Publications by authors named "Qisheng Song"

110 Publications

20E-mediated regulation of BmKr-h1 by BmKRP promotes oocyte maturation.

BMC Biol 2021 Feb 25;19(1):39. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Insect Development Regulation and Application Research, Institute of Insect Science and Technology & School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Background: Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a critical transcription factor for juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, known to play a key role in regulating metamorphosis and adult reproduction in insects. Kr-h1 can also be induced by molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), however, the underlying mechanism of 20E-induced Kr-h1 expression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Kr-h1 induction by 20E in the reproductive system of a model lepidopteran insect, Bombyx mori.

Results: Developmental and tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that BmKr-h1 was highly expressed in ovaries during the late pupal and adult stages and the expression was induced by 20E. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of BmKr-h1 in female pupae severely repressed the transcription of vitellogenin receptor (VgR), resulting in the reduction in vitellogenin (Vg) deposition in oocytes. BmKr-h1 specifically bound the Kr-h1 binding site (KBS) between - 2818 and - 2805 nt upstream of BmVgR and enhanced the transcription of BmVgR. A 20E cis-regulatory element (CRE) was identified in the promoter of BmKr-h1 and functionally verified using luciferase reporter assay, EMSA and DNA-ChIP. Using pull-down assays, we identified a novel transcription factor B. mori Kr-h1 regulatory protein (BmKRP) that specifically bound the BmKr-h1 CRE and activated its transcription. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of BmKRP in female pupae suppressed the transcription of BmKr-h1 and BmVgR, resulting in arrested oogenesis.

Conclusion: We identified BmKRP as a new transcription factor mediating 20E regulation of B. mori oogenesis. Our data suggests that induction of BmKRP by 20E regulates BmKr-h1 expression, which in turn induces BmVgR expression to facilitate Vg uptake and oogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-00952-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905918PMC
February 2021

Identification and characterization of a novel rhabdovirus in green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps.

Virus Res 2021 Feb 3;296:198281. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

The family Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecological diverse groups of RNA viruses, with remarkable genome complexity and wide host range. Rhabdoviruses are discovered in many insect species, and insects, such as midges, mosquitoes, aphids and leafhoppers, act as crucial vectors for rhabdovirus transmission. Here, a novel rhabdovirus was identified in green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a common virus vector on rice. This virus was named as Nephotettix cincticeps negative-stranded RNA virus-1 (NcNSRV-1). The genome of NcNSRV-1 is 12,361 nucleotides in length, flanked by untranslated 3' leader and 5' trailer. The anti-sense viral genome consists of five major structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L), which shares a typical architecture with the family Rhabdoviridae. An additional gene, P6, is interposed between G and L genes. NcNSRV-1 is phylogenetically clustered with the unclassified rhabdoviruses isolated from insects and exhibits low sequence identities with other viruses. The transcription regulatory sequences in NcNSRV-1 gene junctions were determined, revealing a unique transcription initiation sequence. In view of the phylogeny, sequence identity and genome organization, NcNSRV-1 is likely to be an insect rhabdovirus. Field surveys showed NcNSRV-1 was prevalent in the rice field populations of N. cincticeps in China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198281DOI Listing
February 2021

Intragenic DNA methylation regulates insect gene expression and reproduction through the MBD/Tip60 complex.

iScience 2021 Feb 7;24(2):102040. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Institute of Insect Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification. However, the regulations and functions of insect intragenic DNA methylation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a regulatory mechanism involving intragenic DNA methylation controls ovarian and embryonic developmental processes in . In DNA methylation is found near the transcription start site (TSS) of ovarian genes. By promoter activity analysis, we observed that 5' UTR methylation enhances gene expression. Moreover, methyl-DNA-binding domain protein 2/3 (MBD2/3) binds to the intragenic methyl-CpG fragment and recruits acetyltransferase Tip60 to promote histone H3K27 acetylation and gene expression. Additionally, genome-wide analyses showed that the peak of H3K27 acetylation appears near the TSS of methyl-modified genes, and DNA methylation is enriched in genes involved in protein synthesis in the ovary, with MBD2/3 knockdown resulting in decreased fecundity. These data uncover a mechanism of gene body methylation for regulating insect gene expression and reproduction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820559PMC
February 2021

A Novel Iflavirus Was Discovered in Green Rice Leafhopper and Its Proliferation Was Inhibited by Infection of Rice Dwarf Virus.

