Publications by authors named "Qingzhong Wu"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Different acupuncture therapies for spastic paralysis after stroke: A protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(27):e20974

Affiliated Hospital of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China.

Background: Stroke is emerging as a significant health issue that threatens human health worldwide and as a common sequela of stroke spastic paralysis after stroke (SPAS) has received wide attention. Currently, several systematic reviews have suggested that the commonly used acupuncture therapy (electroacupuncture, fire acupuncture, warm acupuncture, and filiform needle acupuncture) has achieved significant efficacy in the treatment of SPAS. In this study, network meta-analysis will be used to analyze the results of different clinical trials and evaluate the differences in the efficacy of different acupuncture treatments for SPAS.

Methods: Only randomized controlled trials will be included and all patients were diagnosed as spastic paralysis after stroke. A computer-based retrieval will be conducted at CNKI, WanFang databases, VIP, Sinoed, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. The search period limit is from the time the date of database establishment to April 17, 2020. To avoid omissions, we will manually retrieve relevant references and conference papers. The risk of bias in the final included studies will be evaluated based on the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All data analysis will be conducted by Revman5.3, WinBUGS 1.4.3, and Stata14.2.

Results: This study quantified the effectiveness of each intervention for different outcome indicators. The primary outcomes include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, the modified Ashworth scale for the assessment of spasticity, and Barthel Index. The secondary outcomes include clinical effectiveness and adverse reactions.

Conclusion: It will provide evidence-based medical evidence for clinicians to choose more effective acupuncture therapy for SPAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337531PMC
July 2020

Linking longitudinal and cross-sectional biomarker data to understand host-pathogen dynamics: Leptospira in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) as a case study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 06 29;14(6):e0008407. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Confronted with the challenge of understanding population-level processes, disease ecologists and epidemiologists often simplify quantitative data into distinct physiological states (e.g. susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered). However, data defining these states often fall along a spectrum rather than into clear categories. Hence, the host-pathogen relationship is more accurately defined using quantitative data, often integrating multiple diagnostic measures, just as clinicians do to assess their patients. We use quantitative data on a major neglected tropical disease (Leptospira interrogans) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to improve individual-level and population-level understanding of this Leptospira reservoir system. We create a "host-pathogen space" by mapping multiple biomarkers of infection (e.g. serum antibodies, pathogen DNA) and disease state (e.g. serum chemistry values) from 13 longitudinally sampled, severely ill individuals to characterize changes in these values through time. Data from these individuals describe a clear, unidirectional trajectory of disease and recovery within this host-pathogen space. Remarkably, this trajectory also captures the broad patterns in larger cross-sectional datasets of 1456 wild sea lions in all states of health but sampled only once. Our framework enables us to determine an individual's location in their time-course since initial infection, and to visualize the full range of clinical states and antibody responses induced by pathogen exposure. We identify predictive relationships between biomarkers and outcomes such as survival and pathogen shedding, and use these to impute values for missing data, thus increasing the size of the useable dataset. Mapping the host-pathogen space using quantitative biomarker data enables more nuanced understanding of an individual's time course of infection, duration of immunity, and probability of being infectious. Such maps also make efficient use of limited data for rare or poorly understood diseases, by providing a means to rapidly assess the range and extent of potential clinical and immunological profiles. These approaches yield benefits for clinicians needing to triage patients, prevent transmission, and assess immunity, and for disease ecologists or epidemiologists working to develop appropriate risk management strategies to reduce transmission risk on a population scale (e.g. model parameterization using more accurate estimates of duration of immunity and infectiousness) and to assess health impacts on a population scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351238PMC
June 2020

Detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus by a real-time PCR using blowhole swabs.

Dis Aquat Organ 2016 08;120(3):241-4

Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 331, Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412, USA.

Blowhole swabs are a simple and non-invasive method for collecting samples from cetaceans and can be used for screening large numbers of animals in the field. This study reports a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp. using blowhole swab samples from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus stranded in the coastal region of Virginia, South Carolina and northern Florida, USA, between 2013 and 2015. We used real-time PCR results on lung samples from the same dolphins in order to estimate the relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR of blowhole swabs. Brucella DNA was detected in lung tissue of 22% (18/81) and in blowhole swabs of 21% (17/81) of the sampled dolphins. The relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR on blowhole swabs as compared to the real-time PCR on lung samples was 94% (17/18) and 100% (63/63), respectively. These results indicate that real-time PCR on blowhole swabs may be used as a non-invasive test for rapid detection of Brucella spp. in the respiratory tract of dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of blowhole swabs for detection of bacterial pathogens by real-time PCR in bottlenose dolphins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03034DOI Listing
August 2016

Differentiation of pancreatobiliary-type from intestinal-type periampullary carcinomas using 3.0T MRI.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2016 Apr 23;43(4):877-86. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Department of Radiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong University, Jinan, P.R. China.

