Publications by authors named "Qixiao Zhai"

90 Publications

The roles of different strains in protecting against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis and related functional genes.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R. China. and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

The role of supplementation with different Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) strains in alleviating ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear due to the controversial results from animal experiments. In this study, three B. fragilis strains were evaluated for their ability to alleviate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in C57BL/6J mice. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of different B. fragilis strains and the changes they caused in the intestinal microbiota composition, intestinal epithelial permeability, cytokine concentrations, protein expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and the underlying specific genes. The results showed that when orally administered, the different B. fragilis strains exerted different effects on the assessed parameters of the mice. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining showed that the supplementation of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1, but not FJSWX11BF, enhanced the expression of the tight-junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1. Western blot analysis showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1 were related to the NF-κB pathway. Genomic analysis suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of FSHCM14E1 may be mediated through specific genes associated with defense mechanisms and the secretion of SCFAs. Overall, this study indicates the therapeutic potential of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1 for the prevention of UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00875gDOI Listing
July 2021

Distinct Microbiomes of Gut and Saliva in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematous and Clinical Associations.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:626217. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Urology, Affiliated Wuxi No. 2 Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

Alterations in the microbiome of the gut and oral cavity are involved in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to assess whether both microbiome compositions in feces and saliva were specific in patients with SLE. A total of 35 patients with SLE, as well as sex- and age-matched asymptomatic subjects as healthy control (HC) group were recruited. Fecal swabs and saliva samples were collected from the participants. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the samples. Compared with the HC group, reduced bacterial richness and diversity were detected in the feces of patients with SLE, and increased bacterial diversity in their saliva. Both feces and saliva samples explained the cohort variation. The feces were characterized by enrichment of , and depletion of an unclassified bacterium in the Ruminococcaceae family and . Lack of was observed in patients with arthritis. and negatively correlated with the serum levels of C3. In saliva, , , and were dominant, and was negatively associated with disease activity. These findings can assist us to comprehensively understand the bacterial profiles of different body niches in SLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.626217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281017PMC
July 2021

Potential Role of Probiotics in Ameliorating Psoriasis by Modulating Gut Microbiota in Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Mice.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 11;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated systemic disease that may be treated with probiotics. In this study, probiotic strains that could or could not decrease interleukin (IL)-17 levels were applied to imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice via oral administration. CCFM667, CCFM1078, CCFM1074, and CCFM1132 ameliorated psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and suppressed the release of IL-23/T helper cell 17 (Th17) axis-related inflammatory cytokines, whereas CCFM1148, CCFM1147, and CCFM1040 neither alleviated the pathological characteristics nor reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines. All effective strains increased the contents of short-chain fatty acids, which were negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory cytokines. By performing 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the diversity of gut microbiota in psoriasis-like mice was found to decrease, but all effective strains made some specific changes to the composition of gut microbiota compared to the ineffective strains. Furthermore, except for CCFM1078, all other effective strains decreased the abundance of the family Rikenellaceae, which was positively correlated with psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and was negatively correlated with propionate levels. These findings demonstrated effects of strain-specificity, and how probiotics ameliorated psoriasis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13062010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230682PMC
June 2021

Phocaeicola faecalis sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterial strain adapted to the human gut ecosystem.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Aug 15;114(8):1225-1235. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Binhu District, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu, China.

A novel strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated as strain FXJYN30E22, was isolated from the feces of a healthy woman in Yining county, Xinjiang province, China. This strain was non-spore-forming, bile-resistant, non-motile and rod-shaped. It was found to belong to a single separate group in the Phocaeicola genus based on its 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence. Alignments of 16 S rRNA gene sequences showed only a low sequence identity (≤  95.5 %) between strain FXJYN30E22 and all other Phocaeicola strains in public data bases. The genome (43.0% GC) of strain FXJYN30E22 was sequenced, and used for phylogenetic analysis which showed that strain FXJYN30E22 was most closely related to the type strain Phocaeicola massiliensis JCM 13223. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) between FXJYN30E22 and P. massiliensis JCM 13223 were 90.4 and 41.9 %, which were lower than the generally accepted species boundaries (94.0 and 70 %, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids and polar lipids were anteiso-branched C and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. The result of genome annotation and KEGG analysis showed that strain FXJYN30E22 contains a number of genes in polysaccharide and fatty acid synthesis that indicated adaptation to the human gut system. Furthermore, a pbpE (penicillin-binding protein) gene was found in the genome of strain FXJYN30E22 but in no other Phocaeicola species, which suggested this gene might be contribute to the adaptive capacity of strain FXJYN30E22. Based on our data, strain FXJYN30E22 (= CGMCC1.17870/KCTC25195) was classified as a novel Phocaeicola species, and the name Phocaeicola faecalis sp. nov., was proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-021-01595-7DOI Listing
August 2021

An optimized culture medium to isolate strains from the human intestinal tract.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R China. and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China and (Yangzhou) Institute of Food Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Yangzhou 225004, China.

