Publications by authors named "Qinghua Liu"

255 Publications

A Prepubertal Mice Model to Study the Growth Pattern of Early Ovarian Follicles.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Early folliculogenesis begins with the activation of the follicle and ends with the formation of the follicular antrum, which takes up most of the time of folliculogenesis. In this long process, follicles complete a series of developmental events, including but not limited to granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, theca folliculi formation, and antrum formation. However, the logical or temporal sequence of these events is not entirely clear. This study demonstrated in a mouse model that completion of early folliculogenesis required a minimum of two weeks. The oocyte reached its largest size in the Type 4-5 stage, which was therefore considered as the optimum period for studying oogenesis. Postnatal days (PD) 10-12 were regarded as the crucial stage of theca folliculi formation, as sharply increased during this stage. PD13-15 was the rapid growth period of early follicles, which was characterized by rapid cell proliferation, the sudden emergence of the antrum, and increased expression. The ovarian morphology remained stable during PD15-21, but antrum follicles accumulated gradually. Atresia occurred at all stages, with the lowest rate in Type 3 follicles and no differences among early Type 4-6 follicles. The earliest vaginal opening was observed at PD24, almost immediately after the first growing follicular wave. Therefore, the period of PD22-23 could be considered as a suitable period for studying puberty initiation. This study objectively revealed the pattern of early folliculogenesis and provided time windows for the study of biological events in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151218PMC
May 2021

Discovery of Plasma Membrane-Associated RNAs through APEX-seq.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101, Beijing, China.

In addition to nucleic acids, a variety of other biomolecules have also been found on the plasma membrane. Although researchers have realized that RNA has the ability to bind to membrane vesicles in vitro, little is known about whether and how RNA connects to the plasma membrane of the cell. The combination of high-throughput sequencing and in situ labeling methods provides an innovative approach for large-scale identification of subcellular RNAs. Here, we applied the recently published method APEX-seq and identified 75 RNAs related to the plasma membrane, in which lncRNA PMAR72 (plasma membrane-associated RNA AL121772.1) has a considerable affinity with sphingomyelin (SM) and localizes within distinct membrane foci. Our findings will provide some new evidence to elaborate the relationship between RNA and the plasma membrane of mammalian cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-021-00991-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Long noncoding RNA AVAN promotes antiviral innate immunity by interacting with TRIM25 and enhancing the transcription of FOXO3a.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.

Accumulating evidence has shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in several biological processes, including immune responses. However, the role of lncRNAs in antiviral innate immune responses remains largely elusive. Here, we identify an uncharacterized human lncRNA AVAN from influenza A virus (IAV) infected patients, that is significantly upregulated following RNA virus infection. During IAV infection, AVAN play an indispensable role in antiviral immune responses. In vivo, we enforced the expression of AVAN in transgenic mice or adeno-associated virus encoding AVAN delivery system and found that AVAN significantly alleviated IAV virulence and virus replication. Mechanistically, nuclear AVAN positively regulates the transcription of forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a) by associating with its promoter and inducing chromatin remodeling to promote neutrophil chemotaxis. Meanwhile, cytoplasmic AVAN binds directly to the E3 ligase TRIM25 and enhances TRIM25-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, thereby promoting TRIM25- and RIG-I-mediated antiviral innate immune responses, including the induction of type I interferon and ISGs. Moreover, AVAN binds to the B Box/CCD domain of TRIM25 and 1-200nt of AVAN were the functional moieties. Collectively, our findings highlight the potential clinical implications of human lncRNA AVAN as a key positive regulator of the antiviral innate immune response and a promising target for developing broad antiviral therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00791-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Posterior subthalamic nucleus (PSTh) mediates innate fear-associated hypothermia in mice.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2648. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Institute of Biological Sciences (NIBS), Beijing, China.

The neural mechanisms of fear-associated thermoregulation remain unclear. Innate fear odor 2-methyl-2-thiazoline (2MT) elicits rapid hypothermia and elevated tail temperature, indicative of vasodilation-induced heat dissipation, in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking Trpa1-the chemosensor for 2MT. Here we report that Trpa1 mice show diminished 2MT-evoked c-fos expression in the posterior subthalamic nucleus (PSTh), external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (PBel) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Whereas tetanus toxin light chain-mediated inactivation of NTS-projecting PSTh neurons suppress, optogenetic activation of direct PSTh-rostral NTS pathway induces hypothermia and tail vasodilation. Furthermore, selective opto-stimulation of 2MT-activated, PSTh-projecting PBel neurons by capturing activated neuronal ensembles (CANE) causes hypothermia. Conversely, chemogenetic suppression of vGlut2 neurons in PBel or PSTh, or PSTh-projecting PBel neurons attenuates 2MT-evoked hypothermia and tail vasodilation. These studies identify PSTh as a major thermoregulatory hub that connects PBel to NTS to mediate 2MT-evoked innate fear-associated hypothermia and tail vasodilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22914-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113537PMC
May 2021

Melatonin delays ovarian aging in mice by slowing down the exhaustion of ovarian reserve.