Purpose: To differentiate pancreatobiliary-type from intestinal-type periampullary carcinomas using combined magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).

Materials And Methods: MRI (3.0T) results of 41 patients with pathologically confirmed periampullary carcinoma were retrospectively assessed. Two radiologists, blinded to histologic type of each tumor, evaluated image findings independently. MRCP image features, enhancement pattern, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were analyzed. Independent-sample t-test, chi-square, or Fisher's exact test were used to determine differential image findings between the pancreatobiliary-type and the intestinal-type group. Cohen's κ statistic or interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate interobserver agreement between two observers. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify MRI features with predictive values.

Results: On the basis of hematoxylin-eosin staining, 27 patients were classified as having pancreatobiliary-type carcinomas, and 14 patients the intestinal type. The pancreatobiliary-type carcinomas more commonly showed progressive enhancement than the intestinal type (P = 0.003). The minimum ADC (ADCmin ) value of the pancreatobiliary-type group ([0.95 ± 0.21] × 10(-3) mm(2) /s) was significantly lower than the intestinal-type group ([1.10 ± 0.25] × 10(-3) mm(2) /s) (P = 0.047). For interobserver agreement, the κ values and ICCs for all parameters exceeded 0.8, indicating almost perfect agreement. At multiple logistic regression analysis, the enhancement pattern was the only significant independent predictor (P = 0.011, odds ratio [OR] = 0.105). When the enhancement pattern and ADCmin were used in combination, we could identify 70.4% of pancreatobiliary-type and 78.6% of intestinal-type carcinomas.

Conclusion: Progressive enhancement and low ADCmin values suggest a pancreatobiliary-type periampullary carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25054DOI Listing
April 2016

Transcriptomic signatures in whole blood of patients who acquire a chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) following an exposure to the marine toxin ciguatoxin.

BMC Med Genomics 2015 Apr 2;8:15. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

ProteoGenomics, LLC, Vero Beach, FL, 32963, Florida.

Background: Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are polyether marine neurotoxins found in multiple reef-fish species and are potent activators of voltage-gated sodium channels. It is estimated that up to 500,000 people annually experience acute ciguatera poisoning from consuming toxic fish and a small percentage of these victims will develop a chronic, multisymptom, multisystem illness, which can last years, termed a Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS). Symptoms of ciguatera CIRS include fatigue, cognitive deficits, neurologic deficits, pain and sensitivity to light. There are few treatment options for ciguatera CIRS since little is known about its pathophysiology.

Methods: This study characterizes the transcriptional profile in whole blood of 11 patients with ciguatera-induced CIRS and 11 normal controls run in duplicate using Agilent one color whole genome microarrays. Differential expression was determined by using a combination of moderated t-test p-value and fold change (FC). Significant genes were subjected to gene ontology, principal component analysis and SVM classification. Seven significant genes found by microarray were validated by PCR.

Results: Using a low stringency (p < 0.05 and FC > 1.4) and a high stringency (p < 0.01 and FC > 1.5) filter, the resulting gene sets of 185 and 55, respectively, showed clear separation of cases and controls by PCA as well as 100% classification accuracy by SVM, indicating that the gene profiles can separate patients from controls. PCR results of 7 genes showed a 95% correlation to microarray data. Several genes identified by microarray are important in wound healing (CD9, CD36, vWF and Factor XIII), adaptive immunity (HLA-DQB1, DQB2, IL18R1 and IL5RA) and innate immunity (GZMK, TOLLIP, SIGIRR and VIPR2), overlapping several areas shown to be disrupted in a mouse model of acute exposure to ciguatoxin. Another area of interest was differential expression of long, non-coding sequences, or lncRNA.

Conclusions: Disruptions of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms were recorded at both the genomic and proteomic level. A disruption in the HLA-T cell receptor axis could indicate HLA haplotype sensitivity for this chronic syndrome, as noted in many autoimmune conditions. Taken together, these indicators of illness provide additional insights into pathophysiology and potential therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-015-0089-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392619PMC
April 2015

Antibiotic Efficacy in Eliminating Leptospiruria in California Sea Lions () Stranding with Leptospirosis.