Research studies have shown that Lactobacillus fermentum generally exists in the human gut and has potential health benefits on host health due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, the lack of an effective culture medium for the isolation of L. fermentum has presented a significant obstacle on the path to screen L. fermentum strains from the human intestinal tract with a large diversity of commensal microbes. In this study, a total of 51 Lactobacillus species are detected in 200 human fecal samples and we aim to distinguish L. fermentum from these common existing Lactobacillus species and design a more efficient culture medium for isolating L. fermentum strains from the human gut. Based on antibiotic susceptibility and sugar utilization tests, a new optimized medium called LFMATA containing arabinose as the carbon source and 20 mg L-1 vancomycin, 64 mg L-1 gentamicin and 256 mg L-1 streptomycin was developed. Genotype and phenotype analysis for antibiotic resistance and carbohydrate metabolism showed that though glycometabolism-related genes (araA, xylA, manX, bglX, treP and rbsK) correlated with the carbon utilization of Lactobacillus, the genes conferring resistance to streptomycin (gidB and rpsL) and gentamicin (tlyA) were not directly associated with the antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus strains. This new selective medium greatly increased the efficiency of screening L. fermentum strains from human fecal samples, with the rate of L. fermentum isolation on LFMATA being 10-fold higher than that on LAMVAB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00209kDOI Listing
June 2021

Mining genome traits that determine the different gut colonization potential of and species.

Microb Genom 2021 Jun;7(6)

National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China.

Although the beneficial effects of probiotics are likely to be associated with their ability to colonize the gut, little is known about the characteristics of good colonizers. In a systematic analysis of the comparative genomics, we tried to elucidate the genomic contents that account for the distinct host adaptability patterns of and species. The species, with species-level phylogenetic structures affected by recombination among strains, broad mucin-foraging activity, and dietary-fibre-degrading ability, represented niche conservatism and tended to be host-adapted. The species stretched across three lifestyles, namely free-living, nomadic and host-adapted, as characterized by the variations of bacterial occurrence time, guanine-cytosine (GC) content and genome size, evolution event frequency, and the presence of human-adapted bacterial genes. The numbers and activity of host-adapted factors, such as bile salt hydrolase and intestinal tissue-anchored elements, were distinctly distributed among the three lifestyles. The strains of the three lifestyles could be separated with such a collection of colonization-related genomic content (genes, genome size and GC content). Thus, our work provided valuable information for rational selection and gut engraftment prediction of probiotics. Here, we have found many interesting predictive results for bacterial gut fitness, which will be validated and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000581DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantitative Detection of Strains in Feces Using Strain-Specific Primers.

Microorganisms 2021 May 28;9(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road No.1800, Binhu District, Wuxi 214122, China.

We adopted a bioinformatics-based technique to identify strain-specific markers, which were then used to quantify the abundances of three distinct sup. strains in fecal samples of humans and mice. A pangenome analysis of 205 sup. genomes revealed the accumulation of considerable strain-specific genes within this species; specifically, 28.7% of the total identified genes were strain-specific. We identified 32, 14, and 49 genes specific to sup. RG4-1, sup. M1-20-R01-3, and sup. FGSZY6M4, respectively. After performing an in silico validation of these strain-specific markers using a nucleotide BLAST against both the sup. genome database and an NR/NT database, RG4-1_01874 (1331 bp), M1-20-R01-3_00324 (1745 bp), and FGSZY6M4_01477 (1691 bp) were chosen as target genes for strain-specific quantification. The specificities of the qPCR primers were validated against 47 non-target microorganisms and fecal baseline microbiota to ensure that they produced no PCR amplification products. The performance of the qPCR primer-based analysis was further assessed using fecal samples. After oral administration, the target strains appeared to efficiently colonize both the human and mouse guts, with average population levels of >10 CFU/g feces. The bioinformatics pipeline proposed here can be applied to the quantification of various bacterial species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227663PMC
May 2021

Gene-Phenotype Associations Involving Human-Residential Bifidobacteria (HRB) Reveal Significant Species- and Strain-Specificity in Carbohydrate Catabolism.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 21;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Bifidobacteria are among the first colonizers of the human gastrointestinal tract. Different bacterial species use different mechanisms for utilization of various carbon sources in order to establish themselves in the complex microbial ecosystem of the gut. However, these mechanisms still need to be explored. Here, a large gene-phenotype correlation analysis was carried out to explore the metabolic and genetic diversity of bifidobacterial carbohydrate utilization abilities. In this study, we used 21 different carbohydrates to determine the growth phenotypes, the distribution of glycoside hydrolases (GHs), and gene clusters related to the utilization of multiple carbon sources in six human-residential species. Five carbohydrates significantly stimulated growth of almost all strains, while the remaining sugars exhibited species- and strain-specificity. Correspondingly, different species also had specific GHs involved in fermentation of plant or host glycans. Moreover, we analyzed several carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, such as 2-fucosyllactose (2'FL), sialic acid (SA), and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). In summary, by using 217 bifidobacterial strains and a wide range of growth substrates, our research revealed inter- and intra-species differences in bifidobacterial in terms of carbohydrate utilization. The findings of this study are useful for the process of developing prebiotics for optimum growth of probiotics, especially species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143103PMC
April 2021

Identification of the key characteristics of strains for the alleviation of ulcerative colitis.