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:621141. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The green rice leafhopper, (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a key insect vector transmitting rice dwarf virus (RDV) that causes rice dwarf disease. We discovered a novel iflavirus from the transcriptomes of and named it as Nephotettix cincticeps positive-stranded RNA virus-1 (NcPSRV-1). The viral genome consists of 10,524 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and contains one predicted open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,192 amino acids, flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions. NcPSRV-1 has a typical iflavirus genome arrangement and is clustered with the members of the family in the phylogenetic analysis. NcPSRV-1 was detected in all tested tissues and life stages of and could be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Moreover, NcPSRV-1 had high prevalence in the laboratory populations and was widely spread in field populations of . NcPSRV-1 could also infect the two-striped leafhopper, , at a 3.33% infection rate, but was absent in the zigzag leafhopper, , and rice variety TN1. The infection of RDV altered the viral load and infection rate of NcPSRV-1 in , for which it seems that RDV has an antagonistic effect on NcPSRV-1 infection in the host.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.621141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820178PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide analysis of DNA G-quadruplex motifs across 37 species provides insights into G4 evolution.

Commun Biol 2021 Jan 22;4(1):98. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Institute of Insect Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

G-quadruplex (G4) structures have been predicted in the genomes of many organisms and proven to play regulatory roles in diverse cellular activities. However, there is little information on the evolutionary history and distribution characteristics of G4s. Here, whole-genome characteristics of potential G4s were studied in 37 evolutionarily representative species. During evolution, the number, length, and density of G4s generally increased. Immunofluorescence in seven species confirmed G4s' presence and evolutionary pattern. G4s tended to cluster in chromosomes and were enriched in genetic regions. Short-loop G4s were conserved in most species, while loop-length diversity also existed, especially in mammals. The proportion of G4-bearing genes and orthologue genes, which appeared to be increasingly enriched in transcription factors, gradually increased. The antagonistic relationship between G4s and DNA methylation sites was detected. These findings imply that organisms may have evolutionarily developed G4 into a novel reversible and elaborate transcriptional regulatory mechanism benefiting multiple physiological activities of higher organisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01643-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822830PMC
January 2021

Characterization of cadmium-responsive transcription factors in wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 19;268:129239. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA. Electronic address:

Transcription factors (TFs) act on the regulation of gene expression, which is prevalent in all organisms, and their characterization may provide important clues for understanding the regulatory mechanism of gene expression. In this research, inhibited growth (delayed developmental time and decreased body weight) and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) were recorded in Pardosa pseudoannulata in response to cadmium burden. Expression profiles of TFs were analyzed based on the transcriptome profiling of P. pseudoannulata, and 1711 TFs genes were differentially expressed with 995 up-regulated and 716 down-regulated. Most of the differentially expressed TFs belonged to zf-C2H2, ZBTB, Homeobox, and bHLH families. Interestingly, hub genes smads, TCF7L2, EGR1, and GATA5 were identified to be the candidate Cd-responsive TFs related to growth of spider. The expression level of Sod2 (superoxide dismutase) was regulated by the up-regulated TF foxo3, implying its important role in the antioxidant defense of spider. Moreover, sequence analysis demonstrated that smads and foxo3 were conserved among spiders and insects. This study revealed for the first time the role of TFs in molecular response of P. pseudoannulata to Cd stress, providing the basis for the protection of tarantula under Cd stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129239DOI Listing
April 2021

The Amino Acid-Mediated TOR Pathway Regulates Reproductive Potential and Population Growth in Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae).

Front Physiol 2020 30;11:617237. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

School of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

The predatory mirid bug, Reuter, feeds on brown planthopper (BPH) eggs that are deposited on rice and gramineous plants surrounding rice fields. The development and reproduction of are inhibited by feeding on BPH eggs from gramineous species, and the underlining regulatory mechanism for this phenomenon is unclear. In the present study, HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the concentrations of six amino acids (AAs:Ala, Arg, Ser, Lys, Thr, and Pro) were significantly higher in rice than in five gramineous species. When fed on gramineous plants with BPH eggs, expression of several genes in the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway (, , and ) were significantly lower than that in the insects fed on rice plants with BPH eggs. Treatment of females with rapamycin, dsRheb, dsTOR, or dsS6K caused a decrease in , , and expression, and these effects were partially rescued by the juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene. Dietary dsTOR treatment significantly influenced a number of physiological parameters and resulted in impaired predatory capacity, fecundity, and population growth. This study indicates that these six AAs play an important role in the mediated-TOR pathway, which in turn regulates vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis, reproduction, and population growth in .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.617237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733968PMC
November 2020

Identification of Neuropeptides and Their Receptors in the Ectoparasitoid, .