Commun Biol 2021 May 6;4(1):534. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Studies have shown that melatonin (MLT) can delay ovarian aging, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that granulosa cells isolated from mice follicles can synthesize MLT; the addition of MLT in ovary culture system inhibited follicle activation and growth; In vivo experiments indicated that injections of MLT to mice during the follicle activation phase can reduce the number of activated follicles by inhibiting the PI3K-AKT-FOXO3 pathway; during the early follicle growth phase, MLT administration suppressed follicle growth and atresia, and multiple pathways involved in folliculogenesis, including PI3K-AKT, were suppressed; MLT deficiency in mice increased follicle activation and atresia, and eventually accelerated age-related fertility decline; finally, we demonstrated that prolonged high-dose MLT intake had no obvious adverse effect. This study presents more insight into the roles of MLT in reproductive regulation that endogenous MLT delays ovarian aging by inhibiting follicle activation, growth and atresia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02042-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102596PMC
May 2021

Effects of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Current understanding and future perspectives.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, P.R. China.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating and life-threatening syndrome that results in high morbidity and mortality. Current pharmacologic treatments and mechanical ventilation have limited value in targeting the underlying pathophysiology of ARDS. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown potent therapeutic advantages in experimental and clinical trials through direct cell-to-cell interaction and paracrine signaling. However, safety concerns and the indeterminate effects of MSCs have resulted in the investigation of MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) due to their low immunogenicity and tumorigenicity. Over the past decades, soluble proteins, microRNAs, and organelles packaged in EVs have been identified as efficacious molecules to orchestrate nearby immune responses, which attenuate acute lung injury by facilitating pulmonary epithelium repair, reducing acute inflammation, and restoring pulmonary vascular leakage. Even though MSC-EVs possess similar bio-functional effects to their parental cells, there remains existing barriers to employing this alternative from bench to bedside. Here, we summarize the current established research in respect of molecular mechanisms of MSC-EV effects in ARDS and highlight the future challenges of MSC-EVs for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MR0321-545RRDOI Listing
May 2021

Thiazoline-related innate fear stimuli orchestrate hypothermia and anti-hypoxia via sensory TRPA1 activation.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2074. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Functional Neuroscience, Institute of Biomedical Science, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Thiazoline-related innate fear-eliciting compounds (tFOs) orchestrate hypothermia, hypometabolism, and anti-hypoxia, which enable survival in lethal hypoxic conditions. Here, we show that most of these effects are severely attenuated in transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (Trpa1) knockout mice. TFO-induced hypothermia involves the Trpa1-mediated trigeminal/vagal pathways and non-Trpa1 olfactory pathway. TFOs activate Trpa1-positive sensory pathways projecting from trigeminal and vagal ganglia to the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and their artificial activation induces hypothermia. TFO presentation activates the NTS-Parabrachial nucleus pathway to induce hypothermia and hypometabolism; this activation was suppressed in Trpa1 knockout mice. TRPA1 activation is insufficient to trigger tFO-mediated anti-hypoxic effects; Sp5/NTS activation is also necessary. Accordingly, we find a novel molecule that enables mice to survive in a lethal hypoxic condition ten times longer than known tFOs. Combinations of appropriate tFOs and TRPA1 command intrinsic physiological responses relevant to survival fate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22205-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024280PMC
April 2021

Melatonin Administration Accelerates Puberty Onset in Mice by Promoting FSH Synthesis.

Molecules 2021 Mar 9;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, National Center for International Research, Department of Hubei Province Engineering Research Center in Buffalo Breeding and Products, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Although melatonin has been extensively studied in animal reproduction, the mechanism of melatonin in puberty remains elusive. This study was designed to explore the effect of intraperitoneal administration of melatonin on puberty onset in female mice. The injection of melatonin into postnatal days 10 mice at a dose of 15 mg/kg accelerated the puberty onset in mice. Mechanistically, there was no difference in physical growth and serum Leptin levels after melatonin administration. Meanwhile, the serum levels of reproductive hormones involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, such as FSH and estrogen level in serum were increased. The mRNA levels of and were not affected by melatonin, while the expressions of in pituitary and in ovary were significantly up-regulated. In addition, melatonin still promoted FSH synthesis after ovariectomy. Furthermore, the enhanced activity of ERK1/2 signaling verified that the expression of increased in pituitary. We confirmed that melatonin promoted the FSH synthesis in pituitary, thereby increased serum estrogen levels and ultimately accelerated puberty onset. However, these effects of melatonin may be pharmacological due to the high dose. This study would help us to understand the functions of melatonin in pubertal regulation comprehensively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963190PMC
March 2021

Low-dose urokinase thrombolytic therapy for patients with acute intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(3):e0248603. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, The Shengli Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China.

