the coal burning that came from the East Asian continent, although there was no influence from volcanic emission sources during the sampling period. The total benzo[]pyrene (BaP)-equivalent concentration was lower than many other cities but the health risks in Kirishima were nonetheless notable. These findings are very important for future research on PM samples during the inactive Asian monsoon and volcanic eruption periods, to further understand the characteristics of air pollutants in Kirishima, and to contribute to the improvement in health of residents and a reduction in the atmospheric circulation of air pollutants in East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830530PMC
January 2021

Yearly variation in characteristics and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-PAHs in urban shanghai from 2010-2018.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jan 27;99:72-79. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, 920-1192, Kanazawa, Japan. Electronic address:

This study encompassed the regular observation of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai in summer and winter from 2010 to 2018. The results showed that the mean concentrations of ƩPAHs in summer decreased by 24.7% in 2013 and 18.1% in 2017 but increased by 10.2% in 2015 compared to the data in 2010. However, the mean concentrations of ƩPAHs in winter decreased by 39.7% from 2010 (12.8 ± 4.55 ng/m) to 2018 (7.72 ± 3.33 ng/m), and the mean concentrations of 1-nitropyrene in winter decreased by 79.0% from 2010 (42.3 ± 16.1 pg/m) to 2018 (8.90 ± 2.09 pg/m). Correlation analysis with meteorological conditions revealed that the PAH and NPAH concentrations were both influenced by ambient temperature. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and factor analysis showed that they were mainly affected by traffic emissions with some coal and/or biomass combustion. The ratio of 2-nitrofluoranthene to 2-nitropyrene was near 10, which indicated that the OH radical-initiated reaction was the main pathway leading to their secondary formation. Moreover, backward trajectories revealed different air mass routes in each sampling period, indicating a high possibility of source effects from the northern area in winter in addition to local and surrounding influences. Meanwhile, the mean total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations in Shanghai in winter decreased by 50.8% from 2010 (1860 ± 645 pg/m) to 2018 (916 ± 363 pg/m). These results indicated the positive effects of the various policies and regulations issued by Chinese authorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.06.017DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparative Analysis of PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions (WSIIs) at Two Background Sites in Japan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 6;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.

Daily PM (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) samples were simultaneously collected at two background sites (Wajima Air Monitoring Station (WAMS) and Fukue-Jima Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (FAMS)) in Japan in the East Asian winter and summer monsoon periods of 2017 and 2019, to compare the characteristics of air pollutants among different regions and to determine the possible variation during the long-range transport process. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were analyzed. Despite the PM concentrations at FAMS (8.90-78.5 µg/m) being higher than those at WAMS (2.33-21.2 µg/m) in the winter monsoon period, the average concentrations of ∑PAHs, ∑NPAHs, and ∑WSIIs were similar between the two sites. Diagnostic ratios indicated PAHs mainly originated from traffic emissions and mostly aged, whereas NPAHs were mostly secondarily formed during long-range transport. WSIIs at WAMS were mainly formed via the combustion process and secondary reactions, whereas those at FAMS mainly originated from sea salt and dust. Backward trajectories revealed the air masses could not only come from Asian continental coastal regions but also distant landlocked areas in the winter monsoon period, whereas most came from the ocean in the summer monsoon period. These findings can provide basic data for the establishment of prediction models of transboundary air pollutants in East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664402PMC
November 2020

Detection of cerebral tauopathy in P301L mice using high-resolution large-field multifocal illumination fluorescence microscopy.

Biomed Opt Express 2020 Sep 11;11(9):4989-5002. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

University of Zurich & ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27 HIT E22.4, 8093, Zurich, Switzerland.

