Publications by authors named "Qiya Guo"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Eating out behavior and its impact on obesity among Chinese residents aged 18-59 in 2015].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):395-400

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To study the eating out behavior and its impact on obesity among Chinese residents aged 18-59.

Methods: Multistage stratified random sampling method was used to collect data in 302 monitoring sites of the China National Chronic Non-communicable Disease and Nutrition Surveillance of adults in 31 provinces of China from 2015. A total of 53 887 subjects were included in this study by data cleaning. The population data published by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2010 were used as a standard population of the data result for 2015. Complex sampling weighting method was adopted in data analyses. The number and percentage of cases were used to describe the eating behaviors of different characteristics of the population, Statistical analysis was conducted by using SURVEYFREQ process, and Chi-square test was used to comparative analysis. Multi-factor analysis was conducted to the relationship between eating out frequency and different characteristics and obesity by using SURVEYLOGISTIC model regression.

Results: In 2015, proportions of eating out for all the three meals was 36. 1% of Chinese residents aged 18-59 in the past week, that of were 41. 3% and 24. 3% of Chinese residents aged 18-44 and 45-59, respectively. Proportions of Chinese residents was 12. 2% for eating out 1-6 times a week, 15. 8% for eating out 7-13 times a week, and 8. 1% for eating out 14-21 times a week. Results from the multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that 18-44 years old, male, urban, highly educated, family per capita annual income ≥ 20 000 yuan, unmarried, on the job and school students chose to eat out more commonly. No statistical association was noticed between the frequency of eating out and obesity in women, men who ate out 14-21 times a week showed higher risk of obesity than those who not ate out, with OR=1. 8(95%CI 1. 3-2. 5).

Conclusion: Proportions of eating out increased for Chinese residents aged 18-59, men who ate out 14-21 times a week showed higher risk of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.008DOI Listing
May 2021

[Energy and macronutrient intakes of employees at different levels of work intensity in China from 2010 to 2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):415-420

National Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the intake of energy and macronutrients of employees at different levels of work intensity in China.

Methods: Based on the data of National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012, this paper analyzed the energy and macro nutrients intakes of employees at three levels of working strength.

Results: The energy intake of employees in China was 1952. 7 kcal/d, the intakes of protein, fat and carbohydrate were 62. 7 g/d, 76. 6 g/d and 254. 0 g/d, respectively, the energy supply ratios were 13. 1%, 34. 9% and 52. 4%, respectively. From food sources of energy, the percentage of total energy provided by cereals and animal foods was 47. 7% and 18. 2%, respectively. The percentage of protein from cereal, legumes and Animal food was 39. 8%, 6. 7% and 37. 5%, respectively. The percentage of fat from animal food was 34. 8%. From the age and work intensity groups, the energy intake was lower in the low age group and the light work intensity of employees. There was the lowest intake of protein and fats in high age groups with heavy work intensity. Energy levels form protein and fat were highest in the light intensity group. Energy supply from cereal food was the highest in the group with heavy work intensity and energy supply from animal food was the highest in the group with low age group and light work intensity. The intake of high quality protein and animal food fat decreased with the increase of age and work intensity.

Conclusion: The energy intake of employees in China is lower than the recommended energy intake for Chinese residents, and fat provides a higher proportion of energy. Employees with high age and heavy work intensity have insufficient protein intake, and the unreasonable dietary structure was particularly prominent with them, and their nutritional status needs to be paid more attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.011DOI Listing
May 2021

[Energy and macronutrient intakes of farmers at different levels of physical activity in China from 2010 to 2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):409-414

National Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the intake and structure of energy and macronutrients of farmers under three kinds of job types: working, farming and housework in China, and analyzes the intake status under different work intensity.

Methods: Based on the data of China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012, this paper analyzed the dietary intake of farmers over 18 years old at three job types and different work intensities.

Results: The energy intake of farmers in China was 2149. 5 kcal/d, and that of men and women were 2345. 2 kcal/d and 1985. 4 kcal/d, respectively. Farming farmers took in the highest energy and the domestic farmers took in the lowest energy. The average protein intake of farmers was 60. 8 g, 66. 0 g for men and 56. 4 g for women. The protein intake of working, farming and housework farmers, showed a downward trend. The fat intake of farmers was 66. 6 g, including 71. 9 g for men and 62. 1 g for women. With the three main forms of working, farming and housework, the fat intake showed a downward trend. The carbohydrate intake of farmers was 327. 5 g, including 354. 6 g for men and 304. 7 g for women, with farming farmers taking in the highest carbohydrate. Among the working farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the intake of carbohydrate increased in turn, but protein and fat had no obvious characteristics; among the farming workers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, carbohydrate, protein and fat showed an increasing trend. There were also differences in the dietary structure characteristics among the three job types of working, farming and housework. The proportion of energy from protein and fat was higher in working farmers, the proportion of high-quality protein was close to 35%, the proportion of energy from carbohydrate was the highest in farming farmers, the proportion of high-quality protein was only 27%, the proportion of high-quality protein in household farmers was 30%, and the ratio of fat to energy in both farming and household farmers was less than 30%. Among working farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the proportion of energy from carbohydrate increased, while the proportion of protein from animal food decreased; among farming farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the proportion of protein from animal food increased slightly.

Conclusion: There are some differences in the energy and macronutrients intake among the working farmers, farming farmers and household farmers in China. The farming farmers have the most energy intake, and with the increase of work intensity, the proportion of carbohydrate intake increases, and the protein intake is insufficient, especially the heavy work intensity. The nutrition needs of the population should get more attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.010DOI Listing
May 2021

[Status of fresh vegetables and fruit consumption among Chinese aged 60 years old and above in 2015].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):401-408

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analysis the fresh vegetables and fresh fruit consumption among the elders aged 60 and above of China in 2015.