Introduction: Patients at intermediate-high risk of developing a pulmonary embolism (PE) are very likely to experience adverse outcomes, such as cardiovascular instability and death. The role of thrombolytic therapy in intermediate-high-risk PE remains controversial.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of low-dose urokinase (UK) thrombolytic therapy for intermediate-high-risk PE.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study included 81 consecutive patients with intermediate-high-risk PE from two centers. Patients received low-dose UK or low-molecular-weight heparin (anticoagulant therapy group). The efficacy outcomes were mortality, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA)-confirmed absorption, and dyspnea. Safety was assessed as the incidence of bleedings.

Results: The in-hospital mortality, 9-month mortality, and long-term mortality at the last follow-up were comparable for the low-dose UK group and the anticoagulant therapy group (6.45% vs. 0%, p = 0.144, 9.68% vs. 8.16%, p = 0.815, and 12.90% vs. 12.24%, p = 0.931, respectively). CTPA-confirmed absorption at one month after admission was higher in the low-dose UK group than in the anticoagulant therapy group (p = 0.016). The incidences of short-term dyspnea at discharge and long-term dyspnea at the last follow-up were lower in the low-dose UK group than in the anticoagulant therapy group (27.59% vs. 52%, p = 0.035, 33.33% vs. 58.14%, p = 0.043, respectively). No major bleeding occurred. The incidence of minor bleeding was not significantly different between the two groups (3.23% vs. 6%, p = 0.974).

Conclusion: In intermediate-high-risk PE, a low-dose UK might increase CTPA-confirmed absorption and improve short-term and long-term dyspnea without affecting mortality or increasing the bleeding risk.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248603PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997002PMC
March 2021

Optimization of liver glycogen extraction when considering the fine molecular structure.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jun 3;261:117887. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Glycation and Diabetes Group, Mater Research Institute-The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Liver glycogen is a branched glucose polymer that functions as a blood-sugar buffer in animals. Previous studies have shown that glycogen's molecular structure affects its properties. This makes it important to develop a technique that extracts and purifies a representative sample of glycogen. Here we aim to optimize the sucrose density gradient centrifugation method for preserving glycogen's molecular structure by varying the density of the sucrose solution. The preservation of glycogen's structure involves: 1) minimizing molecular damage and 2) obtaining a structurally representative sample of glycogen. The addition of a 10-minute boiling step was also tested as a means for denaturing any glycogen degrading enzymes. Lower sucrose concentrations and the introduction of the boiling step were shown to be beneficial in obtaining a more structurally representative sample, with the preservation of smaller glycogen particles and decreased glycogen chain degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117887DOI Listing
June 2021

Sperm maturation, migration, and localization before and after copulation in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii).

Theriogenology 2021 May 6;166:83-89. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266071, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

Sebastes schlegelii is a typical viviparous teleost with six months sperm storage duration from November to April. In this study, spermatozoa morphological and physiological characteristics and sperm location in the female ovary were investigated by electron microscopy, computer-assisted sperm analyzer and histologic analysis, respectively. During copulation, we observed that spermatozoa in the testis had mature structure with rod-shaped head, a short midpiece, and a long flagellum. And further verified sperm swam freely at a high speed in the ovary fluid. After copulation, we only found swimming sperm in the ovary fluid at the early storage stage (November to December) and the majority of sperm were scattered randomly in the ovary cavity and partially concentrated in the crypt between the oocyte and stalk of follicle. Thereafter, the ovarian epithelium around the oocytes proliferated rapidly and wrapping spermatozoa outside of the follicular layer and formed a lot of crypts outside of the follicular layer which served as the sperm storage site until fertilization. The present findings would be useful for further understanding the mechanism of long-term sperm storage in viviparous teleost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2021.01.001DOI Listing
May 2021

The dynamic changes of glycogen molecular structure in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3).

Carbohydr Polym 2021 May 8;259:117773. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221000, Jiangsu Province, China; Department of Bioinformatics, School of Medical Informatics and Engineering, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221000, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Diurnal alteration of glycogen molecular structure has been identified in healthy mice. Recently, both fragile (disintegration in dimethyl sulfoxide) and stable (not disintegrating in DMSO) glycogen particles were found in Escherichia coli. However, how glycogen structure changes dynamically in E. coli is not clear. The question examined here is whether fragile, stable glycogen α particles occur in bacteria, following a similar pattern as in mice. In this study, we examine the dynamic changes of glycogen molecular structure over 24-h in E. coli BL21(DE3), using transmission electron microscopy, size exclusion chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis at representative time points. It was found that glycogen structure was mainly fragile at the synthesis stage and largely stable during the degradation stage. qRT-PCR results indicated that balance of anabolic and catabolic gene expression levels in glycogen metabolism could be a key factor affecting the fragility of glycogen α particles in bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117773DOI Listing
May 2021

Aloperine Relieves Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Enhancing GLUT4 Expression and Translocation.

