Publications by authors named "Quan Chen"

556 Publications

Linear Viscoelastic and Dielectric Properties of Phosphonium Siloxane Ionomers.

ACS Macro Lett 2013 Nov 15;2(11):970-974. Epub 2013 Oct 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States.

The linear viscoelastic (LVE) and dielectric relaxation spectroscopic (DRS) properties of polysiloxanes with phosphonium (fraction ) and oligo(ethylene oxide) (fraction 1 - ) side groups with a fraction of ionic monomers = 0-0.26 have been studied. LVE master curves of those ionomers have been constructed. The ionic dissociation has been witnessed as a delayed polymer relaxation in LVE with increasing ion content, as well as an α ionic segmental relaxation process in DRS. LVE exhibits glassy and delayed rubbery relaxation at low ionic fraction ≤ 11%, where the ionic dissociation time detected in DRS enables description of LVE with a sticky Rouse model. In contrast, the glassy and rubbery stress relaxation moduli merge into one broad process at high ≥ 22%, where the whole LVE response from glassy to terminal relaxation can be described phenomenologically by a single Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) equation with the lowest stretching exponent β = 0.10 ever seen for polymeric liquids, describing LVE over 15 decades of frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mz400476wDOI Listing
November 2013

Nonlinear Extensional Rheology of Poly(-alkyl methacrylate) Melts with a Fixed Number of Kuhn Segments and Entanglements per Chain.

ACS Macro Lett 2022 Apr 22;11(4):484-490. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

State Key Lab of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Renmin St 5625, Changchun 130022, Jilin, China.

Molecular theories for dynamics of entangled polymers are based on both the number of Kuhn segments per entanglement and the number of entanglements per chain /. Extensive studies have shown that, for polymer chains in the solutions or melts, linear viscoelasticity can be properly normalized, whereas the nonlinear extensional rheological properties cannot be normalized when / is kept the same. The failure of the latter normalization has been attributed to a difference in . Nevertheless, nonlinear rheological studies are lacking for a suitable model system with fixed and /. In this study, we identify poly(-alkyl methacrylate)s with the number of carbons per alkyl group below seven as a model system. We find that the degree of the transient strain hardening during extensional flow strengthens with increasing the size of the alkyl group even when and / are kept the same, which is attributable to the weaker friction reduction when the main backbones are more separated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.2c00072DOI Listing
April 2022

LGR4 cooperates with PrPc to endow the stemness of colorectal cancer stem cells contributing to tumorigenesis and liver metastasis.

Cancer Lett 2022 May 10:215725. Epub 2022 May 10.

The State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing, 100101, China; Beijing Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine. Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address:

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells that drive tumour progression and metastasis. Anti-CSC strategies represent new targets for cancer therapies. However, CSCs are highly plastic and heterogeneous, making validation and targeting difficult without bona fide markers that define their identity, especially in a clinical setting. Here, we report that a leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) cooperates with CD44 and PrPc; the latter contributes significantly to metastatic capacity and defines the stemness characteristics of colorectal CSCs. CD44PrPcLGR4 cells effectively developed into organoids and, when transplanted, generated orthotopic and metastatic tumours. Importantly, targeting LGR4 and PrPc with lentiviral shRNAs inhibited organoid development and the growth of orthotopic tumours by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Thus, our study offers a novel therapeutic strategy that simultaneously targets CSC stemness and metastatic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2022.215725DOI Listing
May 2022

Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers.

ACS Macro Lett 2021 Apr 12;10(4):503-509. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130022 Changchun, China.

This study examines the brittle-to-ductile transition of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers (SPS) with different counterions. The polystyrene precursor was unentangled and had two ionic groups per chain on average. Thus, its terminal relaxation time was comparable to the lifetime of the associating ionic groups. Three types of ionomer samples were used to tune the association lifetime: (1) fully neutralized SPS with different alkali-metal counterions, (2) fully neutralized SPS with mixed sodium and cesium counterions, and (3) partially neutralized SPS with sodium or cesium counterions. For all three systems, the brittle-to-ductile transition could be represented by a diagram of two Weissenberg numbers, and , defined with respect to the terminal and Rouse relaxation times, respectively. A flowable region existed at sufficiently low , independent of . At higher , a brittle-to-ductile transition of the ionomer melt occurred above a critical value of . To achieve ductility during the application of rapid elongational flow, the Rouse-type motions should be sufficiently slow relative to the rate of ion-dissociation, so that the strain-induced breakup of the ionic cross-links would not cause very strong chain retraction that may further lead to the macroscopic fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.1c00018DOI Listing
April 2021

Molecular clusters played an important role in the adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on carbonaceous materials.

Chemosphere 2022 May 5;302:134772. Epub 2022 May 5.