Methods: The consumption of fresh vegetables and fresh fruits in the past 12 months was calculated by using the food frequency questionnaire data of 58 335 elderly people aged 60 and above from "China National Chronic Diseases and Nutrition Surveillance of Adults(2015)", and the intake status was evaluated according to the recommended intake of Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents(2016).

Results: The consumption rate of fresh vegetables among the elderly in China was 98. 7%, the median intake of the whole population was 270. 0 g, the median intake of the consumer population was 300. 0 g, and the proportion of under-intake was 49. 6%. The fresh fruit consumption rate was 84. 2%, the median intake of the whole population was 30. 0 g, and the median intake of the consumer population was 50. 0 g. The proportion of insufficient intake of fresh fruits reached 85. 2%. The frequency of intake of fresh vegetables was mainly 2 times/day, accounting for 45. 9%; fresh vegetables intake 1-3 times/week and ≥2 times/day were 38. 7% and 35. 6%, respectively. The consumption rate and intake of fresh vegetables and fruits were both higher in urban areas than in rural areas, and decrease significantly with increasing age, lower educational background and lower income. In addition, the consumption rate and intake were lower in elderly living alone.

Conclusion: China& apos; s elderly people aged 60 and above have insufficient intake of vegetables and fruits. Health education and dietary guidance should be carried out, and intervention measures should be taken for key populations to effectively promote a reasonable diet for the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.009DOI Listing
May 2021

[Intakes of energy and macronutrients in 6-11 years old age group in 2016-2017 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):389-394

National Institute for Nutrition and Health of China CDC, Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To survey the intakes of energy and macronutrients in 6-11 years old age group in 2016-2017 in China.

Methods: Multi-stage cluster randomization sampling method was used to collect the data from China Nutrition and Health Surveillance of Children and Lactating Mothers in 2016-2017 in 257 surveillance sites of 31 provinces. 24-h dietary recalls for three consecutive days were used to obtain the dietary information. The intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate were calculated by the China Food Composition, and the intakes of protein were assessing by Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes(DRIs).

Results: A total of 8777 children in 6-11(9. 2±1. 6) years old group were recruited in this surveillance, the number of boys and girls were 4364 and 4413, respectively. The general intakes of energy were 1591. 7 kcal and that of boys and girls were 1624. 1 kcal and 1559. 7 kcal, respectively. The energy intakes in urban children were higher than rural children. The energy intakes in the east region were the highest and the middle region were the lowest. The general protein intakes were 50. 0 g, and that of boys and girls were 50. 9 g and 49. 1 g, respectively. The intakes of protein in urban children were higher than in rural. The intakes of protein in east region were higher than that in the middle and west regions. The ratios that above RNI of protein intakes were 52. 4%, and the ratios of urban and rural were 63. 0% and 42. 9%, respectively. The general fat intakes were 69. 6 g and that of boys and girls were 71.4 g and 67.8 g, respectively. The fat intakes in urban children were higher than in rural, but in the rural of the west the fat intakes were higher than in the urban of the east. The general intakes of carbohydrate were 196. 3 g, and that of boys and girls were 199. 5 g and 193. 2 g, respectively. The carbohydrate intakes in urban children were higher than in rural, and in the west region the intakes of carbohydrate were higher than in the east region. But in the rural populations, the carbohydrate intakes in the west region were higher than that in the east region.

Conclusion: Comparing with 2010-2013, obvious changes of energy and macronutrients intakes in China 6-11 y children were observed in 2016-2017 surveillance. Inadequate intakes of protein were still the problem in rural children populations. The increase of fat intake was larger and more significant in the western region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.007DOI Listing
May 2021

The Status of Dietary Energy and Nutrients Intakes among Chinese Elderly Aged 80 and Above: Data from the CACDNS 2015.

Nutrients 2021 May 12;13(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

This study analyzed the status of dietary energy and nutrients intakes among the oldest-old in China. Data was obtained from the China Adult Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance in 2015 (CACDNS 2015). We enrolled 1929 Chinese elderly people aged 80 and above who participated in both 3-day 24-h dietary recalls and household condiments weighing. The dietary intakes were calculated based on Chinese Food Composition Tables and assessed using Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The dietary intakes of energy and most nutrients were all below the EAR or AI, except for fat, vitamin E, niacin, iron and sodium. As a result, daily dietary intakes of energy and most nutrients were inadequate in the oldest-old in China, especially vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin B, folate and calcium, with the prevalence of deficiency more than 90%. Furthermore, the prevalence of inadequacy of vitamin C, zinc, selenium and magnesium was also high with the proportion below the EAR more than 60%. Approximately 30% of the subjects with dietary vitamin E intake did not reach AI, and more than 90% of subjects have reached AI in the intake of sodium, while more than 90% did not reach AI in potassium. The mean intakes of niacin and iron have reached EAR, but around 15% were still faced with the risk of deficiency. In addition, although the dietary energy intake was below EER, the energy contribution from fat in total population and all subgroups (region, age, gender, education level, material status, household income level groups) all exceeded the recommended proportion of 30% from the DRIs and close to or over 35%, is a significant concern. For the majority of nutrients, higher daily dietary intakes and lower prevalence of deficiencies were found in the oldest-old living in urban areas, aged 80-84 years, with high school and above education level, living with spouse and from high household income family. These findings indicates that the dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were inadequate, while the energy contribution from fat and dietary sodium intake were too high among the oldest-old in China. Most oldest-old were at high risk of nutritional deficiency, particularly for those who living in rural areas, with lower education level and from low household income.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150709PMC
May 2021

[Status of undernutrition of left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;50(2):230-236

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze and describe the status and characteristics of undernutrition among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance among 0-5 Years Old Children and Lactating Women in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used, and 4576 participants under 6 years old from 55 sites of 30 provinces, autonomous region and municipalities were involved. Definition of undernutrition were according to the WHO 2006 growth standard in children less than 5 years old and the WHO 2007 growth reference in children of 5 years old. Results were computed by post stratification weight based on national census from the National Bureau of Statistics in 2010.