Front Pharmacol 2020 25;11:561956. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China.

Aloperine (ALO), a quinolizidine alkaloid isolated from L. used in the traditional Uygur medicine, induced a significant increase in cellular glucose uptake of L6 cells, suggesting it has the potential to relieve hyperglycemia. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ALO on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through and studies. The translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and changes in intracellular Ca levels were real-time monitored in L6 cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope and related protein kinase inhibitors were used to explore the mechanism of action of ALO. Furthermore, high fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce T2DM in rats, and ALO was given to the stomach of T2DM rats for 4 weeks. results showed that ALO-induced enhancement of GLUT4 expression and translocation were mediated by G protein-PLC-PKC and PI3K/Akt pathways and ALO-enhanced intracellular Ca was involved in activating PKC G protein-PLC-IPR-Ca pathway, resulting in promoted GLUT4 plasma membrane fusion and subsequent glucose uptake. ALO treatment effectively ameliorated hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, alleviated hepatic steatosis, protected pancreatic islet function and activated GLUT4 expression in insulin target tissues of T2DM rats. These findings demonstrated that ALO deserves attention as a potential hypoglycemic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.561956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868325PMC
January 2021

Actin-like protein 6A/MYC/CDK2 axis confers high proliferative activity in triple-negative breast cancer.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Feb 4;40(1):56. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with high proliferative activity. TNBC tumors exhibit elevated MYC expression and altered expression of MYC regulatory genes, which are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis; however, the underlying mechanisms by which MYC retains its high expression and mediates TNBC tumorigenesis require further exploration.

Methods: ACTL6A regulation of MYC and its target gene, CDK2, was defined using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and ChIP assays. To study the role of ACTL6A in TNBC, we performed soft-agar, colony formation, flow cytometry and tumor formation in nude mice. CDK2 inhibitor and paclitaxel were used in testing combination therapy in vitro and in vivo.

Results: ACTL6A bound MYC to suppress glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β)-induced phosphorylation on MYC T58, which inhibited ubiquitination of MYC and stabilized it. Moreover, ACTL6A promoted the recruitment of MYC and histone acetyltransferase KAT5 on CDK2 promoters, leading to hyperactivation of CDK2 transcription. ACTL6A overexpression promoted, while silencing ACTL6A suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth in TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo, which was dependent on MYC signaling. Furthermore, co-therapy with paclitaxel and CDK2 inhibitor showed synergistic effects in tumor suppression. Notably, ACTL6A/MYC/CDK2 axis was specifically up-regulated in TNBC and high expression of ACTL6A was correlated to shorter survival in patients with TNBC.

Conclusions: These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which ACTL6A prolongs the retention of MYC in TNBC and suggest that pharmacological targeting ACTL6A/MYC/CDK2 axis might have therapeutic potential in patients with TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01856-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863242PMC
February 2021

Human activity vs. climate change: Distinguishing dominant drivers on LAI dynamics in karst region of southwest China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;769:144297. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux 5030, Belgium.

Understanding the impacts of climate change and human activities on vegetation is of great significance to the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystems. However, most studies focused on the overall impact over a period and rarely examined the time-lag effect of vegetation's response to climatic factors when exploring the driving mechanisms of vegetation dynamics. In this study, we identified key areas driven by either positive or negative human activities and climate change. Taking the three karst provinces of southwest China as the case study area, a Leaf Area Index (LAI)-climate model was constructed by quantifying the time-lag effect. Then the associated residual threshold was calculated to identify the vegetation change areas dominated by human activities and climate change. The results showed that, during the implementation period of ecological restoration projects from 1999 to 2015, positive impact areas of human activities were mainly distributed among the implementation areas of ecological restoration projects, accounting for 5.61% of the total area. For another, the negative impact areas were mainly distributed across the mountainous area of Yunnan Province, accounting for 1.30% of the total area. Karst landform had the greatest influence on the areas dominated by positive human activities, whereas both topography and karst landform significantly affected the areas dominated by negative human activities. Urban development level had the greatest impact on the areas dominated by climate change. The outcomes of this study provided scientific supports for the sustainable development of ecological restoration projects in China's karst region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144297DOI Listing
May 2021

Strain-Stabilized Metastable Face-Centered Tetragonal Gold Overlayer for Efficient CO Electroreduction.

Nano Lett 2021 Jan 7;21(2):1003-1010. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Catalytic Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, People's Republic of China.