Current intravital microscopy techniques visualize tauopathy with high-resolution, but have a small field-of-view and depth-of-focus. Herein, we report a transcranial detection of tauopathy over the entire cortex of P301L tauopathy mice using large-field multifocal illumination (LMI) fluorescence microscopy technique and luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes. assays revealed that fluorescent ligand h-FTAA is optimal for tau imaging, which was confirmed by observing elevated probe retention in the cortex of P301L mice compared to non-transgenic littermates. Immunohistochemical staining further verified the specificity of h-FTAA to detect tauopathy in P301L mice. The new imaging platform can be leveraged in pre-clinical mechanistic studies of tau spreading and clearance as well as longitudinal monitoring of tau targeting therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.395803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510859PMC
September 2020

Long-term variability of inorganic ions in TSP at a remote background site in Japan (Wajima) from 2005 to 2015.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 25;264(Pt 1):128427. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

Eleven years (2005-2015) of data from long-term monitoring at a Japanese remote background site in Wajima, were analyzed to investigate temporal trends and sources. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were analyzed for aerosol chemical composition. The total WSIIs concentration was 7.93 ± 3.93 μg/m, accounting for 42.3% of TSP mass, ranged from 11.4 to 93.9%. SO is the most abundant ion, contributing a total WSII mass from 18.0 to 79.8%, and non-sea-salt (nss-) SO contributed from 63.6% to 99.6% of total SO, which was related to human activities on the Asian continent and the effects of marine precursors in spring and summer, respectively. NO and NH contribute 6.3 and 7.4% of the total WSIIs and were affected by long-range transport and local sources as well. The increasing trend of Na and Cl indicates the increased influence of sea salt, which is caused by more frequent strong winds. K is mainly produced from biomass burning with a stable seasonal variation, Ca as the characteristic ion of dust has the highest concentration in spring. Mg comes from minerals and marine sources during spring and summer, respectively. This work describes in detail the annual change trend of the WSIIs of atmospheric particles in the Wajima area, seasonal characteristics, and source contributions, provide a comprehensive understanding of long-term variation in atmospheric particulate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128427DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Qinbai Qingfei Concentrated Pellets on substance P and neutral endopeptidase of rats with post-infectious cough.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Sep 22;20(1):289. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Emergency, Nangang Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 150001, China.

Background: In recent years, it has been reported that Qinbai Qingfei Concentrated Pellet (QQCP) has the effect of relieving cough and reducing sputum. However, the therapeutic potentials of QQCP on post-infectious cough (PIC) rat models has not been elucidated. So the current study was aimed to scientifically validate the efficacy of QQCP in post infectious cough.

Methods: All rats were exposed to sawdust and cigarette smokes for 10 days, and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsaicin aerosols. Rats were treated with QQCP at dose of 80, 160, 320 mg/kg. Cough frequency was monitored twice a day for 10 days after drug administration. Inflammatory cell infiltration was determined by ELISA. Meanwhile, the histopathology of lung tissue and bronchus in rats were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E). Neurogenetic inflammation were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR.

Results: QQCP dose-dependently decreased the cough frequency and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, but exerted the opposite effects on the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-13 in BALF and serum of PIC rats. The oxidative burden was effectively ameliorated in QQCP-treated PIC rats as there were declines in Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increases in Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the serum and lung tissue. In addition, QQCP blocked inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung as evidenced by the reduced number of total leukocytes and the portion of neutrophils in the broncho - alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the alleviated lung damage. Furthermore, QQCP considerable reversed the neurogenetic inflammation caused by PIC through elevating neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity and reducing Substance P (SP) and Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) expression in BALF, serum and lung tissue.

Conclusions: Our study indicated that QQCP demonstrated a protective role of PIC and may be a potential therapeutic target of PIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03081-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507634PMC
September 2020

Multifocal structured illumination optoacoustic microscopy.