Yunnan Provincial Key Lab of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Pollution Control, Faculty of Environmental Science & Engineering, Kunming University of Science & Technology, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most frequently detected hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in the environment. They may form clusters because of the strong hydrophobic and π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions among PAHs molecules. However, previous experimental studies and theoretical simulations generally ignored the impact of molecular clusters on the adsorption, which may result in the misunderstanding of the environmental fate and risk. In this work, naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) were selected to investigate intermolecular interaction as well as the consequent impact on their adsorption on graphene. The density field of C atoms in equilibrium configurations of self-interacted PAHs suggested that the formation of PAHs molecular clusters was a spontaneous process, and was favored in solvents with stronger polarity and for PAHs with more benzene rings. It should be noted that the molecular dynamics simulations with the initial state of molecular clusters matched better with the published experimental results compared with those of individual PAHs. The formed compact PAHs clusters in polar solvents increased the apparent PAHs adsorption, because of their higher hydrophobic and π-π EDA interactions. This study emphasized that the self-interaction of PAHs should be carefully considered in both experimental and theoretical simulation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134772DOI Listing
May 2022

Dynamic O-GlcNAcylation coordinates ferritinophagy and mitophagy to activate ferroptosis.

Cell Discov 2022 May 3;8(1):40. Epub 2022 May 3.

The State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology and Frontier of Science Center for Cell Response, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Ferroptosis is a regulated iron-dependent cell death characterized by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation. A myriad of facets linking amino acid, lipid, redox, and iron metabolisms were found to drive or to suppress the execution of ferroptosis. However, how the cells decipher the diverse pro-ferroptotic stress to activate ferroptosis remains elusive. Here, we report that protein O-GlcNAcylation, the primary nutrient sensor of glucose flux, orchestrates both ferritinophagy and mitophagy for ferroptosis. Following the treatment of ferroptosis stimuli such as RSL3, a commonly used ferroptosis inducer, there exists a biphasic change of protein O-GlcNAcylation to modulate ferroptosis. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation promoted ferritinophagy, resulting in the accumulation of labile iron towards mitochondria. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation resulted in mitochondria fragmentation and enhanced mitophagy, providing an additional source of labile iron and rendering the cell more sensitive to ferroptosis. Mechanistically, we found that de-O-GlcNAcylation of the ferritin heavy chain at S179 promoted its interaction with NCOA4, the ferritinophagy receptor, thereby accumulating labile iron for ferroptosis. Our findings reveal a previously uncharacterized link of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation with iron metabolism and decision-making for ferroptosis, thus offering potential therapeutic intervention for fighting disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-022-00390-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9065108PMC
May 2022

Effects of extracellular enzymes secreted by wild edible fungi mycelia on the surface properties of local soil colloids.

Environ Technol 2022 May 4:1-10. Epub 2022 May 4.

Yunnan Provincial Key Lab of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Pollution Control, Faculty of Environmental Science & Engineering, Kunming University of Science & Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.

The extracellular enzymes secreted by wild edible fungi mycelia participate in a series of physiochemical reactions in soil, thereby changing the surface properties of local soil colloids irreversibly. However, the reaction process and mechanism were generally ignored, leading to a misunderstanding of local soil functions. In this work, the soil samples collected from areas where growing wild edible fungi were selected as model substances, and the effects of extracellular enzymes (α-amylase, β-glucosidase, and peroxidase) secreted by wild edible fungi mycelia on the physicochemical properties of soil colloids were explored. After adding extracellular enzymes, the pores and fissures between the lamellar sheets were observed more obviously and the surface heights decreased significantly, especially after adding α-amylase. The addition of extracellular enzymes increased the electronegativity and the suspension stability of soil colloids owing to the decrease in their polarity and water solubility. The added extracellular enzymes might be adsorbed on the organic and inorganic components in soil colloids and could promote the decomposition of soil organic matter, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of soil colloids and improving the soil quality. The results will lay a theoretical foundation for understanding the soil function in the areas where growing wild edible fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2022.2071639DOI Listing
May 2022

AQP9 and ZAP70 as immune-related prognostic biomarkers suppress proliferation, migration and invasion of laryngeal cancer cells.

BMC Cancer 2022 Apr 28;22(1):465. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, No.2, Section 5, Renmin Street, Guta District, Jinzhou, 121000, Liaoning, China.

Background: Laryngeal cancer represents a common malignancy that originates from the larynx, with unfavorable prognosis. Herein, this study systematically analyzed the immune signatures of laryngeal cancer and to evaluate their roles on tumor progression.

Methods: Differentially expressed immune-related genes (IRGs) were screened between laryngeal cancer and normal tissues from TCGA dataset. Then, two prognosis-related IRGs AQP9 and ZAP70 were analyzed by a series of survival analysis. Based on them, molecular subtypes were constructed by unsupervised cluster analysis. Differences in survival outcomes, HLA expression and immune cell infiltrations were assessed between subtypes. Expression of AQP9 and ZAP70 was validated in laryngeal cancer tissues and cells by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. After silencing and overexpressing AQP9 and ZAP70, CCK-8, EdU, wound healing and transwell assays were performed in TU212 and LCC cells.

Results: Totally, 315 IRGs were abnormally expressed in laryngeal cancer. Among them, AQP9 and ZAP70 were distinctly correlated to patients' prognosis. Two subtypes were developed with distinct survival outcomes, HLA expression and immune microenvironment. Low expression of AQP9 and ZAP70 was confirmed in laryngeal cancer. AQP9 and ZAP70 up-regulation distinctly suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion of laryngeal cancer cells. The opposite results were investigated when their knockdown.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed the roles of AQP9 and ZAP70 in progression of laryngeal cancer, and suggested that AQP9 and ZAP70 could potentially act as candidate immunotherapeutic targets for laryngeal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09458-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9047300PMC
April 2022

Mitolysosome exocytosis, a mitophagy-independent mitochondrial quality control in flunarizine-induced parkinsonism-like symptoms.