Aquat Mamm 2015 26;41(2):203-212. Epub 2015 May 26.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA,

Stranded California sea lions () along the California coast have been diagnosed with leptospirosis every year since at least the 1980s. Between September 2010 and November 2011, we followed 14 stranded California sea lions that survived to release and evaluated antibiotic efficacy in eliminating leptospiruria (urinary shedding of leptospires). Leptospiruria was assessed by real-time PCR of urine and urine culture, with persistence assessed using longitudinally collected samples. Serum chemistry was used to assess recovery of normal renal function. Microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) was performed to assess serum anti- antibody titers, and the MAT reactivity patterns were consistent with serovar Pomona infection frequently observed in this population. Animals were initially treated for 6 to 16 d (median = 10.5; mean = 10.8) with antibiotics from the penicillin family, with some receiving additional antibiotics to treat other medical conditions. All urine cultures were negative; therefore, the presence of leptospiruria was assessed using PCR. Leptospiruria continued beyond the initial course of penicillin family antibiotics in 13 of the 14 sea lions, beyond the last antibiotic dose in 11 of the 14 sea lions, beyond recovery of renal function in 13 of the 14 sea lions, and persisted for at least 8 to 86 d (median = 45; mean = 46.8). Five animals were released with no negative urine PCR results detected; thus, their total shedding duration may have been longer. Cessation of leptospiruria was more likely in animals that received antibiotics for a greater duration, especially if coverage was uninterrupted. Real-time PCR results indicate that an antibiotic protocol commonly used to treat leptospirosis in rehabilitating California sea lions does not eliminate leptospiruria. It is possible that antibiotic protocols given for a longer duration and/or including other antibiotics may be effective in eliminating leptospiruria. These results may have important human and animal health implications, especially in rehabilitation facilities, as transmission may occur through contact with animals with persistent leptospiruria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1578/AM.41.2.2015.203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379896PMC
May 2015

Development of a real-time PCR for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in California sea lions.

Dis Aquat Organ 2014 Aug;110(3):165-72

Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, South Carolina 29412, USA.

Several real-time PCR assays are currently used for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp.; however, few methods have been described for the successful evaluation of clinical urine samples. This study reports a rapid assay for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in California sea lions Zalophus californianus using real-time PCR with primers and a probe targeting the lipL32 gene. The PCR assay had high analytic sensitivity-the limit of detection was 3 genome copies per PCR volume using L. interrogans serovar Pomona DNA and 100% analytic specificity; it detected all pathogenic leptospiral serovars tested and none of the non-pathogenic Leptospira species (L. biflexa and L. meyeri serovar Semaranga), the intermediate species L. inadai, or the non-Leptospira pathogens tested. Our assay had an amplification efficiency of 1.00. Comparisons between the real-time PCR assay and culture isolation for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in urine and kidney tissue samples from California sea lions showed that samples were more often positive by real-time PCR than by culture methods. Inclusion of an internal amplification control in the real-time PCR assay showed no inhibitory effects in PCR negative samples. These studies indicated that our real-time PCR assay has high analytic sensitivity and specificity for the rapid detection of pathogenic Leptospira species in urine and kidney tissue samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423441PMC
August 2014

Real-time PCR assays for detection of Brucella spp. and the identification of genotype ST27 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

J Microbiol Methods 2014 May 13;100:99-104. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC 29412, USA.

Rapid detection of Brucella spp. in marine mammals is challenging. Microbiologic culture is used for definitive diagnosis of brucellosis, but is time consuming, has low sensitivity and can be hazardous to laboratory personnel. Serological methods can aid in diagnosis, but may not differentiate prior exposure versus current active infection and may cross-react with unrelated Gram-negative bacteria. This study reports a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp. and application to screen clinical samples from bottlenose dolphins stranded along the coast of South Carolina, USA. The assay was found to be 100% sensitive for the Brucella strains tested, and the limit of detection was 0.27fg of genomic DNA from Brucella ceti B1/94 per PCR volume. No amplification was detected for the non-Brucella pathogens tested. Brucella DNA was detected in 31% (55/178) of clinical samples tested. These studies indicate that the real-time PCR assay is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins. We also developed a second real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of Brucella ST27, a genotype that is associated with human zoonotic infection. Positive results were obtained for Brucella strains which had been identified as ST27 by multilocus sequence typing. No amplification was found for other Brucella strains included in this study. ST27 was identified in 33% (18/54) of Brucella spp. DNA-positive clinical samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a real-time PCR assay for identification of Brucella genotype ST27 in marine mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2014.03.001DOI Listing
May 2014

Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

Vet Microbiol 2013 May 4;164(1-2):177-83. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.01.032DOI Listing
May 2013

Unexpected nondenitrifier nitrous oxide reductase gene diversity and abundance in soils.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Nov 12;109(48):19709-14. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Department of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

Agricultural and industrial practices more than doubled the intrinsic rate of terrestrial N fixation over the past century with drastic consequences, including increased atmospheric nitrous oxide (N(2)O) concentrations. N(2)O is a potent greenhouse gas and contributor to ozone layer destruction, and its release from fixed N is almost entirely controlled by microbial activities. Mitigation of N(2)O emissions to the atmosphere has been attributed exclusively to denitrifiers possessing NosZ, the enzyme system catalyzing N(2)O to N(2) reduction. We demonstrate that diverse microbial taxa possess divergent nos clusters with genes that are related yet evolutionarily distinct from the typical nos genes of denitirifers. nos clusters with atypical nosZ occur in Bacteria and Archaea that denitrify (44% of genomes), do not possess other denitrification genes (56%), or perform dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA; (31%). Experiments with the DNRA soil bacterium Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans demonstrated that the atypical NosZ is an effective N(2)O reductase, and PCR-based surveys suggested that atypical nosZ are abundant in terrestrial environments. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that atypical nos clusters possess distinctive regulatory and functional components (e.g., Sec vs. Tat secretion pathway in typical nos), and that previous nosZ-targeted PCR primers do not capture the atypical nosZ diversity. Collectively, our results suggest that nondenitrifying populations with a broad range of metabolisms and habitats are potentially significant contributors to N(2)O consumption. Apparently, a large, previously unrecognized group of environmental nosZ has not been accounted for, and characterizing their contributions to N(2)O consumption will advance understanding of the ecological controls on N(2)O emissions and lead to refined greenhouse gas flux models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211238109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511753PMC
November 2012

Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches.

Dev Comp Immunol 2012 Apr 31;36(4):629-37. Epub 2011 Oct 31.

Medical University of South Carolina, Marine Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences Center, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Ft Johnson Rd., Charleston, SC 29412, USA.

Conservation biologists face many challenges in assessing health, immune status and infectious diseases in protected species. These challenges include unpredictable sample populations, diverse genetic and environmental backgrounds of the animals, as well as the practical, legal and ethical issues involved in experimentation. The use of whole genome scale transcriptomics with animal samples obtained in a minimally invasive manner is an approach that shows promise for health assessment. In this study we assessed the utility of a microarray to identify changes in gene expression predictive of health status by interrogating blood samples from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in rehabilitation. A custom microarray was developed from the commercially available dog microarray (Canis familiaris) by selecting probes that demonstrated reliable cross-hybridization with RNA in sea lion blood. This custom microarray was used for the analysis of RNA from 73 sea lion blood samples, from animals with a broad spectrum of health changes. Both traditional classifying techniques and newer artificial neural network approaches correctly classified sea lions with respect to health status, primarily distinguishing between leptospirosis infection and domoic acid exposure. Real time PCR validation for a small set of genes, followed by sequencing, showed good correlation with array results and high identity (96-98%) between the dog and sea lion sequences. This approach to health status classification shows promise for disease identification in a clinical setting, and assessment of health status of wildlife.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2011.10.011DOI Listing
April 2012

A genetic epidemiological survey of idiopathic epilepsy in the Chinese Han population.

Epilepsy Res 2012 Feb 12;98(2-3):199-205. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, China.

Background: Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a syndrome that comprises epilepsy only, with no underlying structural brain lesion or other neurological signs or symptoms. Numerous studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in IE. IE is a common disease in the Chinese Han population. However, the genetic epidemiological characteristics of IE in the Chinese population, such as its heritability and genetic models remain unclear.

Purpose: To study the clinical and epidemiological profile of IE, to estimate the heritability and determine the possible genetic models for IE in the Chinese Han population.