Light Sci Appl 2020 31;9:152. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Optoacoustic (OA) imaging has the capacity to effectively bridge the gap between macroscopic and microscopic realms in biological imaging. High-resolution OA microscopy has so far been performed via point-by-point scanning with a focused laser beam, thus greatly restricting the achievable imaging speed and/or field of view. Herein we introduce multifocal structured illumination OA microscopy (MSIOAM) that attains real-time 3D imaging speeds. For this purpose, the excitation laser beam is shaped to a grid of focused spots at the tissue surface by means of a beamsplitting diffraction grating and a condenser and is then scanned with an acousto-optic deflector operating at kHz rates. In both phantom and in vivo mouse experiments, a 10 mm wide volumetric field of view was imaged with 15 Hz frame rate at 28 μm spatial resolution. The proposed method is expected to greatly aid in biological investigations of dynamic functional, kinetic, and metabolic processes across multiple scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00390-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459102PMC
August 2020

Cortex-wide microcirculation mapping with ultrafast large-field multifocal illumination microscopy.

J Biophotonics 2020 11 31;13(11):e202000198. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The recently introduced large-field multifocal illumination (LMI) fluorescence microscopy technique opened new possibilities for transcranial observations of mouse brain dynamics with a unique combination of capillary level resolution and centimeter-scale field-of-view (FOV). Here we report on a new acceleration scheme for LMI based on raster scan of a lattice pattern combined with a parallel camera exposure scheme, which attains 200 Hz frame rate over 12 × 12 mm FOV with 7.5 μm spatial resolution. We demonstrate real-time transcranial in vivo tracking of particles and imaging of microcirculation across the entire mouse cortex, thus corroborating the superb spatiotemporal resolution performance of LMI unattainable with other techniques. Potential applications include investigations into cerebrovascular function, cell tracking, as well as large-scale functional neuroimaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.202000198DOI Listing
November 2020

Widefield fluorescence localization microscopy for transcranial imaging of cortical perfusion with capillary resolution.

Opt Lett 2020 Jul;45(13):3470-3473

Imaging of cerebral vasculature is impeded with the existing fluorescence microscopy methods due to intense light scattering in living tissues and the need for highly invasive craniotomy procedures to resolve structures on a capillary scale. We propose a widefield fluorescence localization microscopy technique for high-resolution transcranial imaging and quantitative assessment of cortical perfusion in mice. The method is based on tracking single fluorescent microparticles sparsely distributed in the blood stream using a simple CMOS camera and a continuous-wave laser source. We demonstrate quantitative transcranial in vivo mapping of the blood flow velocity and direction at capillary level resolution (5 µm) across the entire cortex. The new technique opens a new high-resolution transcranial window into the brain function in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.396123DOI Listing
July 2020

The predictive value of procalcitonin for postoperative early pancreatic fistula.

BMC Surg 2020 May 6;20(1):90. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The People's Hospital of Leshan City, Leshan, Sichuan, 614000, People's Republic of China.

Background: To investigate the early prediction value of procalcitonin (PCT) in pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD).

Method: Retrospective analysis of clinical data of 67 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and 19 patients undergoing distalpancreatectomy (DP) were performed in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Leshan People's Hospital from January 2017 to December 2018. All patients were divided into POPF group and non-POPF group depending on the presence of pancreatic fistula. And fistulas were classified according to the ISGPF classification scheme. Plasma PCT levels, serum CRP concentration, and WBC counts were assessed preoperatively and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Statistical analyses were performed with statistical software. The ROC curve was used to analyze the efficacy of PCT and CRP in POPF prediction after surgery and determine their Cut-off value.

Result: There were no statistically significant differences identified in age, gender, BMI, diabetes, abdominal surgery history, preoperative laboratory data, operation time, intraoperative bleeding volume, tumor nature and medical expenses of PD patients between the two groups (P > 0.05). While the incidence of postoperative hyperglycemia, postoperative ICU rate and postoperative hospital stay were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AUC for PCT diagnosis of pancreatic fistula 1 day after surgery was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.675 ~ 0.860). Compared with CRP [0.53 (95% CI: 0.420 ~ 0.639)] and WBC [0.60 (95% CI: 0.490 ~ 0.705)], the optimal cut-off value (cut-off) was 0.67 μg/L. At this time, the sensitivity and specificity of detecting pancreatic fistula were 73.68 and 76.12%, respectively. The results at 3 days after surgery were similar to those at 5 days after surgery. And DP patients had similar results as PD patients.