Front Physiol 2020 16;11:575655. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Neuropeptides are a group of signal molecules that regulate many physiological and behavioral processes by binding to corresponding receptors, most of which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using bioinformatic methods, we screened genomic and transcriptomic data of the ectoparasitoid wasp, , and annotated 34 neuropeptide candidate precursor genes and 44 neuropeptide receptor candidate genes. The candidate neuropeptide genes were found to encode all known insect neuropeptides except allatotropin, neuropeptide F, pigment dispersing factor, and CCHamides. When compared with the endoparasitic wasp and the ectoparasitic wasp , trissin and FMRFamide were found only in . A similar result held for the neuropeptide receptor genes, for the receptors were found in except the receptors of CCHamides and neuroparsin. Furthermore, we compared and analyzed the differences in neuropeptides in eight Braconidae wasps and identified natalisin in and , but not in the other wasps. We also analyzed the transcriptome data and qRT-PCR data from different developmental stages and tissues to reveal the expression patterns of the neuropeptides and their receptors. In this study, we revealed composition of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors in , which may contribute to future neurobiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.575655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596734PMC
October 2020

Broad-complex transcription factor mediates opposing hormonal regulation of two phylogenetically distant arginine kinase genes in Tribolium castaneum.

Commun Biol 2020 Oct 30;3(1):631. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, 225009, Yangzhou, China.

The phosphoarginine-arginine kinase shuttle system plays a critical role in maintaining insect cellular energy homeostasis. Insect molting and metamorphosis are coordinated by fluctuations of the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone. However, the hormonal regulation of insect arginine kinases remain largely elusive. In this report, we comparatively characterized two arginine kinase genes, TcAK1 and TcAK2, in Tribolium castaneum. Functional analysis using RNAi showed that TcAK1 and TcAK2 play similar roles in adult fertility and stress response. TcAK1 was detected in cytoplasm including mitochondria, whereas TcAK2 was detected in cytoplasm excluding mitochondria. Interestingly, TcAK1 expression was negatively regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone and positively by juvenile hormone, whereas TcAK2 was regulated by the opposite pattern. RNAi, dual-luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay further revealed that the opposite hormonal regulation of TcAK1 and TcAK2 was mediated by transcription factor Broad-Complex. Finally, relatively stable AK activities were observed during larval-pupal metamorphosis, which was generally consistent with the constant ATP levels. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the ATP homeostasis in insects by revealing opposite hormonal regulation of two phylogenetically distant arginine kinase genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01354-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603314PMC
October 2020

Amino acid synthesis loss in parasitoid wasps and other hymenopterans.

Elife 2020 10 19;9. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Insects utilize diverse food resources which can affect the evolution of their genomic repertoire, including leading to gene losses in different nutrient pathways. Here, we investigate gene loss in amino acid synthesis pathways, with special attention to hymenopterans and parasitoid wasps. Using comparative genomics, we find that synthesis capability for tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine was lost in holometabolous insects prior to hymenopteran divergence, while valine, leucine, and isoleucine were lost in the common ancestor of Hymenoptera. Subsequently, multiple loss events of lysine synthesis occurred independently in the Parasitoida and Aculeata. Experiments in the parasitoid confirm that it has lost the ability to synthesize eight amino acids. Our findings provide insights into amino acid synthesis evolution, and specifically can be used to inform the design of parasitoid artificial diets for pest control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.59795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593089PMC
October 2020

Effects of sugar sources on adult longevity, survival and related gene expression in an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 31;77(3):1282-1291. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Adult parasitic wasps take sugars to meet their energy needs and display different lifespans and fertility in response to different sugar sources. Pteromalus puparum is an endoparasitoid with a wide range of hosts, including many lepidopteran pests. As a potential natural enemy resource, the availability of sugar sources has profound effects for wasp applications and host populations dynamics.

Results: We assessed the effect of feeding sucrose and honey on the lifespan of P. puparum in the range 0-40% (w/v). The results indicated a statistically significant positive effect of sucrose and honey solutions on the lifespan of P. puparum female adults. Correlation analyses confirmed a strong positive correlation between high concentrations of sugar and extended lifespan. The optimum concentration of sucrose solution for wasps was 20%, while 10% for honey. Then, we examined the expression patterns of 15 lifespan-related genes. The results showed that the relative expression levels of 14 genes were significantly correlated with the mean lifespan of sucrose-fed wasps, and six genes correlated with the mean lifespan of honey-fed wasps. In addition, the models for lifespan prediction were constructed.

Conclusion: We elaborated the quantitative effects of two sugar sources (sucrose and honey) on P. puparum lifespan, investigated the expression patterns of lifespan-related genes when fed different sugar sources, and developed round lifespan prediction models accordingly. This study provides a novel tool for studying the longevity regulating mechanisms of parasitic wasps, and may be instructive for mass-production of parasitoids as biological control agents. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6141DOI Listing
March 2021

DNA methylation suppresses chitin degradation and promotes the wing development by inhibiting Bmara-mediated chitinase expression in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2020 09 4;13(1):34. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Institute of Insect Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Background: DNA methylation, as an essential epigenetic modification found in mammals and plants, has been implicated to play an important role in insect reproduction. However, the functional role and the regulatory mechanism of DNA methylation during insect organ or tissue development are far from being clear.