Synthesis of the unconventional phase of noble metal nanocrystals may create new opportunities in exploring intriguing physicochemical properties but remains challenging. In the research field of thin film growth, the interface strain offers a general driving force to stabilize the metastable phase of epitaxial film. Herein we extend this concept to the field of noble metal nanocrystals and report the solution synthesis of metastable face-centered tetragonal Au that has not been discovered before. The successful synthesis relies on the formation of intermetallic [email protected] core-shell structure, where the interface strain stabilizes the metastable Au overlayer. Compared with the face-centered cubic Au counterpart, the metastable Au shows greatly improved catalytic activity toward CO reduction to CO. The density functional theory calculations and spectroscopic studies reveal that the metastable Au upshifts the -band center, which lowers the energy barrier of key intermediate COOH* formation and thus facilitates the reaction kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04051DOI Listing
January 2021

HOMER3 facilitates growth factor-mediated β-Catenin tyrosine phosphorylation and activation to promote metastasis in triple negative breast cancer.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 01 6;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China and Department of Experimental Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: HOMER family scaffolding proteins (HOMER1-3) play critical roles in the development and progression of human disease by regulating the assembly of signal transduction complexes in response to extrinsic stimuli. However, the role of HOMER protein in breast cancer remains unclear.

Methods: HOMER3 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer patient specimens, and its significance in prognosis was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The effects of HOMER3 in growth factor-induced β-Catenin activation were analyzed by assays such as TOP/FOP flash reporter, tyrosine phosphorylation assay and reciprocal immunoprecipitation (IP) assay. Role of HOMER3 in breast cancer metastasis was determined by cell function assays and mice tumor models.

Results: Herein, we find that, among the three HOMER proteins, HOMER3 is selectively overexpressed in the most aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, and significantly correlates with earlier tumor metastasis and shorter patient survival. Mechanismly, HOMER3 interacts with both c-Src and β-Catenin, thus providing a scaffolding platform to facilitate c-Src-induced β-Catenin tyrosine phosphorylation under growth factor stimulation. HOMER3 promotes β-Catenin nuclear translocation and activation, and this axis is clinically relevant. HOMER3 promotes and is essential for EGF-induced aggressiveness and metastasis of TNBC cells both in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusion: These findings identify a novel role of HOMER3 in the transduction of growth factor-mediated β-Catenin activation and suggest that HOMER3 might be a targetable vulnerability of TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-01021-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788750PMC
January 2021

Evaluating ecological effects of roadside slope restoration techniques: A global meta-analysis.

J Environ Manage 2021 Mar 29;281:111867. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Given the increase in infrastructure construction, ecological restoration techniques need to be scientifically assessed so that appropriate measures can be taken. However, the specific effects of these techniques are often confounded by multiple ecological stressors, and robust evaluations of their effects are rare. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of 68 peer-reviewed publications to quantitatively evaluate the ecological impacts of roadside slope restoration techniques and explored potential mechanisms using linear regression and random-forest models. We found that roadside slope restoration techniques generally enhanced restoration effectiveness, but the recovery rate differed over space and time. Relative to the degraded reference group, the synthetic technique (63.10%) and species selection (62.09%) had more positive impacts on restoring slopes than erosion control (44.82%), seed spraying (43.55%), and substrate amelioration (12.96%). Additionally, we found that vegetation condition, soil quality, and species diversity were negatively correlated with restoration time, implying that recovery might not be stable during early restoration periods. Our findings highlighted the importance of biodiversity for restoration success, but the negative relationship between species diversity, precipitation, and age highlighted the potential risks of losing biodiversity during restoration. Finally, the importance of soil substrate but difficulty in restoring it suggested that restoration actions should stress soil substrate amelioration. Generally, this study provides evidence-based references to support decision making and ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of future slope restoration efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111867DOI Listing
March 2021

Unveiling the Electrooxidation of Urea: Intramolecular Coupling of the N-N Bond.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 03 22;60(13):7297-7307. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Chem/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, P. R. China.

The nitrogenous nucleophile electrooxidation reaction (NOR) plays a vital role in the degradation and transformation of available nitrogen. Focusing on the NOR mediated by the β-Ni(OH) electrode, we decipher the transformation mechanism of the nitrogenous nucleophile. For the two-step NOR, proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the bridge between electrocatalytic dehydrogenation from β-Ni(OH) to β-Ni(OH)O, and the spontaneous nucleophile dehydrogenative oxidation reaction. This theory can give a good explanation for hydrazine and primary amine oxidation reactions, but is insufficient for the urea oxidation reaction (UOR). Through operando tracing of bond rupture and formation processes during the UOR, as well as theoretical calculations, we propose a possible UOR mechanism whereby intramolecular coupling of the N-N bond, accompanied by PCET, hydration and rearrangement processes, results in high performance and ca. 100 % N selectivity. These discoveries clarify the evolution of nitrogenous molecules during the NOR, and they elucidate fundamental aspects of electrocatalysis involving nitrogen-containing species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202015773DOI Listing
March 2021

Germline Specific Expression of a Homologue Gene in the Viviparous Fish Black Rockfish () and Functional Analysis of the 3 Untranslated Region.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 28;8:575788. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

The Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.