Food Funct 2021 Apr;12(8):3476-3492

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R China. and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) species are widely used to prevent and treat ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, phylogenetic and pan-genomic characterization of 122 B. longum strains was performed on the basis of 936 core genes; among these, four strains from different branches of the phylogenetic tree were selected for an evaluation of anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory activities in a DSS-induced colitis mouse model. Among the tested B. longum strains (B. longum FBJ20M1, B. longum FGDLZ8M1, B. longum FGSZY16M3, and B. longum FJSWXJ2M1), B. longum FGDLZ8M1 was found to most effectively alleviate colitis by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, restoring the colon length, and maintaining the mucosal integrity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 were related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Genomic analysis indicated that these protective effects of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 may be related to specific genes associated with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and defense mechanisms (e.g., tolerance to bile salts and acids). Correlation analysis indicated that gastrointestinal transit tolerance was the most strongly associated factor. Our findings may contribute to the rapid screening of lactic acid bacterial strains with UC-alleviating effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00017aDOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Bacillus coagulans as an adjunct starter culture on yogurt quality and storage.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 23;104(7):7466-7479. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

Bacillus coagulans has been widely studied for its probiotic properties. Therefore, identifying a strain that can be used as an adjunct starter culture for yogurt production would have commercial value. In this study, 30 B. coagulans strains were isolated from vegetable samples from 11 provinces or autonomous regions in China, and their pan-genomic and phylogenetic characteristics were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis categorized 30 strains into 4 different subphylotypes, including subtype I (11 isolates), subtype II (7 isolates), subtype III (11 isolates), and subtype IV (1 isolate). Four B. coagulans strains (B. coagulans-70, B. coagulans-78, B. coagulans-79, and B. coagulans-100) were randomly selected from each subphylotype of the phylogenetic tree as adjunct starter cultures. Compared with the other tested strains, B. coagulans-70 showed the highest count in yogurt at the end of the manufacturing period. Comparative genome analysis indicated that the different bacterial levels of B. coagulans strains in yogurt may be associated with the abundance of genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism (e.g., sucrose utilization). Finally, differences in texture and volatile flavor compound profiles were observed between the yogurt samples. Compared with the other groups, the addition of B. coagulans-70 exerted a positive effect on the appearance and texture of yogurt products. Volatile analysis showed increased quantities of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, amyl alcohol, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone in the B. coagulans-70 group compared with control yogurts. These results above combined with the results of a sensory evaluation indicated that B. coagulans-70 is the most suitable strain for further use in functional dairy product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19876DOI Listing
July 2021

Desulfovibrio diazotrophicus sp. nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium from the human gut capable of nitrogen fixation.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 14;23(6):3164-3181. Epub 2021 May 14.

Gut Health and Microbes, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widespread in human guts, yet their expansion has been linked to colonic diseases. We report the isolation, sequencing and physiological characterization of strain QI0027 , a novel SRB species belonging to the class Desulfovibrionia. Metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 45 Chinese individuals, and comparison with 1690 Desulfovibrionaceae metagenome-assembled genomes recovered from humans of diverse geographic locations, revealed the presence of QI0027 in 22 further individuals. QI0027 encoded nitrogen fixation genes and based on the acetylene reduction assay, actively fixed nitrogen. Transcriptomics revealed that QI0027 overexpressed 42 genes in nitrogen-limiting conditions compared to cultures supplemented with ammonia, including genes encoding nitrogenases, a urea uptake system and the urease complex. Reanalyses of 835 public stool metatranscriptomes showed that nitrogenase genes from Desulfovibrio bacteria were expressed in six samples suggesting that nitrogen fixation might be active in the gut environment. Although frequently thought of as a nutrient-rich environment, nitrogen fixation can occur in the human gut. Animals are often nitrogen limited and have evolved diverse strategies to capture biologically active nitrogen, ranging from amino acid transporters to stable associations with beneficial microbes that provide fixed nitrogen. QI0027 is the first Desulfovibrio human isolate for which nitrogen fixation has been demonstrated, suggesting that some sulfate-reducing bacteria could also play a role in the availability of nitrogen in the gut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15538DOI Listing
June 2021