Results: The prevalence of stunting was 10. 6% among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013. It was 11. 6% in boys and 9. 4% in girls. The rate of general rural area and poor rural area were 7. 1% and 16. 6%. The prevalence of stunting showed a significant difference in sex(P=0. 022), general rural and poor rural(P=0. 006), three regions(P=0. 003), parental type of outing(P=0. 005), mother's education(P<0. 001), annual per capita household income(P<0. 001). The prevalence of underweight was 3. 2% among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013. It was 3. 4% in boys and 2. 9% in girls. The rate of general rural area and poor rural area were 1. 6% and 2. 0%. The prevalence of stunting showed a significant difference in general rural and poor rural(P<0. 001), three regions(P<0. 001), annual per capita household income(P=0. 0144), mother's education(P<0. 001). The prevalence of wasting was 2. 3% among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013. It was 2. 3% in boys and 2. 2% in girls. The rate of general rural area and poor rural area were 1. 5%, 3. 5%. The prevalence of stunting of general rural showed a significant difference in parental type of outing(P=0. 033), the prevalence of stunting of poor rural showed a significant difference in mother's education(P<0. 001), annual per capita household income(P=0. 020).

Conclusion: The undernutrition rate among left-behind children under the age of 6 in rural China should be paid attention, especially in the higher subgroups of poor rural areas, western regions, low-income families, mothers away from home and mothers with less than junior middle school education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.02.011DOI Listing
March 2021

[Intakes of dietary energy and macronutrients among the elderly aged 65 and above in China in 2015].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Jan;50(1):37-45

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the intakes of dietary energy and macronutrients among the elderly aged 65 and above in China in 2015.

Methods: Data was from the China National Chronic Non-communicable Disease and Nutrition Surveillance of adults in 2015. Stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used. The valid dietary data of 18 161 the elderly aged 65 and above were extracted from 302 surveillance sites in 31 provinces. Consecutive 3-day 24-hour dietary recall method and household cooking oils and condiments weighting method were applied to collect dietary intakes data. The intakes of daily energy and macronutrients were calculated using China Food Composition Tables 2004 and 2009, and the dietary quality were evaluated according to 2013 Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes.

Results: The study showed that the average intake of daily energy was 1595. 5 kcal, the average intake of carbohydrates, proteins and fats were 208. 7 g, 47. 9 g and 63. 6 g, respectively. The proportion of energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fats were 52. 7%, 12. 1% and 35. 4%, respectively. The carbohydrates intake and proportion of energy from carbohydrates among urban elderly were 202. 3 g and 51. 4%, all lower than that in rural(213. 6 g and 53. 7%, P<0. 05). While the proteins intake and proportion of energy from proteins among urban elderly were 50. 8 g and 12. 9%, all higher than rural elderly(45. 6 g and 11. 5%, P<0. 001). The fats intake and proportion of energy from fats among urban elderly were 64. 1 g and 35. 9%, rural elderly were 63. 3 g and 35. 0%, there were no significant differences in fats intake and proportion of energy from fats between urban elderly and rural elderly(P>0. 05). The dietary intake of energy and macronutrients among the oldest old were lowest, especially those in rural areas, were 1394. 4 kcal, 182. 4 g, 40. 1 g and 56. 4 g. In 2015, the rate of energy lower than EER among the elderly was 75. 8%, and the rate of percentage of energy from carbohydrates lower than DRIs was 41. 5%. The rate of proteins lower than recommended nutrient intake was 76. 6%. The rate of percentage of energy from fats higher than dietary reference intakes was 64. 5%.

Conclusion: In China, the unreasonable dietary intake among the elderly aged 65 and above is severe, and the oldest old especially those in rural areas have the most serious deficiency in proteins intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.01.007DOI Listing
January 2021

[Provincial prevalence of overweight and obesity among 0-5 years old children in China in 2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2020 Mar;49(2):190-194

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To study the provincial prevalence of overweight and obesity among 0-5 years old children in China in 2013.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance among 0-5 years Children and Lactating Women in 2013. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used among 0-5 years children from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities and selected 55 districts/counties. The weight and height measurement was conducted using a standard method. The questionnaire was used to collect the information of children. The WHO 2006 growth standard and WHO 2007 growth reference were used to define the overweight and obesity in children. The data was calculated using the post-stratified weight based on provincial census from the National Bureau of Statistics in 2010.

Results: The sample participants were 32 861 in 2013. The provincial prevalence of overweight was in 3. 3%-16. 1% and in 0. 6%-9. 7% for obesity. Among the provinces with urban survey sites, the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity was Shandong(14. 3% and 5. 2%), the lowest was Hainan(3. 3% and 0. 6%). Among the provinces with rural survey sites, the highest rate of overweight was Shanxi(16. 1%)and the lowest was Qinghai(3. 3%), while the highest rate of obesity was Shanxi(9. 7%)and the lowest was Qinghai(0. 7%). Among the provinces with both urban and rural survey sites, the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity was in Hebei(14. 3% and 6. 6%), the lowest was in Guizhou(3. 5% and 0. 9%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among 0-5 years old children was higher in central and middle region in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2020.02.004DOI Listing
March 2020

[Status of hypertension awareness, treatment and control among adults in China in 2010-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Nov;48(6):913-918

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe the hypertension awareness, treatment and control among adults in China in 2010-2012.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities and selected 150 districts/counties. The sample was adults aged 18 and over selected through the method of Probability Proportion to Size(PPS). The mercury sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure. Each person had three measurements. The questionnaire was used to collect the information of hypertension awareness and control.