Sci Adv 2022 Apr 13;8(15):eabk2376. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Mitochondrial quality control plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. Disruption of mitochondrial quality control degrades brain function. We found that flunarizine (FNZ), a drug whose chronic use causes parkinsonism, led to a parkinsonism-like motor dysfunction in mice. FNZ induced mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased mitochondrial mass specifically in the brain. FNZ decreased mitochondrial content in both neurons and astrocytes, without affecting the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons. In human neural progenitor cells, FNZ also induced mitochondrial depletion. Mechanistically, independent of ATG5- or RAB9-mediated mitophagy, mitochondria were engulfed by lysosomes, followed by a vesicle-associated membrane protein 2- and syntaxin-4-dependent extracellular secretion. A genome-wide CRISPR knockout screen identified genes required for FNZ-induced mitochondrial elimination. These results reveal not only a previously unidentified lysosome-associated exocytosis process of mitochondrial quality control that may participate in the FNZ-induced parkinsonism but also a drug-based method for generating mitochondria-depleted mammal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abk2376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9007515PMC
April 2022

BNIP3 (BCL2 interacting protein 3) regulates pluripotency by modulating mitochondrial homeostasis via mitophagy.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Apr 11;13(4):334. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101, Beijing, China.

Autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation plays pivotal roles in both the acquisition and maintenance of pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms that link autophagy-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis to pluripotency regulation are unclear. Here, we identified that the mitophagy receptor BNIP3 regulates pluripotency. In mouse ESCs, depletion of BNIP3 caused accumulation of aberrant mitochondria accompanied by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced ATP generation, which led to compromised self-renewal and differentiation. Impairment of mitophagy by knockdown of BNIP3 inhibited mitochondrial clearance during pluripotency induction, resulting in decreased reprogramming efficiency. These defects were rescued by reacquisition of wild-type but not LIR-deficient BNIP3 expression. Taken together, our findings highlight a critical role of BNIP3-mediated mitophagy in the induction and maintenance of pluripotency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-04795-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9001722PMC
April 2022

miR-873 and miR-105-2 May Affect the Tumour Microenvironment and are Potential Biomarkers for Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Int J Gen Med 2022 29;15:3433-3445. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Reproductive and Genetic Diseases, Deyang People's Hospital, Deyang, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for approximately 40% of all lung cancer cases. The tumour microenvironment (TME) and microRNAs affect the occurrence, metastasis, recurrence and treatment of tumours. However, the role of microRNAs in the TME and LUAD still needs to be further investigated.

Methods: RNA-seq and microRNA-seq data of LUAD and NSCLC samples were downloaded from the TCGA and GEO database. The immune and stromal components in the TME and the abundance of tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) were calculated by the ESTIMATE and CIBERSORT algorithms, respectively. The differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs) between different StromalScore and ImmuneScore groups were screened out by the edgeR package. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to screen out important DEMs and explore their functional effect.

Results: Our results revealed that a low StromalScore, ImmuneScore and ESTIMATEScore led to poor prognosis of LUAD. Then, 62 DEMs were screened out as downregulated in both the high StromalScore and ImmuneScore groups. Among these DEMs, elevated expression levels of miR-873, miR-105-2 and miR-516a-2 significantly shortened the survival time of LUAD patients. Subsequent analysis revealed that the expression levels of miR-873 and miR-105-2 were increased significantly in tumour tissues. The expression patterns of these 2 microRNAs were confirmed by GSE102286, implying the important roles of these 2 microRNAs in LUAD. Further analysis showed that miR-873 and miR-105-2 were mainly involved in immune-related pathways and that high expression levels of miR-873 and miR-105-2 decreased the abundance of monocytes and resting dendritic cells in the TME.

Conclusion: Although further exploration is still needed, our results revealed that miR-873 and miR-105-2 were closely related to the TME and affected the prognosis of LUAD by altering the abundance of TICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S352120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8976495PMC
March 2022

Risk Factors on the Incidence and Prognostic Effects of Colorectal Cancer With Brain Metastasis: A SEER-Based Study.

Front Oncol 2022 18;12:758681. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Cancer Center, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) with brain metastases (BM) is uncommon and often diagnosed at a late stage. The aims of this study were to identify the clinical factors that can influence the incidence of CRC patients with BM (CRCBM) and to investigate the impact of clinical factors and therapies on the outcomes of CRCBM.

Methods: Between 2010 and 2018, patients with CRCBM were enrolled under the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to identify risk factors and prognostic factors of BM. Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test were used to evaluate overall survival (OS) and tumor-specific survival (CSS) of CRCBM patients.

Results: A total of 195 (0.34%) CRC patients initially diagnosed with BM were included for analysis. The positive level of CEA, pN2a-b, and additional organ metastases were positively associated with developing BM from the CRC cohort ( < 0.05). The median OS and CSS of the BM patients were both 4.0 months, while the corresponding survival time in CRC patients without BM was 14.0 and 16.0 months, respectively (HR = 2.621, 95% CI = 2.061-3.333 for CSS; HR = 2.556, 95% CI = 2.026-3.225 for OS; log rank < 0.001, each). Only systematic treatment was independently associated with better survival ( < 0.05, each).