Methods: A case-control family-based study was carried out in a rural Chinese county. We collected data from eligible IE patients, controls, and their relatives by a uniform structured questionnaire, and then established an epidemiologic database of epilepsy using Access2010. General statistical and genetic epidemiological analyses (Falconer's-method-based heritability, simple segregation ratio and complex segregation analysis) were performed using SAS9.1 and the SAGE-SEGREG program.

Results: (1) The prevalence of IE among the relatives of probands with IE (2.75‰) was higher than that among the relatives of the control group (0.61‰). The prevalence of IE among the first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of the probands with IE was 11.45‰, 2.64‰ and 0.98‰, respectively, which were all higher than the corresponding prevalences in the relatives of controls. Trend-chi-squared tests indicated that the prevalence of epilepsy increased among the relatives of probands with decreasing kinship distance (χ(2)=97.16, P=0.00). (2) The heritability of IE among first-, second-, and third-degree relatives was 55.06%, 50.72% and 16.98%, respectively. The weighted mean heritability was 46.07%. (3) The simple segregation ratio of IE was 0.03, significantly lower than the Mendelian recessive segregation ratio of 0.25. Complex segregation analysis showed that the population we studied accepted a Mendelian genetic model (dominant, recessive, additive, and a major gene model) and excluded the general model, non-transmitted model, and environment-only model. A Mendelian additive inheritance model was ultimately the best-fit because it had the lowest Akaike Information Criteria score.

Conclusion: In the Chinese Han population, IE follows a pattern of polygenic Mendelian additive inheritance rather than single-gene inheritance. Nearly half of the total variance can be explained by genetic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2011.09.013DOI Listing
February 2012

U(VI) reduction to mononuclear U(IV) by Desulfitobacterium species.

Environ Sci Technol 2010 Jun;44(12):4705-9

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA.

The bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) affects uranium mobility and fate in contaminated subsurface environments and is best understood in Gram-negative model organisms such as Geobacter and Shewanella spp. This study demonstrates that U(VI) reduction is a common trait of Gram-positive Desulfitobacterium spp. Five different Desulfitobacterium isolates reduced 100 microM U(VI) to U(IV) in <10 days, whereas U(VI) remained soluble in abiotic and heat-killed controls. U(VI) reduction in live cultures was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis. Interestingly, although bioreduction of U(VI) is almost always reported to yield the uraninite mineral (UO(2)), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis demonstrated that the U(IV) produced in the Desulfitobacterium cultures was not UO(2). The EXAFS data indicated that the U(IV) product was a phase or mineral composed of mononuclear U(IV) atoms closely surrounded by light element shells. This atomic arrangement likely results from inner-sphere bonds between U(IV) and C/N/O- or P/S-containing ligands, such as carbonate or phosphate. The formation of a distinct U(IV) phase warrants further study because the characteristics of the reduced material affect uranium stability and fate in the contaminated subsurface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es903636cDOI Listing
June 2010

Hexavalent uranium supports growth of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Geobacter spp. with lower than predicted biomass yields.

Environ Microbiol 2007 Nov;9(11):2885-93

Department of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801-2352, USA.

The stimulation of bacteria capable of reducing soluble U(VI) to sparingly soluble U(IV) is a promising approach for containing U(VI) plumes. Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans is capable of mediating this activity; however, its ability to couple U(VI) reduction to growth has not been established. Monitoring the increase in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in cultures provided with U(VI) as an electron acceptor demonstrated growth, and 7.7-8.6 x 10(6) cells were produced per mumole of U(VI) reduced. This biomass yield was lower than predicted based on the theoretical free energy changes associated with U(VI)-to-U(IV) reduction. Lower than predicted growth yields with U(VI) as electron acceptor were also determined in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi and Geobacter sulfurreducens suggesting that U(VI) reduction is inefficient or imposes an additional cost to growing cells. These findings have implications for U(VI) bioremediation because Anaeromyxobacter spp. and Geobacter spp. contribute to radionuclide immobilization in contaminated subsurface environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01405.xDOI Listing
November 2007

Uranium(VI) reduction by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2006 May;72(5):3608-14

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, 3228 ES&T Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0512, USA.