Results: The sample participants were 120 428 in 2010-2012. Among adults with hypertension, 46. 5%were aware of their hypertension, 41. 1% reported taking hypertension medicine in the last two weeks, and 13. 8% controlled the blood pressure. It was higher for hypertension awareness, treatment and control in women(49. 5%, 44. 2% and 14. 6%) than those of men(43. 0%, 37. 4% and 12. 9%). The three rates were increased with age. The prevalence of control was 33. 6% among the treated hypertensive individuals. It was higher for men and the rate was decreased with age. It was higher for hypertension awareness, treatment and control among hypertension and control among treated hypertensive participates in urban area(52. 7%, 47. 9%, 17. 9% and 37. 3%) than those in rural area(39. 5%, 33. 4%, 9. 2% and 27. 6%). The rates of overall, gender, and age groups were decreased in large city, medium and small city, general county, and poor county.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension awareness, treatment and control among hypertension and control among treated hypertensive participates among Chinese adults was increased in 2010-2012. But the rates were still keep a low level. The region and age differences need pay attention.
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November 2019

[Prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding among Chinese children aged less than 24 months in 2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Nov;48(6):902-906

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To estimate the early initiation of breastfeeding status of Chinese children aged less than 24 months and its influence factors.

Methods: Data of children aged less than 24 months old was collected from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. Subjects were selected form 55 survey sites of mainland China by the multilevel stratified equal proportional cluster random sampling and the final effective sample size was 14 825. Caregivers of children completed a feeding and health questionnaire, which included questions on whether the children were put to the breast within one hour of birth, influence factors and the initiation time of breastfeeding. Prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding, influence factors and time composition ratio of initiation of breastfeeding were calculated.

Results: The prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding of Chinese children under 2 years old in 2013 was 26. 4%, among which big cities, small and medium-sized cities, ordinary rural areas, povertystricken rural areas were 30. 1%、24. 1%、23. 2% and 36. 9%, respectively. Caesarean section was the most important factor affecting early breastfeeding of infants in big cities, small and medium-sized cities and ordinary rural areas, accounting for 40. 7%, 51. 5%and 33. 8%, respectively. The main influencing factor in poor rural areas was lack of early breast-feeding knowledge, accounting for 44. 6%. The prevalence of infants initiated breastfeeding 2 ± 23 hours after birth was 31. 0% and the prevalence of infants initiated breastfeeding ≥24 hours after birth was 35. 3%. In big cities, the prevalence of the two periods were 31. 2% and 33. 4%. In small and medium-sized cities, the prevalence were35. 4% and 34. 4%. In ordinary rural areas, the prevalence were 26. 9% and 42. 3%. In poverty-stricken rural areas, the prevalence were comparatively low, which were 29. 5%and 23. 5%, respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding among infant aged less than 24 months is low in China. Caesarean section and lack of related knowledge were the main influencing factors in urban and rural areas respectively. Certain percentage of infants have severely delayed breast contact with their mothers and start breastfeeding.
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November 2019

[Cognition and control of weight among 15-49 years old women of childbearing age in China during 2010-2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Nov;48(6):888-944

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the weight recognition and control among women aged 15-49 in China.

Methods: Data was from the China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used. The data of 35 664(16 914 urban women and 18 750 rural women) 15-49 years old women of childbearing age was used. The basic information was collected by questionnaires. Physical measurement indexes such as height and weight were collected.

Results: Among overweight and obese women of childbearing age, only 34. 9%(95%CI 34. 2%-35. 6%) of them correctly judged themselves overweight or obese, and 61. 4%(95% CI 60. 6%-62. 1%) of them thought they were normal weight; 10. 8%(95%CI10. 3%-11. 2%) of the normal-weight women thought they were overweight; while 3. 0%(95% CI 2. 6%-3. 4%) of the low-weight women thought they were overweight. Only17. 1%(95% CI 16. 4%-17. 8%) of overweight and obese women of childbearing age take weight control measures. In addition, 3. 6%(95% CI 3. 1%-4. 1%) of low-weight women of childbearing age and 9. 7%(95% CI 9. 3%-10. 1%) of normal-weight women took weight control measures, respectively. The proportion of women aged 15-24 taking weight control measures was higher than that of women aged 25-34 and 35-49, 14. 8%(95% CI 13. 3%-16. 4%), 12. 2%(95% CI 11. 1%-13. 2%) and 10. 0%(95% CI9. 3%-10. 1%), respectively. The proportion of women aged 15-24 taking weight control measures was the highest among normal weight women and overweight and obese women, 13. 9%(95% CI 13. 1%-14. 7%) and 26. 9%(95% CI 26. 4%-27. 4%), respectively.

Conclusion: At present, there were more women of childbearing age in China who could not correctly assess their own body weight, leading to the inability to take correct weight control measures.
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November 2019

[Prevalence and variation of hypotension in Chinese adult residents in 2002-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Nov;48(6):869-875

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and variation of hypotension in Chinese adults residents in 2002 and 2010-2012.

Methods: Data of the blood pressure measurements from 2002 and 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey(CNNHS), a multistage stratified cluster random sampling survey was conducted in 2002, and the sample size was 147 488, 64 869 males, 82 619 females, 50 123 urban residents, 97 365 rural residents, 71 078 northern residents and 76 410 southern residents. A multi-stage stratified and population-proportional cluster random sampling method was used in 2010-2012, and the sample size of was 120 427, 52 499 males, 67 928 females, 60 214 urban residents, 60 213 rural residents, 53 863 northern residents and 66 564 southern residents. The population data published by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009 was used as a standard population of the data result for 2002 and 2010-2012. Complex sampling weighting method was adopted in data analyses. The prevalence of hypotension and 95%CI in different populations were calculated. Chi-square test was used to compare the rates, multi-factor analysis was conducted by using SURVEYLOGISTIC model regression.