Conclusion: The PCT is valuable for early prediction of pancreatic fistula after Pancreaticoduodenectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-020-00755-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201992PMC
May 2020

Natural aeolian dust particles have no substantial effect on atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A laboratory study based on naphthalene.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 31;263(Pt A):114454. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

Natural aeolian dust (AD) particles are potential carriers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere. The heterogeneous interaction between them may lead to worsened air quality and enhanced cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of ambient particulates in downwind areas, and this topic requires in-depth exploration. In this study, AD samples were collected from four Asian dust sources, and their physical properties and compositions were determined, showing great regional differences. The physical and chemical interactions of different AD particles with naphthalene (Nap; model PAH) were observed in aqueous systems. The results showed that AD particles from the Loess Plateau had weak adsorption to Nap, which was fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. There was no obvious adsorption to Nap found for the other three AD samples. This difference seemed to depend mainly on the specific surface area and/or the total pore volume. In addition, the Nap in the aqueous solution did not undergo chemical reactions under dark conditions and longwave ultraviolet (UV) radiation but degraded under shortwave UV radiation, and 2-formylcinnamaldehyde and 1,4-naphthoquinone were the first-generated products. The degradation of Nap in the aqueous solution was probably initiated by photoionization, and the reaction rate constant (between 1.44 × 10 min and 8.55 × 10 min) was much lower than that of Nap with hydroxyl radicals. Instead of inducing or promoting the chemical change in Nap, the AD particles slowed photodegradation due to the extinction of radiation. Therefore, it is inferred that natural AD particles have no substantial effect on the transportation and transformation of PAHs in the atmosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114454DOI Listing
August 2020

Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Common Air Pollutants at Wajima, a Remote Background Site in Japan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 4;17(3). Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.

: Background sites are mainly affected by long-range-transported air pollutants, resulting in potential adverse effects on local atmospheric environments. A 4-5 year observational study was conducted to illustrate the air pollution profile at the Kanazawa University Wajima air monitoring station (KUWAMS), an ideal remote background site in Japan. : Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particulate phase and various air pollutants were continuously monitored for 4-5 years. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs and back-trajectory analysis were applied to trace the possible sources of the air pollutants collected at the sampling site. : The atmospheric concentration of PAHs in the atmosphere at the site decreased from 2014 to 2019, benefit from the predominant air pollution control policy in China and Japan. Common air pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO), nitrogen oxides (NO), ozone, methane (CH), and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) were detected in low concentrations from 2016 to 2019, while ozone (O) and particulate matter (PM, PM with a diameter less than 2.5 μm) were present in high levels that exceeded the Japanese standards. Most air pollutants peaked in spring and showed evident diurnal variations in spring and summer. : This is the first study to clarify the atmospheric behaviors of multiple air pollutants at a background site in Japan. Significant external air pollutant impact and unneglectable air pollution were demonstrated at KUWAMS, indicating the importance of studying atmospheric pollution at remote sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036938PMC
February 2020

Characteristics of PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at A Roadside Air Pollution Monitoring Station in Kanazawa, Japan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 28;17(3). Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in PM samples were collected at a roadside monitoring station in Kanazawa, Japan, in every season from 2017 to 2018. Nine PAHs and five NPAHs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and chemiluminescence detection, respectively. The mean concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs were highest in winter and lowest in summer. Fluoranthene and pyrene were the dominant PAHs and 1-nitropyrene was the dominant NPAH in all seasons, and these compounds were mainly emitted by diesel vehicles. The concentration ratio of benzo()pyrene (BaP) to benzo()perylene (BgPe) ((BaP)/(BgPe)) and of indeno(1,2,3-)pyrene (IDP) to the sum of IDP and benzo()perylene (BgPe) ((IDP)/((IDP)+(BgPe0) might still be useful indicators for identifying traffic emission sources today. Moreover, our results showed that the carcinogenic risk in all seasons was below the acceptable limit set by the WHO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037384PMC
January 2020

PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons inside and outside a primary school classroom in Beijing: Concentration, composition, and inhalation cancer risk.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 2;705:135840. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

PM samples were collected inside and outside a primary school classroom in Beijing in 2015 and analysed for 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 nitro-PAHs (NPAHs). In the sampling period in the heating season (namely, the heating period), the median concentrations of indoor and outdoor PAHs were 223 ng/m and 264 ng/m, respectively, and those of indoor and outdoor NPAHs were 3.61 ng/m and 5.12 ng/m, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs were consistently higher in the heating period than those (indoor PAHs: 8.75 ng/m, outdoor PAHs: 8.95 ng/m, indoor NPAHs: 0.25 ng/m, outdoor NPAHs: 0.40 ng/m) in the sampling period in the non-heating season (namely, the non-heating period). In both periods, total PAHs and total NPAHs in indoor PM, as well as most individual PAHs and NPAHs, were positively correlated with the outdoor PAH and NPAH concentrations (p < 0.05). This finding suggests that indoor PAHs and NPAHs are largely dependent on outdoor inputs. It is inferred from the diagnostic ratios that PAHs and NPAHs in indoor and outdoor PM were affected jointly by coal combustion and vehicular emission in the heating period and mainly derived from vehicle exhaust in the non-heating period. Both indoor and outdoor PM showed considerable benzo[a]pyrene equivalent toxicity (BaP), especially in the heating period. Benzo[c]fluorene (BcFE) had relatively low concentrations but large contributions to BaP in both periods. This is the first report of PM-bound BcFE inside and outside classrooms in Beijing. This result indicates that neglecting PAHs with low abundance but high toxicity leads to a significant underestimation of the overall PAH toxicity. The inhalation cancer risk (CR) of PAHs and NPAHs in PM during the primary school year exceeded the acceptable level as defined by the U.S. EPA, emphasizing its impact on the lifetime CR in schoolchildren.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135840DOI Listing
February 2020

Size distribution of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh combustion smoke and ambient air: A review.

J Environ Sci (China) 2020 Feb 16;88:370-384. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and they mostly stem from the imperfect combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. PAHs are inherently associated with homogenous fine particles or distributed to different-sized particles during the aging of air masses. PAHs carried by fine particles undergo a long-range transport to remote areas while those adsorbed on coarse particles have a shorter lifetime in ambient air. More importantly, PAHs with higher molecular weights tend to be bound with finer particles and can deeply enter the lungs, posing severe health risks to humans. Thus, the environmental fate and health effects of particulate PAHs are strongly size-dependent. This review summarizes the size distributions of particulate PAHs freshly emitted from combustion sources as well as the distribution patterns of PAHs in ambient particles. It was found that PAHs from stationary sources are primarily bound to fine particles, which are slightly larger than particles to which PAHs from mobile sources are bound. In ambient air, particulate PAHs are distributed in larger size modes than those in the combustion fume, and the particle size decreases with PAH molecular weight increasing. The relevant mechanisms and influencing factors of particle size distribution changes are illustrated in this article, which are essentially attributed to combustion and ambient temperature as well as the physical and chemical properties of PAHs. Overall, the study on the particle size distribution of PAHs will contribute for a full understanding of the origin, atmospheric behaviors and health effects of particulate PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2019.09.007DOI Listing
February 2020

Characteristics of air pollutants inside and outside a primary school classroom in Beijing and respiratory health impact on children.

