Publications by authors named "Qiru Fan"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ultrafiltration strategy combined with nanoLC-MS/MS based proteomics for monitoring potential residual proteins in TCMIs.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jul 30;1178:122818. Epub 2021 May 30.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High Technology Research of TCM Formulae, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) containing complex constituents frequently cause unpredictable adverse reactions. The residual heterologous proteins in TCMIs may be one kind of the sensitized constituents. However, few methods were developed to identify and monitor the residual proteins of TCMIs in industry. Here, we described a method combining the advantages of ultrafiltration and mass spectrometry-based proteomics for monitoring the potential residual proteins in Re Du Ning injection (RDNI) intermediates and preparations. We identified and quantified both de novo peptides and the proteins matched against databases of three raw plants by using PEAKS software. Interesting, we found there was a significant decrease of peptides and proteins in No. 3-5 of RDNI intermediates and some even disappeared. Besides, we found this method could greatly reduce the interference of contaminants in proteomics experiments. The rapid and accurate method proposed in this paper could be used for monitoring potential residual proteins in TCMIs to guarantee their quality and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122818DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel Therapeutic Targets for Hypoxia-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: The Role of HIF-1.

Front Physiol 2020 15;11:774. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of New-tech for Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical Process, Lianyungang, China.

Insufficient oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a precursor to numerous cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. The main site of hypoxic injury in the human body is the mitochondria, where oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is activated in hypoxic conditions and acts as an important modulator of diverse target genes in the human body. The downstream genes of HIF include vital modulators of cardiovascular-related signaling pathways. Therefore, it is hypothesized that HIF represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this short review, we introduce the pathophysiology of hypoxic injury in cardiovascular disease, and we conclude from convincing evidence that HIF can modulate relevant cardioprotective signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375027PMC
July 2020

Chip-based serum proteomics approach to reveal the potential protein markers in the sub-acute stroke patients receiving the treatment of Ginkgo Diterpene Lactone Meglumine Injection.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Oct 13;260:112964. Epub 2020 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of New-tech for Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical Process, Lianyungang, 222000, China.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ginkgo biloba L. is a kind of traditional Chinese medicinal material with a long history. Its main active ingredients, ginkgolides, can be used for the treatment of stroke and other cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Ginkgo Diterpene Lactone Meglumine Injection (GDLI), a modernized TCM, has attracted much attention because of its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties.

Aim Of The Study: To uncover the effects of GDLI on ischemic stroke patients, as well as the underlying biomarkers involved in sub-acute stroke.

Materials And Methods: We used a state-of-the-art targeted proteomics chip to investigate the association between numerous serum proteins (1101 proteins) and the sub-acute phase post-ischemic stroke. Then, the relative proteins of anti-apoptosis, anticoagulant, and neuroprotection of GDLI were verified in animal models.

Results: Compared with the serum from healthy volunteers, we identified 15 up-regulated proteins and 26 down-regulated proteins (FC ≥ 1.5) involved in inflammatory response, immune response, and nervous system development in the sub-acute ischemic stroke. The pro-inflammatory proteins, such as IL17, MSP-R, G-CSF-R, TLR3, MIP-3β, TNFRSF19, and TNFRSF12, were significantly increased in serum, illustrating that the chronic inflammatory state was evident in the sub-acute stage of ischemic stroke. However, the common pro-inflammatory proteins, such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10, known to be up-regulated in acute stroke, had close or lightly lower levels than healthy humans (FC ≥ 1.5, P > 0.05). And some cytokines (IL3, CCL13, TNFRSF3, IL10 R beta, HLA-A, IL-1 F8/FIL1 eta, TNFRSF8, CCL18) were also markedly down-regulated in the sub-acute phase of stroke. These proteins are highly associated with the onset of stroke-induced immunosuppression and post-stroke infection. Moreover, we noticed that Ginkgo Diterpene Lactone Meglumine Injection (GDLI) treatment for 14 days was helpful to the recovery of patients in the subacute period. After the treatment of GDLI, it was observed that several inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-17 and IL-28A), chemokine (i.e. CCL14), and Coagulation Factor III were reduced. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 R alpha, GREMLIN, and Activin C) and neurotrophic factors (Neurturin and IGFBP2) were found to be up-regulated in stroke patients through self-control observation. Finally, we identified the IGFBP2 as a novel marker in the animal models.