Results: In 2002, the prevalence rate of hypotension in Chinese adults was 3. 0%, 1. 9% in males, 4. 1% in females, 2. 7% in urban residents, 3. 3% in rural residents, 2. 8% in northern residents and 3. 2% in southern residents. The prevalence rate of hypotension was the highest in 18-44 age group(4. 3%). Among people with different body mass index(BMI), the prevalence of hypotension was higher in low weight group(7. 0%). From 2010 to 2012, the prevalence rate of hypotension in Chinese adults was 2. 1%, 1. 1% in males, 3. 2% in females, 1. 9% in urban residents, 2. 2% in rural residents, 1. 8% in northern residents and 2. 3%in southern residents. The prevalence rate of hypotension was the highest in 18-44 age group(3. 1%). Among people with different BMI, the prevalence of hypotension was higher in low weight group(7. 4%). The total prevalence of hypotension in adult residents in China from 2010 to 2012 was lower than that in 2002, and the difference was statistically significant(χ~2= 624. 3, P <0. 0001). In 2002 and 2010-2012, the prevalence of hypotension in adult residents of China decreased with the increase of age, and the prevalence of hypotension in men and women also decreased with the increase of age. Women were higher than men, the lower age group was higher than the higher age group, and the lower weight group was higher than the normal population. The differences were statistically significant. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis also showed that lower age group, women and people with low weight were more prone to develop hypotension.

Conclusion: In 2002 and 2010-2012, the total prevalence of hypotension in adult residents of China, and that of hypotension in both men and women decreased with the increase of age. Women were higher than men, the lower age group was higher than the higher age group, and the lower weight group was higher than the normal population. 18-44 age group, women and low weight group are more likely to have low blood pressure. Compared with 2002, the total prevalence of hypotension in Chinese adult residents showed a decreasing trend from 2010 to 2012.
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November 2019

[Consumption status of instant noodles among Chinese aged 6 years old and above in 2010-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Sep;47(5):700-704

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To estimate the instant noodles' consumption status of Chinese population in 2010-2012.

Methods: Data were collected from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. A total of 78 466 valid subjects aged 6 years old and above were enrolled into analysis. The food frequency questionnaires were used to collect food consumption status information. Consumption rate, consuming frequency percentage, consumption of instant noodles, and sodium intake from instant noodles were calculated.

Results: The instant noodles' consumption rate of Chinese people aged 6 years old and above in 2010-2012 was 49. 7%, urban and rural were 49. 7% and 49. 8%respectively, male and female were 51. 6% and 48. 3% respectively. The consumption rate of children and adolescent aged 6-17 years old was 74. 6%. The food frequency were at least once/week 49. 0%, 1-3/month 36. 2%, < 1/month 14. 8%. The mean of instant noodles consumption per person per day was 17. 7 g. The mean of sodium consumption from instant noodles per person per day was 202. 5 mg. The instant noodlesand sodium's consumptions, of children and adolescent aged 6-17 years old were 21. 7 g and 248. 6 mg, decreased with increase of age.

Conclusion: The consumption of instant noodles in China is common, and the high consumption of children and adolescent should be paid attention.
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September 2018

[Complementary feeding time among 0-5 years old children in 2013 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Sep;47(5):695-699

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe complementary feeding time among 0-5 years old children in 2013 in China.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used from 31 provinces( autonomous regions and municipalities) and selected 55 districts/counties. The study included 24 580 children aged 0-5 years. The basic situation and complementary feeding of children aged 0-5 years were collected by questionnaires.

Results: The average time for children aged 0-5 years in China to start complementary foods was 6. 1 months. The urban( 5. 7 months) was earlier than the rural( 6. 4 months), large cities, medium and small cities, general rural and poor rural areas were 5. 5, 5. 8, 6. 9 and 5. 5 months, respectively. The proportions of early complementary feeding( < 4 months) and late complementary feeding( > 9 months) were 10. 2 %( n = 2496) and 9. 5%( n = 2336), which were 7. 3% and 5. 5% respectively in urban area and 13. 1% and 13. 7%respectively in rural area. The proportions of early complementary feeding was the highest( 19. 6%) in poor rural areas, the proportions of late complementary feeding was the highest( 15%) in the general rural areas. The rate of introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods was 82. 3%, the urban( 89. 4%) was higher than the rural( 73. 6%), and it was the lowest( 63. 4%) in the poor rural areas.

Conclusion: There were both early complementary feeding and late complementary feeding among 0-5 years children in China in 2013, and the regional difference were significant. It is more likely to add complementary foods too early or too late in rural areasthan in urban areas, especially in poor rural areas.
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September 2018

[Trends and food sources composition of energy, protein and fat in Chinese residents, 1992-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Sep;47(5):689-704

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the trends and food sources composition of energy, protein and fat in Chinese residents from 1992 to 2012.

Methods: Based on the dietary data of the China Nutrition and Health Surveys in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012, to compare the food sources composition of energy, protein and fat in Chinese residents. A stratified multistage cluster random sampling was used in 1992, and the sample size was100 201. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling survey was conducted in 2002, and the sample size was 68 962. A multi-stage stratified and population-proportional cluster random sampling method was used in 2010-2012, and the sample size of was63 993. Three consecutive 24-hour recalls method and face-to-face interviews were used in three dietary surveys, and household edible oil and condiment weighing were adopted in three surveys. The dietary energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intake, and the proportion of dietary pattern among the participants were analyzed based on the China Food Composition table.