Conclusions: Although the overall prognosis of CRCBM patients was extremely poor, the positive level of CEA, pN2a-b, and distant metastases could be bad risk factors for the incidence of CRCBM. In addition, only systematic treatment was found to be a negative prognostic factor for CRCBM patients. These related factors can provide more valuable reference for clinical individualized treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.758681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971714PMC
March 2022

Effect of cascade damming on microplastics transport in rivers: A large-scale investigation in Wujiang River, Southwest China.

Chemosphere 2022 Mar 29;299:134455. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550081, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, PR China.

Rivers are the important channels for transporting microplastics into the ocean from land. Prosperous dam construction changed the connectivity of rivers, thereby reducing the flux of microplastics to the ocean. However, this process currently lacks verification for the large-scale watersheds. In this study, we investigated the Wujiang River in China to evaluate the interception of cascade dams on microplastics. The results showed that: 1) The midstream exhibits a high abundance of microplastics (606.6-1046.2 items·kg) while the upstream and downstream reach exhibits relatively low pollution levels. The small-sized microplastics of 0-0.5 mm are easily migrated into downstream while the large-sized microplastics of 0.5-5 mm tend to deposit. 2) Ten kinds of plastic materials were found, in which polyethylene and polypropylene, originated from the developed tourism and fishery, account for 74.2% in all samples. 3) The earliest microplastics were found in the sediments of 1962. The abundance of microplastics in the sediments in seven reservoirs increased over time, impling the contribution of increasing human activities. 4) Positive correlations between the abundance of microplastics in sediments and local gross domestic product (GDP) (n = 33, R = 0.89, p < 0.05) and negative correlations between microplastics abundance and reservoir basin area (n = 33, R = 0.42, p < 0.05) revealed that GDP and watershed area are the key factors that control the distribution of microplastics. Our results help to understand the migration of microplastics between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134455DOI Listing
March 2022

The molecular markers provide complementary information for biochar characterization before and after HNO/HSO oxidation.

Chemosphere 2022 Mar 28;301:134422. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Faculty of Environmental Science & Engineering, Kunming University of Science & Technology, Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Pollution Control, Kunming, 650500, China.

Biochar inevitably goes through long-term aging under biotic and abiotic processes in the environment, which results in various changes in its physicochemical properties. However, the traditional characterization methods based on particle separation cannot effectively monitor biochar in complex matrixes. Molecular markers, especially benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), can be used to directly identify the source and properties of biochar. In this study, biochars were prepared using corn straw (CS) and pinewood (PW) and were oxidized with HNO/HSO to simulate the aging processes. Molecular markers of lignin-derived phenols showed that PW has more vanillyl unit and thus more stable than CS. The overall BPCAs content and the relative content of mellitic acid (B6CA) both increased with pyrolysis temperature, indicating increased aromatic condensation/aromaticity. The pristine CS biochar has a higher BPCAs content compared to PW biochar. HNO/HSO treatment greatly decreased the lignin components and more vanillyl and cinnamyl units were removed from CS biochar than PW biochar. In addition, BPCAs contents decreased by 41-60 mg/g for CS biochar, while increased by 86-133 mg/g for PW biochar after HNO/HSO oxidation. This is owing to the release of the condensed aromatic structures in CS biochars, but the concentration of the condensed aromatic structures in PW biochars after oxidation. These results showed that PW biochars are more stable than CS biochars. The application of the molecular markers can help understanding the dynamic change of biochar in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134422DOI Listing
March 2022

The Impact of Optic Nerve Movement on Intracranial Radiation Treatment.

Front Oncol 2022 24;12:803329. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

Purpose: In radiotherapy, high radiation exposure to optic nerve (ON) can cause optic neuropathy or vision loss. In this study, we evaluated the pattern and extent of the ON movement using MRI, and investigated the potential dosimetric effect of this movement on radiotherapy.

Methods: MRI was performed in multiple planes in 5 human subjects without optic pathway abnormalities to determine optic nerve motion in different scenarios. The subjects were requested to gaze toward five directions during MRI acquisitions, including neutral (straight forward), left/right (horizontal movement), and up/down (vertical movement). Subsequently, the measured displacement was applied to patients with peri-optic tumors to evaluate the potential dosimetric effect of this motion.

Results: The motion of ON followed a nearly conical shape. By average, the anterior end of ONs moved with 10.8 ± 2.2 mm horizontally and 9.3 ± 0.8 mm vertically, while posterior end has negligible displacement. For patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy to a peri-optic tumors, the movement of ON in this measured range introduced non-negligible dosimetric effect.

Conclusion: The range of motion of the anterior portions of the optic nerves is on the order of centimeters, which may need to be considered with extra attention during radiation therapy in treating peri-optic lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.803329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8907542PMC
February 2022

Head and neck synthetic CT generated from ultra-low-dose cone-beam CT following Image Gently Protocol using deep neural network.

Med Phys 2022 May 14;49(5):3263-3277. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.