Strains Improve Constipation Symptoms and Regulate Intestinal Flora in Mice.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 18;11:655258. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Constipation is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that seriously reduces the quality of life. Clinical studies have shown that a great change or severe imbalance occurs in the intestinal microbiota of people with constipation. This study explored whether bacteriocin-producing and non-bacteriocin-producing strains resulted in differences in the alleviation of constipation and changes in the fecal flora in BALB/c mice. The constipation-related indicators, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and gut microbiota were identified to evaluate their alleviating effects and underlying mechanisms. The time to the first black-stool defecation and the gastrointestinal transit rate in constipated mice were found to be somewhat improved by four . strains ( > 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in the level of most gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in the serum, as well as in the composition and abundance of intestinal microbiota in different groups ( < 0.05). At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly increased, but those of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were significantly reduced after the administration of four . strains for 14 d ( < 0.05). The levels of and genera from were significantly decreased, whereas and were upregulated when bacteriocin-producing . CCFM18 and CCFM28 strains were provided in the diet ( < 0.05). The results indicated that although constipation-related symptoms were alleviated to only a limited degree, the administration of four . strains effectively regulated the gut flora and provided a potential health benefit to the host, especially the bacteriocin-producing . strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.655258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012752PMC
July 2021

Synergistic Protective Effects of Different Dietary Supplements Against Type 2 Diabetes via Regulating Gut Microbiota.

J Med Food 2021 Mar;24(3):319-330

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem, and its prevalence continues to increase. Dietary supplements, including probiotics, prebiotics, and plant extracts, have been shown to alleviate diabetes. In this study, the synergistic effects of two types of dietary supplements were investigated in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty mice were divided into the following six groups: control, model (induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin), drug (metformin), probiotic ( spp.), formula A (probiotics, plant extracts, and soybean peptide), and formula B (probiotics, prebiotics, and soybean peptide). All three dietary interventions (probiotic, formula A, and formula B groups) significantly reduced the blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance level and effectively improved some biochemical parameters ( chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood lipid level) and regulated gut microbiota. Notably, formula B exhibited a better ability on reducing the blood glucose level, regulating the gut microbiota, and increasing the short-chain fatty acid levels compared with the probiotics alone and formula A. Thus, formula B may exert synergistic protective effects against T2DM through a mechanism involving probiotics and prebiotics of gut microbiota regulation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of probiotic dietary supplements to the treatment of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2020.4759DOI Listing
March 2021

Supernatants of and Strains Exhibited Antioxidative Effects on A7R5 Cells.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in cardiovascular diseases and the antioxidative effects of probiotics have been widely reported. To screen the probiotic strains that may prevent cardiovascular diseases, we tested the antioxidative effects of supernatants of different and strains on A7R5 cells. Preincubation with supernatants of CCFM752, CCFM1149, or CCFM10 significantly suppressed the angiotensin II-induced increases in ROS levels and increased catalase (CAT) activity in A7R5, whereas CCFM752 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and CCFM1149 enhanced the intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity simultaneously. Treatment with CCFM752, CCFM1149, or CCFM10 supernatants had no significant impact on transcriptional levels of , , , , , or , but altered the overall transcriptomic profile and the expression of genes relevant to protein biosynthesis, and up-regulated the 60S ribosomal protein L7a (Rpl7a). A positive correlation between Rpl7a expression and intracellular CAT activity implied that Rpl7a may participate in CAT synthesis in A7R5. Supernatant of CCFM752 could also down-regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1) and angiotensinogen in A7R5. Collectively, the probiotic strains CCFM752, CCFM1149, and CCFM10 exhibited antioxidative attributes on A7R5 cells and might help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927071PMC
February 2021

Behavioral disorders caused by nonylphenol and strategies for protection.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;275:129973. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; (Yangzhou) Institute of Food Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Yangzhou, 225004, China; Beijing Innovation Centre of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology & Business University, Beijing, 100048, China.

Nonylphenol (NP) is widely used in daily production and life due to its good emulsification. In this review, we discuss toxicology studies that examined behavioral disorders caused by NP, the corresponding toxicological mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS), and strategies for protection. Available in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that exposure to NP during adulthood or early childhood is associated with cognitive dysfunction, including depression-like behaviors, anxiety-like behaviors, and impaired learning and memory. The main mechanisms underlying NP-related cognitive disorders include inflammation, destruction of synaptic plasticity, and destruction of important signaling pathways that affect the synthesis and secretion of neurotransmitters. The effects and mechanisms of NP exposure on CNS-mediated reproductive function, including interference with the expression of hormones, proteins, and enzymes, are discussed. Other abnormal behaviors such as locomotor activity and swimming behavior are also described. Several measures to prevent NP neurotoxicity are summarized. These measures are based on the toxicological mechanisms underlying NP exposure and include external protection and internal self-regulation of the nervous system. Finally, a new treatment idea is proposed based on the gut-brain axis. Characterizing the behavioral changes and underlying toxicity mechanisms associated with NP exposure and investigating the possible methods of treatment will help to expand the understanding of these mechanisms and could lead to more effective treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129973DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficacy of probiotics in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review of preclinical trials and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Food Funct 2021 Mar 25;12(6):2354-2377. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China.