Results: Here, we found that DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-dC) treatment in newly molted pupae decreased the chitin content of pupal wing discs and adult wings and resulted in wing deformity of Bombyx mori. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the up-regulation of chitinase 10 (BmCHT10) gene might be related to the decrease of chitin content induced by 5-aza-dC treatment. Further, the luciferase activity assays demonstrated that DNA methylation suppressed the promoter activity of BmCHT10 by down-regulating the transcription factor, homeobox protein araucan (Bmara). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, DNA pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Bmara directly bound to the BmCHT10 promoter. Therefore, DNA methylation is involved in keeping the structural integrity of the silkworm wings from unwanted chitin degradation, as a consequence, it promotes the wing development of B. mori.

Conclusions: This study reveals that DNA methylation plays an important role in the wing development of B. mori. Our results support that the indirect transcriptional repression of a chitin degradation-related gene BmCHT10 by DNA methylation is necessary to keep the proper wing development in B. mori.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-020-00356-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472703PMC
September 2020

The α-tubulin of Laodelphax striatellus mediates the passage of rice stripe virus (RSV) and enhances horizontal transmission.

PLoS Pathog 2020 08 20;16(8):e1008710. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Rice stripe virus (RSV, genus Tenuivirus, family Phenuiviridae) is the causal agent of rice stripe disease transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus) in a persistent propagative manner. The midgut and salivary glands of SBPH are the first and last barriers to the viral circulation and transmission processes, respectively; however, the precise mechanisms used by RSV to cross these organs and transmit to rice plants have not been fully elucidated. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of L. striatellus α-tubulin 2 (LsTUB) and found that RSV infection increased the level of LsTUB in vivo. Furthermore, LsTUB was shown to co-localize with RSV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) in vivo and bound NS3 at positions 74-76 and 80-82 in vitro. Transient gene silencing of LsTUB expression caused a significant reduction in detectable RSV loads and viral NS3 expression levels, but had no effect on NS3 silencing suppressor activity and viral replication in insect cells. However, suppression of LsTUB attenuated viral spread in the bodies of SBPHs and decreased RSV transmission rates to rice plants. Electrical penetration graphs (EPG) showed that LsTUB knockdown by RNAi did not impact SBPH feeding; therefore, the reduction in RSV transmission rates was likely caused by a decrease in viral loads inside the planthopper. These findings suggest that LsTUB mediates the passage of RSV through midgut and salivary glands and leads to successful horizontal transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446811PMC
August 2020

Prostaglandins influence protein phosphorylation in established insect cell line.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2020 Sep 18;105(1):e21725. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

Prostaglandins (PGs) are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among other actions in invertebrates, PGs act in ovarian development, renal functions, immunity, hemocyte migration, and gene/protein expression. Reversible phosphorylation is a major mechanism of regulating protein functions in eukaryotic cells and for some mammalian proteins it is influenced by PGs. We posed the hypothesis that PGs influence protein phosphorylation within insect cells, which we tested with the established insect cell line, BCIRL-HzAM1. After 20, 30, or 40 min incubations in the presence of one of three PGs (at 15 μM), PGA , PGE , or PGF , separate sets of cells were processed for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry. We recorded significant phosphorylation changes in 31 proteins, decreases in 15, and increases in 15, and one protein with increased or decreased phosphorylation, depending on PG treatment. Increasing PG exposure times led to changes in fewer proteins, 20 min incubations led to changes in 16 proteins, 30 min to changes in 13, and 40 min to changes in 2 proteins. The proteins were identified by bioinformatic analyses, including transcript description, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric points, MOlecular Weight SEarch score, total ion score, numbers of peptides, percent protein coverage, E-value, and highest peptide score. The data presented in this paper firmly support our hypothesis that PGs influence protein phosphorylation within insect cells and adds a novel PG-signaled function to insect biology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21725DOI Listing
September 2020

Transcriptome sequencing reveals the effects of cadmium toxicity on the cold tolerance of the wolf spider Pirata subpiraticus.

Chemosphere 2020 Sep 21;254:126802. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