Purpose: Image guidance is used to improve the accuracy of radiation therapy delivery but results in increased dose to patients. This is of particular concern in children who need be treated per Pediatric Image Gently Protocols due to long-term risks from radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to design a deep neural network architecture and loss function for improving soft-tissue contrast and preserving small anatomical features in ultra-low-dose cone-beam CTs (CBCT) of head and neck cancer (HNC) imaging.

Methods: A 2D compound U-Net architecture (modified U-Net++) with different depths was proposed to enhance the network capability of capturing small-volume structures. A mask weighted loss function (Mask-Loss) was applied to enhance soft-tissue contrast. Fifty-five paired CBCT and CT images of HNC patients were retrospectively collected for network training and testing. The output enhanced CBCT images from the present study were evaluated with quantitative metrics including mean absolute error (MAE), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and structural similarity (SSIM), and compared with those from the previously proposed network architectures (U-Net and wide U-Net) using MAE loss functions. A visual assessment of ten selected structures in the enhanced CBCT images of each patient was performed to evaluate image quality improvement, blindly scored by an experienced radiation oncologist specialized in HN cancer.

Results: All the enhanced CBCT images showed reduced artifactual distortion and image noise. U-Net++ outperformed the U-Net and wide U-Net in terms of MAE, contrast near structure boundaries, and small structures. The proposed Mask-Loss improved image contrast and accuracy of the soft-tissue regions. The enhanced CBCT images predicted by U-Net++ and Mask-Loss demonstrated improvement compared to the U-Net in terms of average MAE (52.41 vs 42.85 HU), SNR (14.14 vs 15.07 dB), and SSIM (0.84 vs 0.87), respectively ( , in all paired t-tests). The visual assessment showed that the proposed U-Net++ and Mask-Loss significantly improved original CBCTs ( ), compared to the U-Net and MAE loss.

Conclusions: The proposed network architecture and loss function effectively improved image quality in soft-tissue contrast, organ boundary, and small structure preservation for ultra-low-dose CBCT following Image Gently Protocol. This method has potential to provide sufficient anatomical representation on the enhanced CBCT images for accurate treatment delivery and potentially fast online-adaptive re-planning for HN cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15585DOI Listing
May 2022

Subnanometer Ion Channel Anion Exchange Membranes Having a Rigid Benzimidazole Structure for Selective Anion Separation.

ACS Nano 2022 Mar 28;16(3):4629-4641. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China.

Ion-conductive polymers having a well-defined phase-separated structure show the potential application of separating mono- and bivalent ion separation. In this work, three side-chain-type poly(arylene ether sulfone)-based anion exchange membranes (AEMs) have been fabricated to investigate the effect of the stiffness of the polymer backbone within AEMs on the Cl/NO and Cl/SO separation performance. Our investigations via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), positron annihilation, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrate that the as-prepared AEM with a rigid benzimidazole structure in the backbone bears subnanometer ion channels resulting from the arrangement of the rigid polymer backbone. In particular, SAXS results demonstrate that the rigid benzimidazole-containing AEM in the wet state has an ion cluster size of 0.548 nm, which is smaller than that of an AEM with alkyl segments in the backbone (0.760 nm). Thus, in the electrodialysis (ED) process, the former exhibits a superior capacity of separating Cl/SO ions relative to latter. Nevertheless, the benzimidazole-containing AEM shows an inability to separate the Cl/NO ions, which is possibly due to the similar ion size of the two. The higher rotational energy barrier (4.3 × 10 Hartree) of benzimidazole units and the smaller polymer matrix free-volume (0.636%) in the AEM significantly contribute to the construction of smaller ion channels. As a result, it is believed that the rigid benzimidazole structure of this kind is a benefit to the construction of stable subnanometer ion channels in the AEM that can selectively separate ions with different sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c11264DOI Listing
March 2022

METTL3/IGF2BP3 axis inhibits tumor immune surveillance by upregulating N-methyladenosine modification of PD-L1 mRNA in breast cancer.

Mol Cancer 2022 02 23;21(1):60. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, No. 10, Changjiang Branch Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400042, China.

Background: Continual expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells is critical for tumor immune escape and host T cell exhaustion, however, knowledge on its clinical benefits through inhibition is limited in breast cancer. N-methyladenosine (mA) plays a crucial role in multiple biological activities. Our study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of the mA modification in PD-L1 expression and immune surveillance in breast cancer.

Methods: MeRIP-seq and epitranscriptomic microarray identified that PD-L1 is the downstream target of METTL3. MeRIP-qPCR, absolute quantification of mA modification assay, and RIP-qPCR were used to examine the molecular mechanism underlying METTL3/mA/IGF2BP3 signaling axis in PD-L1 expression. B-NDG and BALB/c mice were used to construct xenograft tumor models to verify the phenotypes upon METTL3 and IGF2BP3 silencing. In addition, breast cancer tissue microarray was used to analyze the correlation between PD-L1 and METTL3 or IGF2BP3 expression.

Results: We identified that PD-L1 was a downstream target of METTL3-mediated mA modification in breast cancer cells. METTL3 knockdown significantly abolished mA modification and reduced stabilization of PD-L1 mRNA. Additionally, METTL3-mediated PD-L1 mRNA activation was mA-IGF2BP3-dependent. Moreover, inhibition of METTL3 or IGF2BP3 enhanced anti-tumor immunity through PD-L1-mediated T cell activation, exhaustion, and infiltration both in vitro and in vivo. PD-L1 expression was also positively correlated with METTL3 and IGF2BP3 expression in breast cancer tissues.