Previous studies demonstrated growth of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C with acetate or hydrogen as the electron donor and Fe(III), nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, oxygen, or ortho-substituted halophenols as electron acceptors. In this study, we explored and characterized U(VI) reduction by strain 2CP-C. Cell suspensions of fumarate-grown 2CP-C cells reduced U(VI) to U(IV). More-detailed growth studies demonstrated that hydrogen was the required electron donor for U(VI) reduction and could not be replaced by acetate. The addition of nitrate to U(VI)-reducing cultures resulted in a transitory increase in U(VI) concentration, apparently caused by the reoxidation of reduced U(IV), but U(VI) reduction resumed following the consumption of N-oxyanions. Inhibition of U(VI) reduction occurred in cultures amended with Fe(III) citrate, or citrate. In the presence of amorphous Fe(III) oxide, U(VI) reduction proceeded to completion but the U(VI) reduction rates decreased threefold compared to control cultures. Fumarate and 2-chlorophenol had no inhibitory effects on U(VI) reduction, and both electron acceptors were consumed concomitantly with U(VI). Since cocontaminants (e.g., nitrate, halogenated compounds) and bioavailable ferric iron are often encountered at uranium-impacted sites, the metabolic versatility makes Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans a promising model organism for studying the complex interaction of multiple electron acceptors in U(VI) reduction and immobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.5.3608-3614.2006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1472366PMC
May 2006

Quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA and reductive dehalogenase genes simultaneously monitors multiple Dehalococcoides strains.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2006 Apr;72(4):2765-74

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 311 Ferst Drive, 3230 ES&T Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0512, USA.

The 16S rRNA gene provides insufficient information to infer the range of chloroorganic electron acceptors used by different Dehalococcoides organisms. To overcome this limitation and provide enhanced diagnostic tools for growth measurements, site assessment, and bioremediation monitoring, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) approach targeting 16S rRNA genes and three Dehalococcoides reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes with assigned function (i.e., tceA, bvcA, and vcrA) was designed and evaluated. qPCR standard curves generated for the RDase genes by use of genomic DNA from Dehalococcoides pure cultures correlated with standard curves obtained for both Bacteria- and Dehalococcoides-targeted 16S rRNA genes, suggesting that the RDase genes are useful targets for quantitative assessment of Dehalococcoides organisms. RDase gene probe/primer pairs were specific for the Dehalococcoides strains known to carry the diagnostic RDase gene sequences, and the qPCR method allowed the detection of as few as 1 to 20 and quantification of as few as 50 to 100 tceA, bvcA, or vcrA gene targets per PCR volume. The qPCR approach was applied to dechlorinating enrichment cultures, microcosms, and samples from a contaminated site. In characterized enrichment cultures where known Dehalococcoides strains were enumerated, the sum of the three RDase genes equaled the total Dehalococcoides cell numbers. In site samples and chloroethane-dechlorinating microcosms, the sum of the three RDase genes was much less than that predicted by Dehalococcoides-targeted qPCR, totaling 10 to 30% of the total Dehalococcoides cell numbers. Hence, a large number of Dehalococcoides spp. contain as-yet-unidentified RDase genes, indicating that our current understanding of the dechlorinating Dehalococcoides community is incomplete.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.4.2765-2774.2006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1449079PMC
April 2006

Biological phosphate uptake and release: effect of pH and magnesium ions.

Water Environ Res 2006 Feb;78(2):196-201

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0077, USA.

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is based on poly-phosphate accumulating organisms' (PAOs) unique features of "luxury" phosphate uptake during aerobic conditions and phosphate release in anaerobic conditions. It is believed that poly-phosphate accumulation is accompanied by the uptake and accumulation of potassium ions (K+) and magnesium ions (Mg2+). The release of phosphate under anaerobic conditions is also accompanied by the release of both cations. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of pH and Mg2+ on the biological phosphate uptake and release behavior of activated sludge mixed liquor during aeration and sedimentation. Research results indicate that Mg2+, supplied either by magnesium chloride (MgCl2) or magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2], stimulated phosphate uptake during the aeration period, while pH increase, caused by the application of Mg(OH)2, enhanced phosphate release during the sedimentation period. It is also noted in our experiments with MgCl2 that Mg2+ slightly inhibited anaerobic phosphate release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143005x89652DOI Listing
February 2006

A strategy for controlling deposition of struvite in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

Water Environ Res 2005 Mar-Apr;77(2):199-207

Environmental Technology Center, The Dow Chemical Company, Plaquemine, Louisiana, USA.