Environ Pollut 2019 Dec 30;255(Pt 1):113147. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

This study investigated the spatial and temporal distributions of particulate and gaseous air pollutants in a primary school in Beijing and assessed their health impact on the children. The results show that air quality inside the classroom was greatly affected by the input of outdoor pollutants; high levels of pollution were observed during both the heating and nonheating periods and indicate that indoor and outdoor air pollution posed a threat to the children's health. Traffic sources near the primary school were the main contributors to indoor and outdoor pollutants during both periods. Moreover, air quality in this primary school was affected by coal combustion and atmospheric reactions during the heating and nonheating periods, respectively. Based on the estimation by exposure-response functions and the weighting of indoor and outdoor pollutants during different periods, the levels of PM, PM and O at school had adverse respiratory health effects on children. Longer exposures during the nonheating period contributed to higher health risks. These results emphasized that emission sources nearby had a direct impact on air quality in school and children's respiratory health. Therefore, measures should be taken for double control on air pollution inside and outside the classroom to protect children from it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113147DOI Listing
December 2019

The Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Different Emission Source Areas in Shenyang, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 08 7;16(16). Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.

Particulate matter (PM) was collected in three different areas, SY-1, SY-2, and SY-3, in Shenyang, China, during the warm and cold seasons from 2012 to 2014. SY-1 was located beside a thermal power plant, far from the central area. SY-2 was near a coal heating boiler on the main road, close to the central area. SY-3 was on the main road, without fixed emission sources. Nine PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of total PAHs was higher in the cold season (92.6-316 ng m) than in the warm season (18.4-32.2 ng m). Five- and six-ring PAHs occupied a large percentage at all sites in the warm season, and four-ring PAHs were the dominant components in the cold season. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs in Shenyang in the warm and cold seasons were not only coal burning but also vehicle emission. In this study, we suggest that a benzo[]pyrene/benzo[]perylene ratio ([BaP]/[BgPe]) of 0.6 was a useful indicator to speculate the relative significance of coal burning and vehicle exhaust. Although the Shenyang government has undertaken actions to address air pollution, the PM and PAH concentrations did not decrease significantly compared to those in our previous studies. The cancer risk calculated from the BaP equivalent total concentration at all three sites in the warm and cold seasons exceeded the acceptable limit established by the US EPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721111PMC
August 2019

Assessement of postoperative long-term survival quality and complications associated with radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy and distal pancreatectomy: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

BMC Surg 2019 Jan 28;19(1):12. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The People's Hospital of Leshan City, Leshan, Sichuan, 614000, People's Republic of China.

Background: This study evaluated the perioperative complications and the long-term pancreatic survival outcomes in patients treated with radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) and distal pancreatectomy (DP).

Method: We performed a computer search on the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases to retrieve the RCT or clinical trials comparing RAMPS and DP published before July of 2018. The quality of the included trials was assessed according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria by two researchers independently. The RevMan 5.3 software was used to extract and analyze the data.

Result: A total of 5 retroprospective clinical trial articles comprising 285 patients were included in the study. The number of patients who underwent RAMPS were 135 and 150 for DP. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the operation time [WMD = - 63.93, 95% CI (- 68.86 ~ - 58.99), P<0.00001], and bleeding volume [WMD = - 184.62, 95% CI (- 211.88 ~ - 157.37), P<0.00001] between the two groups. However, no significant differences were observed between RAMPS and DP in terms of pancreatic fistula, postoperative complications, postoperative hospital stay, and mortality (P>0. 05). As for pathological examination, there were statistically significant differences between RAMPS and DP in the R0 resection rate [RR = 2.37, 95% CI (1.19 ~ 4.72), P = 0.01] and the number of lymph node excision [WMD = 7.08, 95% CI (4.59 ~ 9.58), P<0.000013]. The one-year overall survival rate was higher in RAMPS patients compared to DP patients [RR = 1.20, 95% CI (1.02 ~ 1.41), P = 0.02]. But there were no significant difference in postoperative recurrence [RR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.70 ~ 1.04), P = 0.13] between the two groups.