Germ cells play a key role in gonad development. As precursors, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are particularly important for germline formation. However, the origination and migration patterns of PGCs are poorly studied in marine fish, especially for viviparous economic species. The gene has been widely used as a germ cell marker to identify a germline because RNA is a component of germ plasm. In this study, we described the expression pattern of black rockfish () () in gonadal formation and development by hybridization. The results showed that failed in localization at the cleavage furrows until the late gastrula stage, when PGCs appeared and migrated to the genital ridge and formed elongated gonadal primordia at 10 days after birth. This study firstly revealed the PGCs origination and migration characteristics in viviparous marine fish. Furthermore, we microinjected chimeric mRNA containing EGFP and the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of into zebrafish () and marine medaka () fertilized eggs for tracing PGCs. We found that, although lacked early localization, similar to red seabream () and marine medaka, only the 3'UTR of 3'UTR of black rockfish was able to label both zebrafish and marine medaka PGCs. In comparison with other three Euteleostei species, besides some basal motifs, black rockfish had three specific motifs of M10, M12, and M19 just presented in zebrafish, which might play an important role in labeling zebrafish PGCs. These results will promote germ cell manipulation technology development and facilitate artificial reproduction regulation in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.575788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732447PMC
October 2020

High Plasticity of the Gut Microbiome and Muscle Metabolome of Chinese Mitten Crab () in Diverse Environments.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Feb;31(2):240-249

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Agriculture/National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education/Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Aquaculture, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, P.R. China.

Phenotypic plasticity is a rapid response mechanism that enables organisms to acclimate and survive in changing environments. The Chinese mitten crab () survives and thrives in different and even introduced habitats, thereby indicating its high phenotypic plasticity. However, the underpinnings of the high plasticity of have not been comprehensively investigated. In this study, we conducted an integrated gut microbiome and muscle metabolome analysis on collected from three different environments, namely, an artificial pond, Yangcheng Lake, and Yangtze River, to uncover the mechanism of its high phenotypic plasticity. Our study presents three divergent gut microbiotas and muscle metabolic profiles that corresponded to the three environments. The composition and diversity of the core gut microbiota (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, and Firmicutes) varied among the different environments while the metabolites associated with amino acids, fatty acids, and terpene compounds displayed significantly different concentration levels. The results revealed that the gut microbiome community and muscle metabolome were significantly affected by the habitat environments. Our findings indicate the high phenotypic plasticity in terms of gut microbiome and muscle metabolome of when it faces environmental changes, which would also facilitate its acclimation and adaptation to diverse and even introduced environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2011.11018DOI Listing
February 2021

Research on the Potential Mechanism of Gentiopicroside Against Gastric Cancer Based on Network Pharmacology.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 23;14:5109-5118. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Gastric cancer was still one of the commonly diagnosed cancer types and the third-most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Gentiopicroside, which is extracted from the , is commonly used in both traditional treatment and modern clinical care; therefore, its anticancer effects have been attracted more attention. However, the systematic analysis of action mechanism of Gentiopicroside on gastric cancer (GC) has not yet been carried out.

Aim: A network pharmacology-based strategy combined with molecular docking studies and in vitro validation was employed to investigate potential targets and molecular mechanism of Gentiopicroside against GC.

Materials And Methods: Potential targets of Gentiopicroside, as well as related genes of GC, were acquired from public databases. Potential targets, and signaling pathways were determined through bioinformatic analysis, including protein-protein interaction (PPI), the Gene Ontology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Subsequently, molecular docking and cell experiments were performed to further verify the above findings.

Results: Our findings revealed that the anticancer activity of Gentiopicroside potentially involves 53 putative identified target genes. In addition, GO, KEGG, and network analyses revealed that these targets were associated with cell proliferation, metabolic process, and other physiological processes. Furthermore, we have proved that critical compound affected the expression of CCND1, CCNE1, p-AKT and p-P38 at protein levels. These findings provide an overview of the anticancer action of Gentiopicroside from a network perspective; meanwhile, it might also set an example for future studies of other materials used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

Conclusion: This study comprehensively illuminated the potential targets and molecular mechanism of Gentiopicroside against GC. It also provided a promising approach to uncover the scientific basis and therapeutic mechanism of TCM treating for disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S270757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700081PMC
November 2020

Polyploidization is accompanied by synonymous codon usage bias in the chloroplast genomes of both cotton and wheat.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(11):e0242624. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaption, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) of both nuclear and organellar genes can mirror the evolutionary specialization of plants. The polyploidization process exposes the nucleus to genomic shock, a syndrome which promotes, among other genetic variants, SCUB. Its effect on organellar genes has not, however, been widely addressed. The present analysis targeted the chloroplast genomes of two leading polyploid crop species, namely cotton and bread wheat. The frequency of codons in the chloroplast genomes ending in either adenosine (NNA) or thymine (NNT) proved to be higher than those ending in either guanidine or cytosine (NNG or NNC), and this difference was conserved when comparisons were made between polyploid and diploid forms in both the cotton and wheat taxa. Preference for NNA/T codons was heterogeneous among genes with various numbers of introns and was also differential among the exons. SCUB patterns distinguished tetraploid cotton from its diploid progenitor species, as well as bread wheat from its diploid/tetraploid progenitor species, indicating that SCUB in the chloroplast genome partially mirrors the formation of polyploidies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242624PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676672PMC
January 2021

Physiological Characteristic Changes and Full-Length Transcriptome of Rose (Rosa chinensis) Roots and Leaves in Response to Drought Stress.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Feb;61(12):2153-2166

College of Landscape Architecture and Forestry, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109, China.