Conclusions: In summary, the potential markers in sub-acute stroke patients were highly different from known protein markers in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. The serum protein IGFBP2 could be novel biomarkers for the treatment of GDLI in sub-acute stroke patients. Our present findings provide an innovative insight into the novel treatment of GDLI in ischemic stroke therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112964DOI Listing
October 2020

Ginkgo diterpene lactones inhibit cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced inflammatory response in astrocytes via TLR4/NF-κB pathway in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Mar 31;249:112365. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) is a traditional Chinese medicine known to treating stroke and other cardio-cerebrovascular diseases for thousands of years in China. Ginkgo diterpene lactones (GDL) attracted much attention because of their neuroprotective properties.

Aim Of The Study: To uncover the effects of GDL, which consist of ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), and ginkgolide K (GK), on ischemic stroke, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: We used middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) models mimicking the process of ischemia/reperfusion in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Anticoagulant effects of GDL were investigated on platelet activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation both in vivo and in vitro. We also evaluated the effects of GDL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in primary cultured rats' astrocytes. Infarct size, neurological deficit score, and brain edema were measured at 72 h after MCAO. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to analyze neurons necrosis and astrocytes activation. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real time PCR. The levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were assessed by real time PCR or Western blot.

Results: Compared with MCAO/R rats, GDL significantly reduced infarct size and brain edema, improved neurological deficit score. Meanwhile, GDL suppressed platelet aggregation, astrocytes activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines releasing, TLR4 mRNA expression and transfer of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus. Furthermore, GDL alleviated OGD/R injury and LPS-induced inflammatory response in primary astrocytes, characterized by promoting cell viability, decreasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and inhibiting IL-1β and TNF-α releasing.

Conclusions: In summary, GDL attenuate cerebral ischemic injury, inhibit platelet aggregation and astrocytes activation. The anti-inflammatory activity might be associated with the downregulation of TLR4/NF-κB signal pathway. Our present findings provide an innovative insight into the novel treatment of GDL in ischemic stroke therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112365DOI Listing
March 2020

Ginkgolide K protects the heart against endoplasmic reticulum stress injury by activating the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α/X box-binding protein-1 pathway.

Br J Pharmacol 2016 08 8;173(15):2402-18. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of New-tech for Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical Process, Lianyungang, China.

Background And Purpose: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increasingly recognized as an important causal factor of many diseases. Targeting ER stress has now emerged as a new therapeutic strategy for treating cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of ginkgolide K (1,10-dihydroxy-3,14-didehydroginkgolide, GK) on cardiac ER stress.

Experimental Approach: Cell death, apoptosis and ER stress-related signalling pathways were measured in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, treated with the ER stress inducers tunicamycin, hydrogen peroxide and thapsigargin. Acute myocardial infarction was established using left coronary artery occlusion in mice, and infarct size was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function and transmission electron microscopy for evaluating ER expansion.

Key Results: Ginkgolide K (GK) significantly decreased ER stress-induced cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models. In ischaemic injured mice, GK treatment reduced infarct size, rescued heart dysfunction and ameliorated ER dilation. Mechanistic studies revealed that the beneficial effects of GK occurred through enhancement of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)/X box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) activity, which in turn led to increased ER-associated degradation-mediated clearance of misfolded proteins and autophagy. In addition, GK was also able to partly repress the pro-apoptotic action of regulated IRE1-dependent decay and JNK pathway.

Conclusions And Implications: In conclusion, GK acts through selective activation of the IRE1α/XBP1 pathway to limit ER stress injury. GK is revealed as a promising therapeutic agent to ameliorate ER stress for treating cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.13516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4945765PMC
August 2016
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