As the predominant predator of pests in rice fields, spiders have been exposed to cadmium (Cd) pollution for a long time. The livability of spiders during the overwintering period is closely related to population growth in spring, but the effects of Cd on spider's survival of cold hardness and the underlining mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we found that some growth parameters (body length, width, mass and livability) in the wolf spider Pirata subpiraticus were altered distinctively under Cd stress. To investigate the effects of Cd toxicity on the spider at molecular levels, RNA-sequencing was performed on the spiderlings undergoing ambient temperature alterations. Transcriptome data showed that a total of 807 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were yielded in the comparison. The obtained DEGs were mainly linked with metabolism-related process, including oxidoreductase activity and lipid transport, and 25 DEGs were associated with the reported cryoprotectants, including glycerol, arginine, cysteine, heat shock protein, glucose and mannose. Growth factors (insulin growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor) and cytochrome P450 encoding genes were dramatically expressed in the spider. Furthermore, transcriptional factors (TFs) family were characterized according to the transcriptomic profile, and ZBTB TFs were represented the most distinctive alterations in the characterized genes. Collectively, our study illustrated that Cd poses disadvantageous effects on the growth of P. subpiraticus at cold ambient temperature, and the spiders are capable of responding to the adverse Cd stress by expressing the genes involved in the metabolism of energy substances, cryoprotectants and immune-related components.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126802DOI Listing
September 2020

A chromosome-level genome assembly of the parasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum.

Mol Ecol Resour 2020 Sep 13;20(5):1384-1402. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests & Key Laboratory of Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Parasitoid wasps represent a large proportion of hymenopteran species. They have complex evolutionary histories and are important biocontrol agents. To advance parasitoid research, a combination of Illumina short-read, PacBio long-read and Hi-C scaffolding technologies was used to develop a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly for Pteromalus puparum, which is an important pupal endoparasitoid of caterpillar pests. The chromosome-level assembly has aided in studies of venom and detoxification genes. The assembled genome size is 338 Mb with a contig N50 of 38.7 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.16 Mb. Hi-C analysis assembled scaffolds onto five chromosomes and raised the scaffold N50 to 65.8 Mb, with more than 96% of assembled bases located on chromosomes. Gene annotation was assisted by RNA sequencing for the two sexes and four different life stages. Analysis detected 98% of the BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) gene set, supporting a high-quality assembly and annotation. In total, 40.1% (135.6 Mb) of the assembly is composed of repetitive sequences, and 14,946 protein-coding genes were identified. Although venom genes play important roles in parasitoid biology, their spatial distribution on chromosomes was poorly understood. Mapping has revealed venom gene tandem arrays for serine proteases, pancreatic lipase-related proteins and kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminases, which have amplified in the P. puparum lineage after divergence from its common ancestor with Nasonia vitripennis. In addition, there is a large expansion of P450 genes in P. puparum. These examples illustrate how chromosome-level genome assembly can provide a valuable resource for molecular, evolutionary and biocontrol studies of parasitoid wasps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13206DOI Listing
September 2020

A C-type lectin with dual-CRD from Tribolium castaneum is induced in response to bacterial challenge.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 Dec 25;76(12):3965-3974. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.

Background: C-type lectins (CTLs), a group of pattern recognition receptors, are involved in regulating the immune response of insects and could be used as potential targets for pest control. However, information about roles of CTLs in the innate immunity of Tribolium castaneum, a serious, worldwide pest that damages stored grain products, is relatively scarce.

Results: Here, a CTL with dual carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) containing a highly conserved WHD (Trp -His -Asp ) motif was identified in T. castaneum and named as TcCTL3. Spatiotemporal analysis showed that TcCTL3 was highly expressed in all developmental stages except early eggs, and mainly distributed in central nervous system and hemolymph. The transcript levels of TcCTL3 were significantly increased after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation. Recombinant TcCTL3 was able to bind directly to LPS, PGN and all tested bacteria and induce a broad spectrum of microbial agglutination in the presence of Ca . The binding was shown mainly through CRD1 domain of TcCTL3. When TcCTL3 was knocked down by RNA interference, expression of nine antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) (attacin1, attacin2, attacin3, defensins1, defensins2, coleoptericin1, coleoptericin2, cecropins2 and cecropins3) and four transcription factors (TFs) (dif1, dif2, relish and jnk) were significantly decreased under LPS and PGN stimulation, leading to increased mortality of T. castaneum when infected with Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus or Gram-negative Escherichia coli infection.

Conclusion: TcCTL3 could mediate the immune response in T. castaneum via the pattern recognition, agglutination and AMP expression. These findings indicate a potential mechanism of TcCTL3 in resisting bacteria and provide an alternative molecular target for pest control. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5945DOI Listing
December 2020

Identification of binding domains and key amino acids involved in the interaction between BmLARK and G4 structure in the BmPOUM2 promoter in Bombyx mori.