Rose (Rosa chinensis) is the most important ornamental crops worldwide. However, the physiological and molecular mechanism of rose under drought stress remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed the changes of photosynthetic and phytohormone levels in the leaves and roots of rose seedlings grown under control (no drought), mild drought (MD) and severe drought stress. The total chlorophyll content and water use efficiency were significantly enhanced under MD in rose leaves. In addition, the concentration of ABA was higher in the leaves compared to the roots, whereas the roots accumulated more IAA, methylindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-propionic acid. We also constructed the first full-length transcriptome for rose, and identified 96,201,862 full-length reads of average length 1,149 bp that included 65,789 novel transcripts. A total of 3,657 and 4,341 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in rose leaves and roots respectively. KEGG pathway analysis showed enrichment of plant hormone, signal transduction and photosynthesis are among the DEGs. 42,544 alternatively spliced isoforms were also identified, and alternative 3' splice site was the major alternative splicing (AS) event among the DEGs. Variations in the AS patterns of three genes between leaves and roots indicated the possibility of tissue-specific posttranscriptional regulation in response to drought stress. Furthermore, 2,410 novel long non-coding RNAs were detected that may participate in regulating the drought-induced DEGs. Our findings identified previously unknown splice sites and new genes in the rose transcriptome, and elucidated the drought stress-responsive genes as well as their intricate regulatory networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcaa137DOI Listing
February 2021

Glycogen Metabolism Impairment via Single Gene Mutation in the Operon Alters the Survival Rate of Under Various Environmental Stresses.

Front Microbiol 2020 25;11:588099. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide that is widely present in all life domains. It has been identified in many bacterial species and functions as an important energy storage compound. In addition, it plays important roles in bacterial transmission, pathogenicity, and environmental viability. There are five essential enzymes (coding genes) directly involved in bacterial glycogen metabolism, which forms a single operon with a suboperonic promoter in gene in . Currently, there is no comparative study of how the disruptions of the five glycogen metabolism genes influence bacterial phenotypes, such as growth rate, biofilm formation, and environmental survival, etc. In this study, we systematically and comparatively studied five single-gene mutants (Δ, Δ, Δ, Δ, Δ) in terms of glycogen metabolism and explored their phenotype changes with a focus on environmental stress endurance, such as nutrient deprivation, low temperature, desiccation, and oxidation, etc. Biofilm formation in wild-type and mutant strains was also compared. wild-type stores the highest glycogen content after around 20-h culture while disruption of degradation genes (, ) leads to continuous accumulation of glycogen. However, glycogen primary structure was abnormally changed in Δ and Δ. Meanwhile, increased accumulation of glycogen facilitates the growth of mutants but reduces glucose consumption in liquid culture and . Glycogen metabolism disruption also significantly and consistently increases biofilm formation in all the mutants. As for environmental stress endurance, glycogen over-accumulating mutants have enhanced starvation viability and reduced desiccation viability while all mutants showed decreased survival rate at low temperature. No consistent results were found for oxidative stress resistance in terms of glycogen metabolism disruptions, though Δ shows highest resistance toward oxidation with unknown mechanisms. In sum, single gene disruptions in operon significantly influence bacterial growth and glucose consumption during culture. Accumulation and structure of intracellular glycogen were also significantly altered. In addition, we observed significant changes in environmental viabilities due to the deletions of certain genes in the operon. Further investigations shall be focused on the molecular mechanisms behind these phenotype changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.588099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546213PMC
September 2020

Attitudes of Front-Line Nurses Toward Hospice Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2021 Feb 22;38(2):204-210. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Nursing, 66375Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the attitudes of front-line clinical nurses toward hospice care in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, to provide a source of reference for hospice care education and training in hospitals treating patients with COVID-19.

Method: Front-line nurses from a designated COVID-19 hospital in Wuhan, China, participated. Participants completed the Chinese versions of the General Information Questionnaire, the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale.

Results: A total of 149 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The median total hospice care attitudes score was median 102.00(interquartile range, 95.5-120.50). The nurses' attitudes toward hospice care were significantly associated with their age, knowledge of hospice care, level of empathy, and self-efficacy.