Conclusion: RAMPS is an effective procedure for clinical application. Nevertheless, large, multicenter prospective randomized controlled trias are required to validate these findings.

Conclusion: The RAMPS procedure was associated with good postoperative outcomes and overall survival, indicating that it is an effective procedure for clinical application. Large, multicenter prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-019-0476-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348671PMC
January 2019

Visualizing Interactions of Circulating Tumor Cell and Dendritic Cell in the Blood Circulation Using In Vivo Imaging Flow Cytometry.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 09 7;66(9):2521-2526. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Objective: Visualizing cell interactions in blood circulation is of great importance in studies of anticancer immunotherapy or drugs. However, the lack of a suitable imaging system hampers progress in this field.

Methods: In this work, we built a dual-channel in vivo imaging flow cytometer to visualize the interactions of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) simultaneously in the bloodstream. Two artificial neural networks were trained to identify blood vessels and cells in the acquired images.

Results And Conclusion: Using this technique, single CTCs and CTC clusters were readily distinguished by their morphology. Interactions of CTCs and DCs were identified, while their moving velocities were analyzed. The CTC-DC clusters moved at a slower velocity than that of single CTCs or DCs. This may provide new insights into tumor metastasis and blood rheology.

Significance: This in vivo imaging flow cytometry system holds great potential for assessing the efficiency of targeting CTCs with anticancer immune cells or drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2891068DOI Listing
September 2019

Monitoring circulating tumor cells in vivo by a confocal microscopy system.

Cytometry A 2019 06 17;95(6):657-663. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a key role in cancer metastasis but are very difficult to detect. in vivo monitoring CTCs has been recognized as an important technique for cancer research and clinical diagnosis. Recently, a noninvasive method, in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has been developed to enable continuous, real-time, and long-duration detection of CTCs in animal models by detecting CTC fluorescence in blood vessels excited by lasers. In this study, we present a simple optical scheme for direct noninvasive CTC detection using confocal microscopes. We demonstrate that line scanning of confocal microscopy can provide effective and quantitative CTC detection in live mice during cancer development. Rare CTC signals can be acquired at the early stage of the tumor development after implantation of subcutaneous tumor and monitored continuously to the end. Signals from CTC clusters can also be acquired and distinguished from single CTCs. Our results suggest confocal microscopy is a simple and reliable method for biologists and doctors to use for cancer research. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23702DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical outcomes with alternative dosing strategies for piperacillin/tazobactam: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2015 9;10(1):e0116769. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

School of pharmaceutical sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: A better dosing strategy can improve clinical outcomes for patients. We sought to compare the extended or continuous infusion with conventional intermittent infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam, investigating which approach is better and worthy of recommendation for clinical use.

Methods: Articles were gathered from PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, Science Direct, Cochrane, two Chinese literature databases (CNKI, Wan Fang Data) and related ICAAC and ACCP conferences. Randomized controlled and observational studies that compared extended or continuous infusion with conventional intermittent infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam were identified from the databases above and analyzed. Two reviewers independently extracted and investigated the data. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 software. The quality of each study was assessed. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were evaluated.

Results: Five randomized controlled trials and nine observational studies were included in this study. All included studies had high quality and no publication bias was found. Compared to the conventional intermittent infusion approach, the extended or continuous infusion group had a significantly higher clinical cure rate (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.29-2.73, P = 0.0009) and a lower mortality rate (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.89, P = 0.005). No statistical difference was observed for bacteriologic cure (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.82-2.37, P = 0.22) between the two dosing regimens. The sensitivity analysis showed the results were stable.

Conclusions: Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the extended or continuous infusion strategy of piperacillin/tazobactam should be recommended for clinical use considering its higher clinical cure rate and lower mortality rate in comparison with conventional intermittent strategy. Data from this study could be extrapolated for other β-lactam antimicrobials. Therefore, this dosing strategy could be considered in clinical practice.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0116769PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4289069PMC
December 2015
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