Preliminary evidence shows the potential role of probiotics in ameliorating multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the effects of probiotics on MS remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics on multiple sclerosis by systematically reviewing the preclinical trials (animal trials) and performing meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane central of randomized clinical trials, EMBASE, Clinical Trials, and a search engine Google Scholar were systematically searched and manually screened updated to November 2020, resulting in eligible 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 22 preclinical studies. Meta-analysis of RCTs enrolling 173 patients with MS receiving probiotics revealed significant beneficial effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health (expanded disability status scale scores: standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.22; I = 92%; 95% CI, -2.40 to -0.03, P = 0.04; Beck depression inventory total scores: SMD = -1.58; I = 94%; 95% CI, -3.03 to -0.12; P = 0.03; general health questionnaire scores: SMD = -0.71; I = 0%; 95% CI, -1.02 to -0.40; P < 0.00001; depression anxiety and stress scale scores: SMD = -0.72; I = 0%; 95% CI, -1.12 to -0.33; P = 0.0003), with very low certainty of evidence. In addition, probiotic intake markedly improved insulin resistance and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Preclinical studies have shown that probiotic consumption reduces the incidence and severity of MS, delays MS progression (15 studies), and improves motor impairment (3 studies) with favorable alterations of immune and inflammatory markers (20 studies) and intestinal microbiome compositions (4 studies) in MS. These results indicated that probiotics may have beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03203dDOI Listing
March 2021

The effects of diet and gut microbiota on the regulation of intestinal mucin glycosylation.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 19;258:117651. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, PR China; International Joint Research Laboratory for Probiotics at Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Intestinal mucins glycosylation is regulated by host cues and environmental signals from the microbiome and diets. However, the mechanisms responsible for the dialogue between these three factors and mucin glycosylation in the digestive environment of the host are not well understood. In this review, the dynamic alterations of mucin glycosylation induced by immune responses to gut diseases are summarized. The various types of interactions between mucin glycans and gut microbes, including adhesins, glycosidases, metabolic products and surface components, are discussed. The mechanisms that determine how dietary components (fat, fiber, prebiotics, protein, and food additives) affect intestinal mucin glycosylation and maintain mucosal homeostasis are identified. A potential framework for individualized dietary recommendations is proposed for the prevention of abnormal mucin glycosylation driven by immune dysregulation, gut microbiome alterations and other factors. This review may provide a basis for future research on glycosylation-inspired therapies for gut diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117651DOI Listing
April 2021

Strain-Specific Effects of on Hypercholesterolemic Rats and Potential Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 28;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease, which is among the major causes of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore whether Bifidobacterium longum strains exerted intra-species differences in cholesterol-lowering effects in hypercholesterolemic rats and to investigate the potential mechanisms. SD rats underwent gavage with each strain (CCFM 1077, I3, J3 and B3) daily for 28 days. CCFM 1077 exerted the most potent cholesterol-lowering effect, followed by I3 and B3, whereas B3 had no effect in alleviating hypercholesterolemia. Divergent alleviation of different strains on hypercholesterolemia can be attributed to the differences in bile salt deconjugation ability and cholesterol assimilation ability in vitro. By 16S rRNA metagenomics analysis, the relative abundance of beneficial genus increased in the CCFM 1077 treatment group. The expression of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were also altered after the CCFM 1077 treatment. In conclusion, exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to differences in bacterial characteristics, bile salt deconjugation ability, cholesterol assimilation ability, expressions of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and alterations of gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866116PMC
January 2021

Niche-Specific Adaptive Evolution of Strains Isolated From Human Feces and Paocai.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 7;10:615876. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

, a widely used probiotic in the food industry, exists in diverse habitats, which has led to its niche-specific genetic evolution. However, the relationship between this type of genetic evolution and the bacterial phenotype remains unclear. Here, six strains derived from paocai and human feces were analyzed at the genomic and phenotypic levels to investigate the features of adaptive evolution in different habitats. A comparative genomic analysis showed that 93 metabolism-related genes underwent structural variations (SVs) during adaptive evolution, including genes responsible for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, inorganic ion and coenzyme transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion. Notably, seven virulence factor-related genes in strains from both habitats showed SVs - similar to the pattern found in the orthologous virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria shared similar niches, suggesting the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. These genomic variations further influenced the metabolic abilities of strains and their interactions with the commensal microbiota in the host intestine. Compared with the strains from feces, those from paocai exhibited a shorter stagnation period and a higher growth rate in a diluted paocai solution because of variations in functional genes. In addition, opposite correlations were identified between the relative abundances of strains and the genus in two media inoculated with strains from the two habitats. Overall, our findings revealed that the niche-specific genetic evolution of strains is associated with their fermentation abilities and physiological functions in host gut health. This knowledge can help guiding the exploration and application of probiotics from the specific niches-based probiotic exploitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.615876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817898PMC
June 2021

Establishing a novel colorectal cancer predictive model based on unique gut microbial single nucleotide variant markers.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-6

College of Food Science and Engineering, Hainan University , Haikou, Hainan, P. R. China.