Results: The average daily dietary energy intake in Chinese residents in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012 was 2328. 3, 2250. 5 and 2172. 1 kcal, respectively. The carbohydrate intake was 378. 4, 321. 2 and 300. 8 g respectively, and the protein intake was 68. 0, 65. 9 and 64. 5 g, respectively. The fat intake was 58. 3, 76. 2 and 79. 9 g, respectively. The dietary energy in Chinese residents mainly came from cereals, and the proportion of cereals energy supply was 66. 8%, 57. 9% and 53. 1%, respectively. Dietary energy was mainly derived from carbohydrates, and the proportion of carbohydrate energy supply was 66. 2%, 58. 6% and 55. 0%, respectively. The proportion of fat energy supply was 22. 0%, 29. 6% and 32. 9%, respectively. The main food sources of protein was cereals. The proportion of protein intake in cereals was 61. 6%, 52. 0% and47. 3%, respectively. The proportion of high quality protein intake was 24. 0%, 32. 6%and 37. 0%, respectively. The main food sources of fat was plant food, and the proportion of plant fat intake was 62. 8%, 60. 8% and 64. 1%, respectively. The dietary energy in urban and rural residents in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012 years was mainly derived from cereals. The nutrients of dietary energy were mainly derived from carbohydrates. The food sources of protein were mainly cereals. The food sources of fat were mainly plant food, and the proportion of high quality protein intake increased. The proportion of cereals supply in 2002 and 2010-2012 years was less than 50%. The fat supply of urban residents was 35. 0% and 36. 1% higher than that in 2002 and 2010-2012, and the proportion of high quality protein intake in rural residents was less than 40%.

Conclusion: The dietary composition in urban and rural residents in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012 was mainly composed of cereal and vegetable food. The proportion of energy supply from fat was very high and increased, the average dietary intake per reference man per day for protein intake was insufficient and decreased. The trend of average energy intake per reference man per day was from excessive intake to insufficient and decreased in Chinese residents and urban residents. The proportion of high quality protein intake was insufficient for the Chinese residents and rural residents. The proportion of energy supply from cereals and carbohydrate were low and decreased.
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September 2018

[Prevalence of stunting and wasting among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years in 2010-2012 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Jan;47(1):27-31

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To examine the trend of stunting and wasting among children age between 6 and 17 in China.

Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling process was used to investigate 36 058 children aged 6-17 years in 2010-2012 in 31 provinces( municipalities, autonomous region) in China. Their height and weight were measured, prevalence of stunting and wasting were calculated according to national standard of malnutrition screening among school children and adolescents( WS/T 456-2014) to compare children malnutrition status in children and adolescents in four classified areas. Data was weighted by post stratification adjustment, according to standard population data in 2009 from State Statistical Bureau.

Results: The prevalence of stunting among childrenand adolescents aged 6 to 17 in China in 2010-2012 were 3. 2%( 95% CI 2. 6%-3. 8%), among boys were 3. 6%( 95% CI 2. 9%-4. 3%) and girls were 2. 8%( 95%CI 2. 2%-3. 3%). Stunting rate among children and adolescents aged 6-17 in urban area were 1. 5%( 95% CI 1. 0%-2. 1%), and rural area were 4. 7%( 95% CI 3. 8%-5. 6%). Prevalence of stunting showed rising trend with the decline of economic level. Total prevalence of wasting among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years in China in2010-2012 were 9. 0%( 95% CI 8. 0%-9. 9%), 10. 4%( 95% CI 9. 3%-11. 6%)for boys and 7. 3%( 95% CI 6. 5%-8. 1%) for girls, 7. 8%( 95% CI 6. 6%-9. 0%)for urban area and 10. 0%( 95% CI 8. 6%-11. 4%) for rural area. Prevalence of wasting also showed rising trend with the decline of economic level.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of stunting and wasting among Chinese children and adolescents in 31 provinces( municipalities, autonomous region) was relatively low, however, stunting and wasting in poor areas should still be concerned.
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January 2018

[Status and variation trend of eggs food intakes among residents in 2010-2012 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Jan;47(1):18-21

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the status and variation trend of eggs food intake among Chinese residents.

Methods: Multi-stage cluster randomization sampling method was used to collect data about eggs food intake among residents in 150 surveillance sites of China National Nutrition and Health Survey in 31 provinces of China from 2010 to 2012. Food frequency questionnaire and 24-hours recall for three consecutive days were used to collect information on eggs food consumption of the participants. The eggs food intake per standard people were calculated based on the China Food Composition.

Results: The proportion of residents reporting the frequency of 1 or more times per day for eggs food were 31. 3% in the children and 25. 8% in the adult and the estimated daily eggs food was24. 3 grams for all the residents. The estimated daily eggs food for the residents of urban( 29. 5 g) was higher than that of rural( 19. 4 g)( T = 47. 86, P < 0. 0001). The eggs food consumption frequency and intake showed a decreasing trend for the residents with different residential regions in an order of big cities, small and medium-sized cities, common rural area, and poverty rural area. In past 30 years, the eggs food intake was increased substantial in the residents from 1982 to 2002. Althought the total the eggs food intake was increased gradually for all residents from 2002 to 2010-2012, the eggs food intake was decreased slightly for both the residents in urban and rural areas during the period.

Conclusion: The consumption frequency and intake of eggs food among Chinese residents are still at a low level and exist regional differences. Some measures should be taken to guide reasonable eggs food consumption behavior among Chinese residents.
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January 2018

[Status of blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension among 6-17 years old children and adolescents in 2010-2012 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Jan;47(1):1-6

National Institute for Nutrition and Food Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe the mean of systolic blood pressure( SBP), diastolic blood pressure( DBP), and the prevalence of hypertension among 6-17 years old children and adolescents in China in 2010-2012.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. The total number was 35 657 which selected through the method of multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling and probability proportion to size( PPS). The study objects were 6-17 years old childrenand adolescents in 31 Provinces and 150 sites in China Mainland. Blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer. Hypertension was defined using Blood pressure reference standards for Chinese children and adolescents( 2010). Age-standardized result were calculated incorporating a sample weighting using the national census from the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009.