Conclusion: Our study suggested that METTL3 could post-transcriptionally upregulate PD-L1 expression in an mA-IGF2BP3-dependent manner to further promote stabilization of PD-L1 mRNA, which may have important implications for new and efficient therapeutic strategies in the tumor immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01447-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8864846PMC
February 2022

Extracellular vesicles released after cranial radiation: An insight into an early mechanism of brain injury.

Brain Res 2022 05 17;1782:147840. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, United States; Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, United States. Electronic address:

Cranial radiation is important for treating both primary brain tumors and brain metastases. A potential delayed side effect of cranial radiation is neurocognitive function decline. Early detection of CNS injury might prevent further neuronal damage. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a potential diagnostic tool because of their unique membranous characteristics and cargos. We investigated whether EVs can be an early indicator of CNS injury by giving C57BJ/6 mice 10 Gy cranial IR. EVs were isolated from sera to quantify: 1) number of EVs using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA); 2) Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker; and 3) protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) adducts, an oxidative damage marker. Brain tissues were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining and protein immunoblotting. The results demonstrate: 1) increased GFAP levels (p < 0.05) in EVs, but not brain tissue, in the IR group; and 2) increased HNE-bound protein adduction levels (p < 0.05). The results support using EVs as an early indicator of cancer therapy-induced neuronal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2022.147840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8918058PMC
May 2022

DEPACT and PACMatch: A Workflow of Designing Protein Pockets to Bind Small Molecules.

J Chem Inf Model 2022 02 16;62(4):971-985. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

MOE Key Laboratory for Membraneless Organelles and Cellular Dynamics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, School of Life Sciences, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China.

Engineering of new functional proteins such as enzymes and biosensors involves the design of new protein pockets for the specific binding of small molecules. Here, we report a workflow composed of two new computational methods to execute this task. The DEPACT (Design Pocket as a Cluster based on Templates) method is a data-driven approach to design and evaluate small-molecule-binding pockets as isolated clusters, while the PACMatch method is a computational approach to match pocket residues in a cluster model to positions on given protein scaffolds. Using DEPACT and its scoring function, pocket clusters of natural-pocket-like chemical compositions and protein-ligand interaction strength can be designed. DEPACT can design pocket clusters containing water- or metal-ion-mediated protein-ligand interactions. While being able to efficiently treat relatively large pocket cluster models (e.g., of around 10 pocket residues), PACMatch outperforms previous methods in test cases of recovering the native positions of pocket residues in natural enzyme-substrate complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.1c01398DOI Listing
February 2022

Evaluating the clinical acceptability of deep learning contours of prostate and organs-at-risk in an automated prostate treatment planning process.

Med Phys 2022 Apr 21;49(4):2570-2581. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Background: Radiation treatment is considered an effective and the most common treatment option for prostate cancer. The treatment planning process requires accurate and precise segmentation of the prostate and organs at risk (OARs), which is laborious and time-consuming when contoured manually. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based auto-segmentation has the potential to significantly accelerate the radiation therapy treatment planning process; however, the accuracy of auto-segmentation needs to be validated before its full clinical adoption.

Purpose: A commercial AI-based contouring model was trained to provide segmentation of the prostate and surrounding OARs. The segmented structures were input to a commercial auto-planning module for automated prostate treatment planning. This study comprehensively evaluates the performance of this contouring model in the automated prostate treatment planning process.

Methods And Materials: A 3D U-Net-based model (INTContour, Carina AI) was trained and validated on 84 computed tomography (CT) scans and tested on an additional 23 CT scans from patients treated in our local institution. Prostate and OARs contours generated by the AI model (AI contour) were geometrically evaluated against reference contours. The prostate contours were further evaluated against AI, reference, and two additional observer contours for comparison using inter-observer variation (IOV) and 3D boundaries discrepancy analyses. A blinded evaluation was introduced to assess subjectively the clinical acceptability of the AI contours. Finally, treatment plans were created from an automated prostate planning workflow using the AI contours and were evaluated for their clinical acceptability following the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-0815 protocol.

Results: The AI contours demonstrated good geometric accuracy on OARs and prostate contours, with average Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) for bladder, rectum, femoral heads, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb of 0.93, 0.85, 0.96, 0.72, and 0.53, respectively. The DSC, 95% directed Hausdorff distance (HD95), and mean surface distance for the prostate were 0.83 ± 0.05, 6.07 ± 1.87 mm, and 2.07 ± 0.73 mm, respectively. No significant differences were found when comparing with IOV. In the double-blinded evaluation, 95.7% of the AI contours were scored as either "perfect" (34.8%) or "acceptable" (60.9%), while only one case (4.3%) was scored as "unacceptable with minor changes required." In total, 69.6% of the AI contours were considered equal to or better than the reference contours by an independent radiation oncologist. Automated treatment plans created from the AI contours produced similar and clinically acceptable dosimetric distributions as those from plans created from reference contours.