This paper presents strategies to reduce the risk of struvite deposition by controlling its location of formation. Two technical routes were investigated: (1) to fix the phosphate into the dewatered sludge cake, and (2) to remove phosphate from centrate or filtrate. Chemicals used include magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2], both of reagent grade and reclaimed from a flue gas desulfurization system, magnesium chloride (MgCl2), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3]. Research results indicate that (1) for anaerobically well-digested sludge, Mg(OH)2 is effective in fixing phosphate into sludge cake and improving sludge dewaterability, and (2) adding Mg(OH)2 into a reactor, located between the sludge dewatering facilities and the centrate or filtrate discharge line, and using air for mixing and carbon dioxide stripping, proves feasible in reducing struvite deposition in centrate or filtrate discharge lines and can generate a potentially valuable plant fertilizer--struvite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143005x41771DOI Listing
November 2005

Invariant chlorine isotopic signatures during microbial PCB reductive dechlorination.

Environ Pollut 2004 ;128(3):445-8

Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

In order to develop more robust insight into the natural attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorine isotopic composition of residual 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) was monitored as it underwent microbial reductive dechlorination to 2,3,5-trichlorobiphenyl (2,3,5-CB) in laboratory cultures. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to isolate the former compound from the experimental matrix for delta37Cl measurement. No detectable isotopic fractionation was observed over the 90 day incubation with sterile control, standard, and inoculated samples all exhibiting delta37Cl values with a range of approximately 0.5 per thousand. These results show that this type of biological activity can be discriminated from other transformations by the absence of a measurable isotope effect during microbial reductive dechlorination. The utility of HPLC isolation for compound-specific delta37Cl analyses of environmentally relevant species is also demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.006DOI Listing
January 2008

Dechlorination of chlorobenzenes by a culture containing bacterium DF-1, a PCB dechlorinating microorganism.

Environ Sci Technol 2002 Aug;36(15):3290-4

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425-2230, USA.

Polychlorinated benzenes were reductively dechlorinated by an enrichment culture containing the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorinating bacterium DF-1. The culture dechlorinated hexachlorobenzene (hexa-CB) --> pentachlorobenzene (penta-CB) --> 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,3,5-CB) --> 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-CB) and did not dechlorinate other tetrachlorobenzenes or any trichlorobenzenes. This restricted series of reactions is the most predominant and frequently reported pathway for the dechlorination of hexa-CB and penta-CB by enrichment cultures inoculated with either freshwater or estuarine sediments. The culture did not dechlorinate hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated benzenes or a hydroxylated PCB. Bacterium DF-1 was detected by PCR/DGGE analysis following dechlorination of penta-CB but was not detected when a chlorinated benzene (CB) was not dechlorinated; detection of other members in the communitywas unaffected by the presence or absence of CB dechlorination. This is the first report of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates both PCBs and CBs and the first identification of an organism that can dechlorinate a CB with more than four chlorines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0158612DOI Listing
August 2002

Identification of a bacterium that specifically catalyzes the reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls with doubly flanked chlorines.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2002 Feb;68(2):807-12

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave., Charleston, SC 29425-2230, USA.

A microorganism whose growth is linked to the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with doubly flanked chlorines was identified. Identification was made by reductive analysis of community 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from a culture enriched in the presence of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB), which was dechlorinated at the para position. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of total 16S rDNA extracted from the culture led to identification of three operational taxonomic units (OTUs 1, 2, and 3). OTU 1 was always detected when 2,3,4,5-CB or other congeners with doubly flanked chlorines were present and dechlorinated. Only OTUs 2 and 3 were detected in the absence of PCBs and when other PCBs (i.e., PCBs lacking doubly flanked chlorines) were not dechlorinated. Partial sequences of OTUs 2 and 3 exhibited 98.2% similarity to the sequence of "Desulfovibrio caledoniensis" (accession no. DCU53465). A sulfate-reducing vibrio isolated from the culture generated OTUs 2 and 3. This organism could not dechlorinate 2,3,4,5-CB. From these results we concluded that OTU 1 represents the dechlorinating bacterium growing in a coculture with a Desulfovibrio sp. The 16S rDNA sequence of OTU 1 is most similar to the 16S rDNA sequence of bacterium o-17 (89% similarity), an ortho-PCB-dechlorinating bacterium. The PCB dechlorinator, designated bacterium DF-1, reductively dechlorinates congeners with doubly flanked chlorines when it is supplied with formate or H(2)-CO(2) (80:20).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC126686PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.68.2.807-812.2002DOI Listing
February 2002
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