Results: The overall mean SBP was 101 mmHg. It was 102 mmHg for boys and 99 mmHg for girls. It showed 94 mmHg and 105 mmHg in 6-11 and 12-17 age groups. The mean DBP was 65 mmHg. Both boys and girls were 65 mmHg. It was 61 mmHg and 68 mmHg in 6-11 and 12-17 age groups. The prevalence of hypertension was 12. 4% in children and adolescents in China. It was 12. 4% in boys and 12. 3% in girls. It showed 7. 3% in 6-11 age group and 15. 6% in 12-17 group. The SBP, DBP and prevalence of hypertension were increased with age. The mean SBP of poor rural area was lowest and there was no difference in SBP and hypertensive prevalence.

Conclusion: The government should pay more attention on blood pressure and hypertension in 6-17 years old children and adolescents. It is important to strengthen the surveillance and early detection and prevention.
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January 2018

[Consistency between the electronic and mercury sphygmomanometer in children and adolescents on blood pressure measuring].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 Sep;45(5):758-765

Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To study the consistency between the electronic sphygmomanometer and mercury sphygmomanometer on blood pressure measuring in children and adolescents.

Methods: 201 children and adolescents were from 6neighborhood of Hunan Province. Dr Mike BPA100 Plus electronic sphygmomanometer was used for three times to test the difference. The blood pressure value of mercury sphygmomanometer was gold standard. The difference of systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of two devices was tested using paired t test, Bland-Altman analysis, and interclass correlation coefficient.

Results: Paired t test showed the statistical difference on the systolic pressure( t = 24. 71, 0. 0001) and diastolic pressure( t = 23. 81, < 0. 0001) of two devices. Both the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of electronic sphygmomanometer was higher than that of mercury sphygmomanometer. Bland-Altman analysis showed mercury sphygmomanometer couldn 't be simply replaced by electronic sphygmomanometer. The result of interclass correlation coefficient presented a poor consistency between two devices.

Conclusion: In order to get scientific conclusion, the comparable study between two blood pressure measuring devices should be conductedbefore a large-scale survey on child and adolescent.
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September 2016

[Consumption status and trend of added sugar containing food among Chinese from 2002 to 2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 May;45(3):398-401

Objective: To understand the status and trend of added sugar containing food consumption from 2002 to 2012.

Methods: Using dietary data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 and the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012, to analyze the consumption status of added sugar containing food in these two years and to compare the difference between the past ten years in China.

Results: From 2002 to 2012, consumption rate of added sugar containing food increased from 20.4% to 26.9%, the consumption rate of all ages in 2012 was higher than in 2002 (t = -3.75, P = 0.0133), female higher than male (t = 0.86, P = 0.3991). The percentage of total calories from added sugar containing food was decreasing from 9.48% in 2002 to 9.09% in 2012, the difference was statistically significant (t = 4.16, P < 0.0001). From 2002 to 2012, species composition ratio of sugar-sweetened beverages (11.7% and 8.5%), dairy products (8.1% and 15.0%), instants food (26.6% and 39.0%) was increasing in some degree.

Conclusion: The consumption level of added sugar in China is low, which still under the recommended limits (10%) of WHO, but the consumption rate of food containing added sugar is increasing generally.
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May 2016

[Status of consumption of potato and its related products in Chinese residents from 2010 to 2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 Jul;45(4):538-541

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the status of consumption of potato and its related products in Chinese residents from 2010 to 2012.

Methods: Data was from China Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012. Information on the consumption of potato and its related products was collected using the 24 h recall method for three consecutive days.

Results: The average consumption of potatoes for Chinese residents was 29. 2 g / d, 20. 1 g for urban residents, 37. 7 g for rural residents. The consumption rate of potato was40. 1%, which were 35. 7% and 44. 2% in urban and rural areas. The average consumption of potato eaters was 72. 8 g, 56. 2 g and 85. 3 g for urban and rural areas respectively. The average consumptions of potato powder and chips were 0. 2 g and 0. 04 g, and the edible rate were 0. 4% and 0. 2% respectively.

Conclusion: At present, the edible rate and the consumption of potato were lower in Chinese residents. To promote potato staple strategy should actively promote potato food products and industrial development, guide the dietary structure of Chinese residents, and improve the residents' understanding of the nutritional value of potato.
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July 2016

[Status of alcohol drinking among population aged 15 and above in China in 2010-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 Jul;45(4):534-567

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the drinking practice of people in China. The purpose is to provide the evidence to alcohol drinking control in China.

Methods: The data of 2010- 2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey was used for this study. 145263 subjects aged 15 years and over were involved.

Results: The overall current drinking rate of people in China was 34. 3%, male( 54. 6%) was higher than female( 13. 3%), The 45 ~ 59 years age group ranked the highest( 38. 6%). Beer( 64. 6%)was the most, high degree wine( 38. 7%) and low degree wine( 29. 7%) were next in china drinkers. The daily alcohol consumption for drinkers was 28. 1g, 32. 8g for males and 8. 0 g for females. Daily alcohol intake( 38. 5 g) of 45 ~ 59 years were the highest. Of those who drank, 30. 4% were heavy drinkers, male( 34. 8%) was higher than female( 11. 7%). Of those who drank, 13. 9% were hazardous drinkers, male( 16. 0%) was higher than female( 4. 7%).

Conclusion: Alcohol drinking has become a public health problem in China, and the drinking behaviors varied between differentgenders and ages. Health education program should be developed and conducted, especially for males of 45 ~ 59 years old.
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July 2016

[Trends of energy and nutrients intake among Chinese population in 2002-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 Jul;45(4):527-533

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe the energy and dietary nutrients intake trends among Chinese population from 2002 to 2012.

Methods: Data of energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake were collected from 2002 Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey, 2010-2012 Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance, and energy and dietary nutrients intake were analyzed. The 3-consecutive days-24-hour dietary recall and food weighting method were used to collect food, edible oil and condiment intake information. The dietary nutrients intake was calculated based on the energy percentage in one family and the China Food Composition.