Conclusions: The investigated AI-based commercial model for prostate segmentation demonstrated good performance in clinical practice. Using this model, the implementation of an automated prostate treatment planning process is clinically feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15525DOI Listing
April 2022

A backbone-centred energy function of neural networks for protein design.

Nature 2022 02 9;602(7897):523-528. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

MOE Key Laboratory for Membraneless Organelles and Cellular Dynamics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, School of Life Sciences, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

A protein backbone structure is designable if a substantial number of amino acid sequences exist that autonomously fold into it. It has been suggested that the designability of backbones is governed mainly by side chain-independent or side chain type-insensitive molecular interactions, indicating an approach for designing new backbones (ready for amino acid selection) based on continuous sampling and optimization of the backbone-centred energy surface. However, a sufficiently comprehensive and precise energy function has yet to be established for this purpose. Here we show that this goal is met by a statistical model named SCUBA (for Side Chain-Unknown Backbone Arrangement) that uses neural network-form energy terms. These terms are learned with a two-step approach that comprises kernel density estimation followed by neural network training and can analytically represent multidimensional, high-order correlations in known protein structures. We report the crystal structures of nine de novo proteins whose backbones were designed to high precision using SCUBA, four of which have novel, non-natural overall architectures. By eschewing use of fragments from existing protein structures, SCUBA-driven structure design facilitates far-reaching exploration of the designable backbone space, thus extending the novelty and diversity of the proteins amenable to de novo design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04383-5DOI Listing
February 2022

Development of a virtual source model for Monte Carlo-based independent dose calculation for varian linac.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2022 Feb 9:e13556. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Monte Carlo (MC) independent dose calculations are often based on phase-space files (PSF), as they can accurately represent particle characteristics. PSF generally are large and create a bottleneck in computation time. In addition, the number of independent particles is limited by the PSF, preventing further reduction of statistical uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a virtual source model (VSM) to address these limitations. Particles from existing PSF for the Varian TrueBeam medical linear accelerator 6X, 6XFFF, 10X, and 10XFFF beam configurations were tallied, analyzed, and used to generate a dual-source photon VSM that includes electron contamination. The particle density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, particle direction, and the correlations between characteristics were computed. The VSM models for each beam configuration were validated with water phantom measurements as well as clinical test cases against the original PSF. The new VSM requires 67 MB of disk space for each beam configuration, compared to 50 GB for the PSF from which they are based and effectively remove the bottleneck set by the PSF. At 3% MC uncertainty, the VSM approach reduces the calculation time by a factor of 14 on our server. MC doses obtained using the VSM approach were compared against PSF-generated doses in clinical test cases and measurements in a water phantom using a gamma index analysis. For all tests, the VSMs were in excellent agreement with PSF doses and measurements (>90% passing voxels between doses and measurements). Results of this study indicate the successful derivation and implementation of a VSM model for Varian Linac that significantly saves computation time without sacrificing accuracy for independent dose calculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.13556DOI Listing
February 2022

Association Between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Thyroid Function.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 18;12:807482. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of General Surgery, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Aim: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is an important parameter with broad biological implications. However, the study investigating the association between RDW and thyroid function remains sparse and inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between RDW and thyroid function in the US population.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using the data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted from 2007 to 2010. The thyroid parameters investigated were mainly free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and antithyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb). In the 6,895 adults aged 18 years or older, logistic regression modeling was applied to estimate the association between RDW quartiles and thyroid parameters. Smooth curve fittings and generalized additive models were then performed to address the nonlinear relationship.

Results: The association between RDW and TSH followed a J-shaped curve, and a significant positive relationship existed in the 12.5%-17.5% range of RDW (  = 0.350, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.225 to 0.474), which was prominent in females. We further demonstrated a negative association ( = -0.018, 95% CI: -0.030 to -0.005) between RDW and fT3. Moreover, elevated RDW was more likely to be subclinical hypothyroidism. However, there was no obvious association between RDW and fT4.

Conclusion: This study confirmed a significant association between RDW and TSH, and future studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the peculiar RDW-fT3 relationship. RDW may be a significant clinical marker of subclinical hypothyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.807482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8805204PMC
March 2022

Heterogeneous compositions of oxygen-containing functional groups on biochars and their different roles in rhodamine B degradation.

Chemosphere 2022 Apr 4;292:133518. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Pollution Control, Faculty of Environmental Science & Engineering, Kunming University of Science & Technology, Kunming, 650500, China. Electronic address:

The reactivity of pyrogenic carbon has attracted a great deal of research attentions recently. The oxygen-containing structures are rich on the surface of biochars, and involved in accepting and donating electrons during the interactions between biochar and organic contaminants. In this work, the species and content of oxygen-containing functional groups on biochar surface were regulated through chemical modification, and batch sorption/degradation experiments were carried out for rhodamine B (RhB). Based on the comparison of surface functional groups, biochars produced below 200 °C mediated RhB degradation through phenol hydroxyl group, while semiquinone and carboxylic acid groups were the main reaction active sites for biochars produced at higher than 500 °C. Considering that various biochar properties play roles in mediating organics degradation, the strategies in manipulating biochar properties should be carefully considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133518DOI Listing
April 2022

[Computation-aided design of the flexible region of zearalenone hydrolase improves its thermal stability].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Dec;37(12):4415-4429