Insect Sci 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Insect Development Regulation and Application Research, Institute of Insect Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

It has been found that the non-B form DNA structures, like G-quadruplex (G4) and i-motif, are involved in many important biological processes. Our previous study showed that the silkworm transcription factor BmLARK binds to the G4 structure in the promoter of the transcription factor BmPOUM2 and regulates its promoter activity. However, the binding mechanism between BmLARK and BmPOUM2 G4 structure remains unclear. In this study, binding domains and key amino acid residues involved in the interaction between BmLARK and BmPOUM2 G4 were studied. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay results indicated that the two RNA-recognition motifs (RRM) of BmLARK are simultaneously required for the binding with the G4 structure. Either RRM1 or RRM2 alone could not bind with the G4 structure. The zinc-finger motif was not involved in the binding. A series of mutant proteins with specific amino acid mutations were expressed and used to identify the key amino acid residues involving the interaction. The results indicated that β sheets, especially the β1 and β3 sheets, in the RRM domains of BmLARK played critical roles in the binding with the G4 structure. Several amino acid mutations of RRM1/2 in ribonucleoprotein domain 1 (RNP1) (motif in β3 strand) and RNP2 (motif in β1 strand) caused loss of binding ability, indicating that these amino acids are the key sites for the binding. All the results suggest that RRM domains, particularly their the RNP1 and RNP2 motifs, play important roles not only in RNA recognition, but also in the G4 structure binding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12831DOI Listing
June 2020

Variation among 532 genomes unveils the origin and evolutionary history of a global insect herbivore.

Nat Commun 2020 05 8;11(1):2321. Epub 2020 May 8.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Institute of Applied Ecology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella is a cosmopolitan pest that has evolved resistance to all classes of insecticide, and costs the world economy an estimated US $4-5 billion annually. We analyse patterns of variation among 532 P. xylostella genomes, representing a worldwide sample of 114 populations. We find evidence that suggests South America is the geographical area of origin of this species, challenging earlier hypotheses of an Old-World origin. Our analysis indicates that Plutella xylostella has experienced three major expansions across the world, mainly facilitated by European colonization and global trade. We identify genomic signatures of selection in genes related to metabolic and signaling pathways that could be evidence of environmental adaptation. This evolutionary history of P. xylostella provides insights into transoceanic movements that have enabled it to become a worldwide pest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16178-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211002PMC
May 2020

Insight into the Functional Diversification of Lipases in the Endoparasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) by Genome-scale Annotation and Expression Analysis.

Insects 2020 Apr 5;11(4). Epub 2020 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Lipases play essential roles in digestion, transport, and processing of dietary lipids in insects. For parasitoid wasps with a unique life cycle, lipase functions could be multitudinous in particular. is a pupal endoparasitoid of butterflies. The female adult deposits eggs into its host, along with multifunctional venom, and the developing larvae consume host as its main nutrition source. Parasitoid lipases are known to participate in the food digestion process, but the mechanism remains unclear. genome and transcriptome data were interrogated. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic trees were constructed. We annotated a total of 64 predicted lipase genes belonging to five lipase families and suggested that eight venom and four salivary lipases could determine host nutrition environment post-parasitization. Many putative venom lipases were found with incomplete catalytic triads, relatively long β9 loops, and short lids. Data analysis reveals the loss of catalytic activities and weak triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolytic activities of lipases in venom. Phylogenetic trees indicate various predicted functions of lipases in . Our information enriches the database of parasitoid lipases and the knowledge of their functional diversification, providing novel insight into how parasitoid wasps manipulate host lipid storage by using venom lipases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11040227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240578PMC
April 2020

Long-term cadmium exposure affects cell adhesion and expression of cadherin in the male genital organ of Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 11;27(15):17770-17778. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae), as an important predator of crop pests, has served as a strong driver for ecological regulation of pests. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal widely distributed in the soil in China, which not only seriously pollutes the ecological environment, but also poses a great threat to the survival of organisms. Palpal bulbs are the genital organs of male spiders, playing an important role in reproductive physiology. However, the effects of long-term Cd stress on the genital organ of the primary pest predator were poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the Cd effect on the male palpal organ of P. pseudoannulata at morphological and gene expression levels. The results showed that no obvious difference in the morphology between the Cd-treated and control groups was observed, but cell adhesion was affected at molecular level. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that under long-term Cd stress, the biological processes including cell-cell adhesion via plasma-membrane adhesion molecules, cell-cell adhesion, and homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules were the top three differentially expressed terms (p-adj < 0.001), and 51 unigenes were annotated into cadherin-related proteins, such as protocadherin, cadherin-87A, and cadherin-96Ca, among which, 18 unigenes were significantly upregulated under the Cd stress. Our outcomes indicate that the differentially expressed genes involved in cell adhesion may explain the negative effects of Cd stress on the spider genital organ, and the comprehensive transcriptome dataset will also provide a profound molecular information of the genital organ of P. pseudoannulata.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07968-1DOI Listing
May 2020

In vivo visualization of the i-motif DNA secondary structure in the Bombyx mori testis.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2020 03 5;13(1):12. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Institute of Insect Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Background: A large number of in vitro experiments have confirmed that DNA molecules can form i-motif advanced structure when multiple cytosines exist in the sequence. However, whether these structures are present in vivo environment still lacks sufficient experimental evidence.