Current metagenomic species-based colorectal cancer (CRC) microbial biomarkers may confuse diagnosis because the genetic content of different microbial strains, even those belonging to the same species, may differ from 5% to 30%. Here, a total of 7549 non-redundant single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were annotated in 25 species from 3 CRC cohorts (n = 249). Then, 22 microbial SNV markers that contributed to distinguishing subjects with CRC from healthy subjects were identified by the random forest algorithm to construct a novel CRC predictive model. Excitingly, the predictive model showed high accuracy both in the training (AUC = 75.35%) and validation cohorts (AUC = 73.08%-88.02%). We further explored the specificity of these SNV markers in a broader background by performing a meta-analysis across 4 metabolic disease cohorts. Among these SNV markers, 3 SNVs that were enriched in CRC patients and located in the genomes of and were CRC specific (AUC = 72.51%-94.07%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2020.1869505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808391PMC
January 2021

Evidence from comparative genomic analyses indicating that -mediated irritable bowel syndrome alleviation is mediated by conjugated linoleic acid synthesis.

Food Funct 2021 Feb;12(3):1121-1134

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. and International Joint Research Laboratory for Pharmabiotics & Antibiotic Resistance, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic intestinal disorder accompanied by low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Several studies have indicated that Lactobacillus supplementation can help to alleviate IBS symptoms and that these effects are strain-specific. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the key physiological characteristics and functional genes contributing to the IBS-alleviating effects of Lactobacillus. An IBS model was established by subjecting C57BL/6 mice to Citrobacter rodentium ingestion and water avoidance stress. Lactobacillus strains with different physiological characteristics were administered to mice intragastrically for 4 weeks (5 × 109 CFU/0.2 mL per mouse per day). Indicators of colonic inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, and gut microbiota were also evaluated. Finally, differences in functional genes between Lactobacillus strains were analyzed by a comparative genomic analysis, and the relationships between the physiological characteristics, functional genes, and IBS-alleviating effects of the strains were quantified using correlation analysis. Among the eight tested Lactobacillus strains, only Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 significantly inhibited the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, PAR-2, and mast cell tryptase. L. plantarum CCFM8610 also significantly increased the intestinal barrier function, inhibited visceral hypersensitivity symptoms, and modulated the gut microbiota diversity and composition. The correlation analysis of factors associated with the IBS-alleviating effects of Lactobacillus revealed the ability to synthesize conjugated linoleic acid as the most strongly associated physiological characteristic and COG1028-related genes as the most strongly associated functional genes. In conclusion, these findings can facilitate the rapid screening of Lactobacillus strains with IBS-alleviating effects and lay a foundation for studies of the related mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02616fDOI Listing
February 2021

Relief of Cadmium-Induced Intestinal Motility Disorder in Mice by CCFM8610.

Front Immunol 2020 10;11:619574. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal inducing a range of adverse effects on organs including liver and kidneys. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced intestinal toxicity through dietary intake is poorly studied. This study evaluated the toxic effects of Cd on intestinal physiology and confirmed the effectiveness of the protective mechanism of the probiotic CCFM8610 against chronic Cd toxicity. After treatment with Cd, the HT-29 cell line was subjected to iTRAQ analysis, which revealed that changes in the proteomic profiles after Cd exposure were related to pathways involved in the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism. The results of an animal trial also indicated that 10 weeks of Cd exposure decreased the fecal water content and contractile response of colonic muscle strips in mice, and delayed the excretion time of the first black feces. CCFM8610 treatment provided protective effects against these Cd-induced intestinal motility dysfunctions by recovering the levels of neurotransmitters, including substance P, acetyl cholinesterase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, 5-hydroxytryptamine, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and nitric oxide, and suppressing the cellular stress response in mice (e.g., the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways). The administration of this probiotic was also observed to reduce Cd levels in the tissues and blood of the mice. Our results suggest a newly identified protective mechanism of probiotics against Cd toxicity that involves the recovery of intestinal motility and increase in fecal cadmium excretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.619574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758470PMC
June 2021

Gut Colonization Mechanisms of and : An Argument for Personalized Designs.

Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2021 03 14;12:213-233. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

School of Microbiology and APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 YN60, Ireland; email:

and spp. are best understood for their applications as probiotics, which are often transient, but as commensals it is probable that stable colonization in the gut is important for their beneficial roles. Recent research suggests that the establishment and persistence of strains of and in the gut are species- and strain-specific and affected by natural history, genomic adaptability, and metabolic interactions of the bacteria and the microbiome and immune aspects of the host but also regulated by diet. This provides new perspectives on the underlying molecular mechanisms. With an emphasis on host-microbe interaction, this review outlines how the characteristics of individual and bacteria, the host genotype and microbiome structure,diet, and host-microbe coadaptation during bacterial gut transition determine and influence the colonization process. The diet-tuned and personally tailored colonization can be achieved via a machine learning prediction model proposed here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-061120-014739DOI Listing
March 2021

Dose-dependent effects of lead induced gut injuries: An in vitro and in vivo study.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 29;266:129130. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China; International Joint Research Laboratory for Probiotics at Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 China. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) toxicity has been widely studied, but its dose-dependent toxic effects on the gut remain unclear, therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of Pb exposure on the gut microbiota and gut barrier in vitro and in vivo. The HT-29 cell model was used to determine the Pb-induced effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and tight junction proteins (TJPs) in vitro, and C57BL/6 mice models exposed to 0, 20, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg Pb were used to investigate the Pb-induced dose-dependent effects on the gut microbiota, TJP expression, and colon histopathology. Our results showed that the exposure of HT-29 cells to 8 mM Pb decreased cell viability by 50%, elevated ROS levels by 200%, and suppressed the expression of the TJPs, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin by 23% and 35%, respectively. Consistently, Pb-exposed mice showed significant increases in colon tissue damage and inflammation and reductions in ZO-1 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. The occludin mRNA levels decreased in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg groups. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Coprococcus and Oscillospira decreased and that of Lactobacillus increased in linear manner with the Pb exposure dose. PICRUSt analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing revealed Pb dose-dependent alterations in metabolism through the gut microbiota. These findings suggest that Pb exposure can not only disrupt the barrier by generating oxidative stress, but can also induce gut dysbiosis, colon tissue damage, and gut inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129130DOI Listing
March 2021

The role of mucin and oligosaccharides via cross-feeding activities by Bifidobacterium: A review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 14;167:1329-1337. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; International Joint Research Laboratory for Probiotics at Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

Bifidobacteria are one genus of low-abundance gut commensals that are often associated with host health-promoting effects. Bifidobacteria can degrade various dietary fibers (i.e., galactooligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, inulin), and are reported as one of the few gut-dwelling microbes that can utilize host-derived carbohydrates (mucin and human milk oligosaccharides). Previous studies have noted that the superior carbohydrate-metabolizing abilities of bifidobacteria facilitate the intestinal colonization of this genus and also benefit other gut symbionts, in particular butyrate-producing bacteria, via cooperative metabolic interactions. Given that such cross-feeding activities of bifidobacteria on mucin and oligosaccharides have not been systematically summarized, here we review the carbohydrate-degrading capabilities of various bifidobacterial strains that were identified in vitro experiments, the core enzymes involved in the degradation mechanisms, and social behavior between bifidobacteria and other intestinal microbes, as well as among species-specific bifidobacterial strains. The purpose of this review is to enhance our understanding of the interactions of prebiotics and probiotics, which sheds new light on the future use of oligosaccharides and bifidobacteria for nutritional intervention or clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.087DOI Listing
January 2021

Antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and barrier disruption and the potential protective strategies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Nov 16:1-26. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

The oral antibiotic therapies administered widely to people and animals can cause gut dysbiosis and barrier disruption inevitably. Increasing attention has been directed toward antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis, which involves a loss of diversity, changes in the abundances of certain taxa and consequent effects on their metabolic capacity, and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Treatment with beta-lactam, glycopeptide, and macrolide antibiotics is associated with the depletion of beneficial commensal bacteria in the genera and . The gut microbiota is a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes, the prevalence of which increases sharply after antibiotic ingestion. The intestinal barrier, which comprises secretory, physical, and immunological barriers, is also a target of antibiotics. Antibiotic induced changes in the gut microbiota composition could induce weakening of the gut barrier through changes in mucin, cytokine, and antimicrobial peptide production by intestinal epithelial cells. Reports have indicated that dietary interventions involving prebiotics, probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, and butyrate supplementation, as well as fecal microbiota transplantation, can alleviate antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and barrier injuries. This review summarizes the characteristics of antibiotic-associated gut dysbiosis and barrier disruption, as well as the strategies for alleviating this condition. This information is intended to provide a foundation for the exploration of safer, more efficient, and affordable strategies to prevent or relieve antibiotic-induced gut injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1843396DOI Listing
November 2020

The pelvis urinary microbiome in patients with kidney stones and clinical associations.

BMC Microbiol 2020 11 5;20(1):336. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Urology, Affiliated Wuxi No.2 Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, 214002, China.