Results: Compared with 2002, the average energy intake per reference man per day of Chinese people declined to 2172. 1 kcal from 2250. 5 kcal in 2010-2012. Dietary protein intake was basically flat. Dietary fat intake in 2010-2012 was 79. 9 g, with urban level higher than rural level. Compared with that in 2002, fat intake increased by 4 g, and urban residents' intake fell slightly, making urban / rural gap narrower. Theintake of micronutrient such as vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, zinc was still lower than Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes and falling continually.

Conclusion: In the last decade, Chinese urban / rural residents' dietary energy supply was sufficient, and the dietary nutrients intake had improved. However, there were excessive intake of fat and low intake of micronutrient was still a problem among Chinese population. There was significant difference between the urban and rural area, and the dietary quality among Chinese population especially rural residents should be improved.
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July 2016

[Trends of food consumption among Chinese population in 1992-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 Jul;45(4):522-526

Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the trends of food consumption among Chinese population from 1992 to 2012.

Methods: Based on the results of 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012, data of average food consumption per reference man per day was compared. The 3-consecutive day-24-hour dietary recall was used to collect information on food intake, but the condiment intake was collected by weighting method.

Results: The intake of cereals decreased during 1992-2012 from 439. 9 g to 337. 3 g, tubers decreased 50. 8 g during20 years. The intake of fresh vegetables was decreased from 310. 3 g to 269. 4 g from 1992 to 2012, with rural area decreased more than urban area. Fruit intake in urban area decreased from 80. 1 g to 28. 8 g, whereas rural area had minor variation. The intake ofmeats increased from 58. 9 g to 89. 7 g. There were little change on the intake of legume, dairy, fishery and their products. Intake of edible oil was increased during 1992-2002but kept stable during 2002-2012. Salt intake was 3. 4 g less in 2010-2012 than 1992 and 1. 5 g less in 2010-2012 than 2002.

Conclusion: There had been noticeable changes in dietarypattern among Chinese population in the past 20 years. Even though Chinese dietary pattern had kept stable since 2002 and had much improved, improper food consumption still existed. Double burdens should be considered as problems which asked for attention by the government and researchers.
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July 2016

[Consumption of fruits and vegetables in Chinese adults from 2010 to 2012].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Mar;50(3):221-4

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults.

Methods: Data were collected from 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance. Information on fruits and vegetables consumption was collected by using the 24 h recall method for 3 consecutive days. Using the multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. The participants selected were more than 18 years old of 150 counties from 31 provinces in China. Age and sex standardization was performed based on the China 2009 population published by National Statistics Bureau. The average consumption of vegetables or fruits after weight adjustment for complex sampling was reported to analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults (x ± Sx).

Results: The average daily consumptions of vegetables and fruits for Chinese residents were (255 ± 6) and (36 ± 3)g/d, respectively. The total consumptions of fruits and vegetables were (291 ± 7)g/d, (295 ± 8)g/d for male, (286 ± 7)g/d for female. Rates on intake of vegetables in Chinese adults during the three survey days were 99.0%-99.8%.Rates on intake of fruits of urban and rural residents were 36.9%-51.5% and 21.3%-30.3%,respectively.The proportion of people whose total amount of vegetables and fruits intake reached 400 g/d were 24%-28% and 13%-23% in urban and rural areas, respectively. In urban and rural areas, the proportion of adults whose consumption reached Chinese dietary guidelines recommended level were 22%-26% and 14%-19% in vegetables, 2%-5% and 1%-2% in fruit, respectively.

Conclusion: The consumptions of vegetables and fruits were inadequate in Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2016.03.006DOI Listing
March 2016

[Comparative study on electronic sphygmomanometer and mercury sphygmomanometer among adults in the field study].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2015 Nov;44(6):914-7

Objective: To compare the electronic sphygmomanometer with mercury sphygmomanometer on measuring the average blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension in a same population. To set up a numerical relationship between two blood pressure value of the two devices.

Methods: 544 adults of ≥ 18 years old were from 6 neighborhood of Hunan Province. OMRON HEM-907 and mercury sphygmomanometer were used to test the difference. The blood pressure value of mercury sphygmomanometer was gold standard. The difference of systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of two devices was tested using paired t test and Bland-Altman analysis. Chi-square test was used to analyze the two prevalence of hypertension among the same population. The equation of linear regression was established using the value of blood pressure of two devices.

Results: Paired t test showed the statistical difference on the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of two devices (P < 0.0001). Chi-square test presented a higher prevalence of hypertension by using the electronic sphygmomanometer (P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman analysis showed mercury sphygmomanometer couldn't be simply replaced by electronic sphygmomanometer. The two independent equation of linear regression was calculated on systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.

Conclusion: The difference still existed when using the electronic sphygmomanometer and mercury sphygmomanometer at a large scale population. It's important to conduct the comparative study on electronic sphygmomanometer and mercury sphygmomanometer.
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November 2015

Dual effects of sodium butyrate on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2012 May 7;39(5):6235-42. Epub 2012 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit cell growth, induce cell differentiation and apoptosis in multiple cell lines. In present study, we revealed the dual effects of NaBu in regulating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In two different HCC cell lines, SK-Hep1 and SMMC-7721, low concentrations of NaBu induced a significant increase in cell growth ratio and S-phase cell percentage, accompanied by a reduced p21 Cip1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, while dissimilarly, high concentrations of NaBu inhibited cell growth and induced G1 arrest through up-regulation of p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 protein expression. The reduction of p45 Skp2 expression further indicated that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation might play a role in NaBu-induced up-regulation of p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1. Moreover, the high concentration of NaBu was also able to trigger HCC cell apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate the distinct effects of NaBu at different dosages. This finding may contribute to develop more effective tumor therapeutic protocols of NaBu in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-011-1443-5DOI Listing
May 2012

Functional analysis of α1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012 Jan 1;417(1):311-7. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China.

The α1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of α1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe(x) were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.11.106DOI Listing
January 2012