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

The zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD101) derived from Clonostachys rosea can effectively degrade the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) present in grain by-products and feed. However, the low thermal stability of ZHD101 hampers its applications. High throughput screening of variants using spectrophotometer is challenging because the reaction of hydrolyzing ZEN does not change absorbance. In this study, we used ZHD101 as a model enzyme to perform computation-aided design followed by experimental verification. By comparing the molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of ZHD101 at different temperatures, 32 flexible sites were selected. 608 saturated mutations were introduced into the 32 flexible sites virtually, from which 12 virtual mutants were screened according to the position specific score and enzyme conformation free energy calculation. Three of the mutants N156F, S194T and T259F showed an increase in thermal melting temperature (ΔTm>4 °C), and their enzyme activities were similar to or even higher than that of the wild type (relative enzyme activity 95.8%, 131.6% and 169.0%, respectively). Molecular dynamics simulation analysis showed that the possible mechanisms leading to the improved thermal stability were NH-π force, salt bridge rearrangement, and hole filling on the molecular surface. The three mutants were combined iteratively, and the combination of N156F/S194T showed the highest thermal stability (ΔTm=6.7 °C). This work demonstrated the feasibility of engineering the flexible region to improve enzyme performance by combining virtual computational mutations with experimental verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.210067DOI Listing
December 2021

The Emerging Role of FUNDC1-Mediated Mitophagy in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Front Physiol 2021 17;12:807654. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Interdisciplinary Center of Cell Response, State key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles and play essential role in ATP synthase, ROS production, innate immunity, and apoptosis. Mitochondria quality control is critical for maintaining the cellular function in response to cellular stress, growth, and differentiation Signals. Damaged or unwanted mitochondria are selectively removed by mitophagy, which is a crucial determinant of cell viability. Mitochondria-associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes (MAMs) are the cellular structures that connect the ER and mitochondria and are involved in calcium signaling, lipid transfer, mitochondrial dynamic, and mitophagy. Abnormal mitochondrial quality induced by mitophagy impairment and MAMs dysfunction is associated with many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative diseases. As a mitophagy receptor, FUNDC1 plays pivotal role in mitochondrial quality control through regulation of mitophagy and MAMs and is closely related to the occurrence of several types of CVDs. This review covers the regulation mechanism of FUNDC1-mediated mitophagy and MAMs formation, with a particular focus on its role in CVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.807654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8718682PMC
December 2021

Clinical efficacy of thoracoscopic surgery by subxiphoid approach for thymoma and its influence on intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(11):12843-12851. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Oncology, Dongping Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University Dongping 271500, Shandong, China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of thoracoscopic surgery by subxiphoid approach for patients with thymoma and its influence on intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications.

Methods: From January 2019 to January 2020, 90 patients who underwent thoracoscopic surgery were enrolled and evenly divided into a control group receiving surgery by lateral thoracic approach and an experimental group adopting the subxiphoid approach according to different surgical approaches, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy, perioperative indexes, postoperative complications, pulmonary function, and inflammatory factors were compared between the two groups. Generic Quality of Life Inventory-74 (GQOLI-74) was used to assess the quality of life of the patients before and after surgery, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess their mental state. The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) was used to evaluate the postoperative pain of the two groups.

Results: After treatment, the total clinical effectiveness rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group obtained superior results in perioperative index and fewer postoperative complications compared with the control group (P<0.05). Better performance of FEV1 and FVC was observed in the experimental group than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had significantly higher postoperative GQOLI-74 scores (P<0.001) and MMSE scores (P<0.05) than the control group. Lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and lower NRS scores at 12 h and 24 h after surgery were witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: For patients with thymoma, the thoracoscopic surgery by subxiphoid approach is safe and effective, and can reduce the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8661206PMC
November 2021

[Role and Significance of Bioactive Substances in Sputum
 in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2021 Dec;24(12):867-873

Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

The incidence rate of lung cancer is one of the highest incidence of malignancies in China. The gold standard for diagnosis requires pathological examination or cytological examination of biopsy. The invasive and sensitive nature of the two limits their use. Sputum contains a large number of nucleic acids and proteins, which is a good reflection of lung function. Lung cancer tissue will also affect the biological components in sputum. The detection of bioactive substances in sputum can contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. Based on the current research results at home and abroad, this paper reviews the bioactive substances in sputum that can be used for the diagnosis of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2021.102.46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8695240PMC
December 2021

Carbon-carbon bond activation by B(OMe)/Bpin-mediated fragmentation borylation.

Chem Sci 2021 Nov 2;12(45):15104-15109. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Energy Materials Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities Wuhan 430074 China

Selective carbon-carbon bond activation is important in chemical industry and fundamental organic synthesis, but remains challenging. In this study, non-polar unstrained Csp-Csp and Csp-Csp bond activation was achieved by B(OMe)/Bpin-mediated fragmentation borylation. Various indole derivatives underwent C2-regioselective C-C bond activation to afford two C-B bonds under transition-metal-free conditions. Preliminary mechanistic investigations suggested that C-B bond formation and C-C bond cleavage probably occurred in a concerted process. This new reaction mode will stimulate the development of reactions based on inert C-C bond activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc04487gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8612372PMC
November 2021
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