Background: The long-held notion that, without urinary tract or circulatory infection, bladder urine and blood are sterile biofluids has been disproven. There have been no previous reports on the kidney pelvis urinary microbiome after bladder disinfection in kidney stone patients. This study aimed to determine whether a kidney pelvis urinary microbiome is present after eliminating the influence of the bladder urinary microbiome, whether the microbiome composition is different in patients with stone kidney pelvis (SKP) and non-stone kidney pelvis (NSKP), and the correlation between SKP and patient clinical characteristics.

Results: Comparisons of bacterial diversity and community structure exhibited that urine in bladder was similar to SKP and NSKP. However, the comparisons showed that urine samples were different from blood. The most common operational taxonomic units were shared by all three types of urine samples. Corynebacterium was significantly higher in SKP compared to NSKP. Several bacteria were associated with patient characteristics, including Lactobacillus, which was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, and Prevotella was negatively correlated with BMI. Lactobacillus was significantly higher in SKP compared to blood but not in NSKP compared to blood.

Conclusions: The composition of the kidney pelvis urinary microbiome after disinfection of the bladder and its similarity to the bladder microbiome indicate that bladder urine can be used to replace kidney pelvis urine in microbiome research. Additionally, the comparison of SKP and NSKP and clinical associations suggest that the occurrence of kidney stones is responsible for the SKP urinary microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01992-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643416PMC
November 2020

Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Foods 2020 Oct 26;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

The effectiveness of probiotic consumption in controlling dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been unclear. We reviewed relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify the effect of probiotic intake on dyslipidemia in T2DM patients. The Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were used for searching relevant RCTs published up to October 2020. The total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were selected as the primary indicators for dyslipidemia. The results of 13 eligible RCTs showed that probiotic intake could significantly reduce TC (SMD: -0.23, 95% CI: (-0.37, -0.10)) and TG (SMD: -0.27, 95% CI: (-0.44, -0.11)) levels, but did not regulate LDL-C or HDL-C concentrations. Subgroup analysis showed that multispecies probiotics (≥two species), but not single-species probiotics, significantly decreased TC and TG concentrations. Furthermore, powder, but not liquid, probiotics could reduce TC and TG concentrations. This meta-analysis demonstrated that probiotic supplementation is helpful in reducing TC and TG concentrations in T2DM patients. However, more well-controlled trials are needed to clarify the benefits of probiotics on dyslipidemia in T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9111540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692794PMC
October 2020

Potential of gut microbiome for detection of autism spectrum disorder.

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 20;149:104568. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; Beijing Innovation Centre of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing, 100048, PR China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder characterized by a series of abnormal social behaviors. The increasing prevalence of ASD has led to the discovery of a correlation with the intestinal microbiome in many studies. In our research, we evaluated 297 subjects, including 169 individuals with ASD and 128 neurotypical subjects, from the Sequence Read Archive database. We conducted a series of analyses, including alpha-diversity, phylogenetic profiles, and functional profiles, to explore the correlation between the gut microbiome and ASD. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that ASD and neurotypical subjects could be divided based on the unweighted UniFrac distance. The genera Prevotella, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, Megasphaera, and Catenibacterium might be biomarkers of ASD after linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) evaluation and Random Forest analysis, respectively. The functional analysis found six significant pathways between ASD and neurotypical subjects, including oxidative phosphorylation, nucleotide excision repair, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, photosynthesis, photosynthesis proteins, and two-component system. Based on these alterations of the intestinal microbiome in ASD subjects, we developed four machine learning models: random forest (RF), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), kernelized support vector machines with the RBF kernel (SVMs), and Decision trees (DT). Notably, the RF model after RF selection was superior, with an F1 score of 0.74 and area under the curve of 0.827(0.004), suggesting the reliability and generalizability of predictive model. Besides, the validation performance of RF model after RF selection could be 0.75(0.01) on external cohort collected by our laboratory. Our study advances the understanding of human gut microbiome in ASD that designing and evaluating microbially based interventions of ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104568DOI Listing
December 2020

The characteristics of patulin detoxification by Lactobacillus plantarum 13M5.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Dec 6;146:111787. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; Beijing Innovation Centre of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology & Business University, Beijing, 100048, China.

Patulin (PAT) is a widespread mycotoxin that harms the health of both humans and animals. In this study, among the 17 tested Lactobacillus plantarum strains, L. plantarum 13M5, isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods, showed the highest PAT degradation rate of up to 43.8% (PAT 5 mg/L). Evaluation of the living and dead 13M5 cells revealed that only the living cells had the ability to remove PAT and degrade it into E-ascladiol. A cell-based assay revealed that L. plantarum 13M5 administration alleviated PAT-induced injuries in Caco-2 cells, including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and tight junction disruption. Our results suggest that L. plantarum 13M5 has the potential to reduce PAT toxicity and can thus be used as a probiotic supplement to reduce or eliminate the toxicity of PAT ingested from diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111787DOI Listing
December 2020
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