Results: In this paper, we report the in vivo visualization of i-motif structures in the nuclei and chromosomes of the testis of the invertebrate Bombyx mori using immunofluorescence staining with an antibody specifically recognizing the endogenous transcription factor BmILF, which binds i-motif structure with high specificity. The number of i-motif structures observed in the genome increased when the pH was changed from basic to acidic and decreased under treatment with an i-motif inhibitor, the porphyrin compound TMPyP4. The pH change affected the transcription of genes that contain i-motif sequences. Moreover, there were more i-motif structures observed in the testis cells in interphase than in any other cell cycle stage.

Conclusions: In this study, the i-motif structures in invertebrates were detected for the first time at the cell and organ levels. The formation of the structures depended on cell cycle and pH and affected gene expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-020-00334-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059380PMC
March 2020

Bursicon homodimers induce the innate immunity via Relish in Procambarus clarkii.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Apr 25;99:555-561. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Division of Natural Resources, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, Henan, 453007, China. Electronic address:

Bursicon (burs) is a neuropeptide hormone consisting of two cystine-knot proteins (burs α and burs β), and burs α-β is responsible for cuticle tanning in insects. Further studies show that burs homodimers induce prophylactic immunity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that burs homodimers act in regulating immunity in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. We found that burs α and burs β are expressed in neural system of crayfish. Treating crayfish with recombinant burs-homodimer proteins led to up-regulation of several anti-microbial peptide (AMP) genes, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of burs led to decreased expression of AMP genes. The burs proteins also facilitated bacterial clearance and decreased crayfish mortality upon bacterial infection. Furthermore, burs proteins activated the transcriptional factor Relish, and knockdown of Relish abolished the influence of recombinant burs homodimers on AMP induction. We infer the burs homodimers induce expression of AMP genes via Relish in crayfish and this study extends this immune signaling pathway from insects to crustaceans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.02.053DOI Listing
April 2020

Corrigendum to "Identification of the binding domains and key amino acids for the interaction of the transcription factors BmPOUM2 and BmAbd-A in Bombyx mori" [Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 81 (2017) 41-50].

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Mar 22;118:103332. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Insect Development Regulation and Application Research, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2020.103332DOI Listing
March 2020

Mul-tiomics analysis of cadmium stress on the ovarian function of the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 13;248:125904. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is widespread in paddy filed soil in China. In this study, the toxicity of Cd with regard to the female reproductive system of paddy spider Pardosa pseudoannulata was investigated by means of multi-omics analyses (transcriptome, proteome, and miRNAs). Decreased activities of detoxifying enzymes including peroxidase (POD), Glutathione S-transferases (GST), and superoxide dismutase were detected in the ovary of P. pseudoannulata. Of these, GST and POD were consistently down-regulated at the transcriptional and translational levels. Vitellogenin content and fecundity of the spider were also reduced by Cd burden. Five vitellogenin encodes genes were down-regulated while only vitellogenin-6 protein was up-regulated. But protein lipovitellin-1, the main composition of vitellin, was down-regulated. In addition, the correlation between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and Cd stress was identified. A down-regulated gene that encoding connector of kinase to AP-1 in the MAPK signaling pathway was regulated by the up-regulated miRNA (miRNA id: miRNA dan-miR- 318>der-miR-318>dgr-miR-318>dme-miR-318-3p > dmo-miR-318>dpe-miR-318>dps-miR-318>dse-miR-318>dsi-miR-318>dvi-miR-318>dwi-miR-318>dya-miR-318). In conclusion, Cd stress possesses distinct female reproductive toxicity on P. pseudoannulata through impairing antioxidant system and synthesis of vitellin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125904DOI Listing
June 2020

Venom α-amylase of the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum influences host metabolism.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 Jun 11;76(6):2180-2189. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is an endoparasitoid wasp that parasitizes many butterfly species, including a Brassicaceae pest, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), the small white cabbage butterfly. P. puparum females inject venom along with their eggs into hosts to ensure successful parasitism. The venom regulates host development and behavior, suppresses host immunity, and influences host metabolism. It has been shown that the venom contains α-amylases, a group of hydrolytic enzymes that act in insect sugar metabolism. So far, three α-amylases have been identified in P. puparum (Pteromalus puparum α-amylases, PpAmys) and the function of PpAmy1 has been reported. However, the functions of PpAmy2 and PpAmy3 remain unknown.

Results: We studied the functions of an α-amylase highly expressed in muscle-rich tissues (PpAmy2) and an α-amylase highly expressed in venom apparatus (PpAmy3) using RNAi and GC-TOF-MS techniques. Knockdown of PpAmy3 by RNAi reduced the body length and weight of 1-day old larval offspring while there was no significant effect when PpAmy2 was knocked down. Compared to the control injected with siGFP, many metabolites in P. puparum changed when PpAmy2 was knocked down, while the injection of PpAmy3 recombinant protein into host induced metabolite changes in the P. rapae hemolymph.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that PpAmy2 acts in metabolism in the muscles of the parasitoid while PpAmy3 could influence the host metabolism and may support the development of parasitic wasp offspring. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5755DOI Listing
June 2020

Establishment of two midgut cell lines from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2020 Jan 2;56(1):10-14. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Biological Control of Insects Research Laboratory, USDA/Agricultural Research Service, 1503 S. Providence Road, Columbia, MO, 65203, USA.

Two cell lines were generated from larval midguts of Spodoptera frugiperda and have been 26 passaged over 50 times. The CT/BCIRL-SfMG1-0611-KZ line was established from 27 trypsinized, minced whole midgut tissues: the CT/BCIRL-SfMG-0617-KZ line from isolated 28 midgut muscle tissue (containing some residual epithelial cells). Additional midgut cultures were 29 generated from isolated epithelial cells; some passaged not more than three times, which grew 30 very slowly and survived longer than 1 year. The continuously replicating cell lines contain 31 firmly adhering cells with different morphologies, including elongated, spherical, and/or 32 rectangular. The mean diameters of these cell lines are 9.3 ± 4.0 μm (SfMG1-0611) and 9.2 ± 3.9 33 μm (SfMG-0617). Growth curves for the two lines have relatively lengthy doubling times of 73.9 34 h and 50.4 h for SfMG1-0611 and SfMG-0617, respectively. We confirmed the identity of these 35 lines using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF-PCR) and noted that the DNA patterns for 36 each cell line were similar to their host tissues but distinctly different from other cell lines or 37 tissues from different insect species. Amplification of genomic DNA with species-specific 38 primers yielded DNA fragments of the expected sizes and with sequences nearly identical to 39 those from the S. frugiperda genome. Both cell lines were exposed to selected Bt Cry proteins 40 with minimal impact. These lines are currently available to researchers worldwide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-019-00420-wDOI Listing
January 2020

Transcription Analysis of the Stress and Immune Response Genes to Temperature Stress in .

Front Physiol 2019 15;10:1289. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Plant Protection, College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

is one of the most important pests on maize. larvae are frequently exposed to the temperature challenges such as high temperature in summer and cold temperature in winter in the natural environment. High and low temperature stress, like any abiotic stress, impairs the physiology and development of insects. Up to now, there is limited information about gene regulation and signaling pathways related to the high and cold stress response in High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome provides a new approach for detecting stress and immune response genes under high and low temperature stresses in . In the present study, larvae were treated with the temperature at 8 and 40°C, and the responses of larvae to the temperature stress were investigated through RNA-sequencing and further confirmation. The results showed that immune responses were up-regulated in larvae by the cold stress at 8°C while some stress response genes, such as family, -2, and , were significantly increased at 40°C. Furthermore, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were performed to quantify the expression levels of immune related genes, such as , antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, serine protease and stress response genes such as small s and 90, and the expression levels of these genes were similar to the RNA-seq results. In addition, the iron storage protein Ferritin was found to be involved in the response to temperature stress, and the changes of total iron concentration in the hemolymph were, in general, consistent with the expression levels of . Taken together, our results suggested that the stress response genes were involved in the defense against the heat stress at 40°C, and the immune responses triggered by cold stress might provide protection for larvae from cold stress at 8°C. More interestingly, our results showed that during the responses to temperature stress, the total iron concentration in hemolymph regulated by Ferritin increased, which might help in surviving the low and high temperature stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6803539PMC
October 2019

Genes acting in longevity-related pathways in the endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2020 Feb 17;103(2):e21635. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Among insects, lifespans vary over a broad range, from the short-lived mayflies to the 17-year periodical cicadas. Generally, lifespans are determined by a phase in life, the reproductive lifespan, which varies among species. Numerous pathways, such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, the target of rapamycin pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathways, influence aging and lifespan. Components of these pathways were identified as lifespan-related genes, including genes mediating growth, metabolism, development, resistance, and other processes. Many age-related genes have been discovered in fruit flies, honeybees, and ants among other insect species. Studies of insect aging and longevity can help understand insect biology and develop new pest management technologies. In this paper, we interrogated the new Pteromalus puparum genome, from which we predicted 133 putative lifespan-related genes based on their homology with known lifespan-related genes of Drosophila melanogaster. These genes function in five signaling pathways and three physiological processes. The conserved domain structures of these genes were predicted and their expression patterns were analyzed. Amino acid sequence alignments and domain structure analysis indicate that most components remain conserved across at least six insect orders. The data in this paper will facilitate future work on parasitoid lifespans, which may have economic value in biocontrol programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21635DOI Listing
February 2020