Conclusion: The attitudes of front-line nurses toward hospice care need to be improved. Hospital departments should establish an effective public health emergency strategy, provide training to increase front-line nurses' knowledge and practical experience of hospice care, cultivate nurses' empathy, and enhance their sense of self-efficacy, in order to improve the quality of hospice care for patients and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049909120968533DOI Listing
February 2021

Factors contributing to glycemic control in diabetes mellitus patients complying with home quarantine during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Dec 15;170:108514. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Aims: This study assessed factors contributing to glycemic control among diabetes mellitus patients complying with home quarantine during the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study by telephone with 1159 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 96 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who were discharged from the endocrinology department of a hospital from January 1, 2019, to January 24, 2020. According to their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-h postprandial BG (2hPBG) values, the patients were divided into the well-controlled BG group and the poorly controlled BG group. The main evaluation indicators included sociodemographic variables, health risk variables and adherence to self-management behaviors.

Results: In total, 74.46% of the T2DM patients and 64.89% of the T1DM patients had poor glycemic control. T2DM patients with poor glycemic control were more likely to be older (odds ratio (OR): 1.017 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003-1.030]; P = 0.013), have fewer than 12 years of education (OR: 1.646 [95% CI 1.202-2.255]; P = 0.002), lack a BG meter at home (OR: 2.728 [95% CI 1.205-6.179]; P = 0.016), have a lower degree of medicationcompliance (OR: 1.627 [95% CI 1.076-2.460]; P = 0.021), and engage in less self-monitoring of BG (SMBG) per week (OR: 10.884 [95% CI 5.883-20.139]; P < 0.001). Fewer than 12 years of education (OR: 3.031 [95% CI 1.112-8.263]; P = 0.030) was a risk factor for glycemic control in T1DM.

Conclusions: Glycemic control among patients with T1DM and T2DM during home quarantine amid the COVID-19 pandemic is poor. Our results showed that more eduction, a higher frequency of SMBG, and improved medication compliance may contribute to glycemic control. Therefore, diabetic patients should be advised to increase the frequency of blood glucose measurements during home quarantine and be re-educated regarding the importance of medication compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558228PMC
December 2020

A mouse model reveals the events and underlying regulatory signals during the gonadotrophin-dependent phase of follicle development.

Mol Hum Reprod 2020 12;26(12):920-937

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China.

During folliculogenesis, the gonadotrophin (GTH)-dependent phase begins at the small antral follicle stage and ends with Graafian follicles. In this study, pregnant mare's serum GTH was used to induce GTH-dependent folliculogenesis in mice, following which the developmental events that follicles undergo, as well as the underlying regulatory signals, were investigated at both the morphological and transcriptomic level. GTH-dependent folliculogenesis consisted of three phases: preparation, rapid growth and decelerated growth. In the preparation phase, comprising the first 12 h, granulosa cells completed the preparations for proliferation and differentiation, shifted energy metabolism to glycolysis, and reduced protein synthesis and processing. The rapid growth phase lasted from 12 to 24 h; in this phase, granulosa cells completed their proliferation, and follicles acquired the capacity for estradiol secretion and ovulation. Meanwhile, the decelerating growth phase occurred between 24 and 48 h of GTH-dependent folliculogenesis. In this phase, the proliferation and expansion of the follicular antrum were reduced, energy metabolism was shifted to oxidative phosphorylation, and cell migration and lipid metabolism were enhanced in preparation for luteinization. We also revealed the key signaling pathways that regulate GTH-dependent folliculogenesis and elucidated the activation sequence of these pathways. A comparison of our RNA-sequencing data with that reported for humans suggested that the mechanisms involved in mouse and human folliculogenesis are evolutionarily conserved. In this study, we draw a detailed atlas of GTH-dependent folliculogenesis, thereby laying the foundation for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gaaa069DOI Listing
December 2020

Transcriptome profiling to identify tepal cell enlargement and pigmentation genes and the function of LtEXLB1 in Lilium tsingtauense.

Funct Plant Biol 2021 02;48(3):241-256

College of Landscape Architecture and Forestry, Qingdao Agricultural University, 700 Changcheng Road, ChengYang District, Qingdao 266109, PR China; and Corresponding author. Email:

To understand the molecular mechanism underlying tepal development and pigmentation in Lilium tsingtauense Gilg, we performed whole-transcriptome profiles from closed buds at the greenish tepal stage (CBS), the full-bloom with un-horizontal tepal stage (UFS), and the completely opened bud with reflected tepal stage (RFS) of L. tsingtauense. More than 95699 transcripts were generated using a de novo assembly approach. Gene ontology and pathway analysis of the assembled transcripts revealed carbon metabolism is involved in tepal development and pigmentation. In total, 8171 differentially expression genes (DEGs) in three tepal stages were identified. Among these DEGs, ~994 genes putatively encoded transcription factors (TFs), whereas 693 putatively encoded protein kinases. Regarding hormone pathways, 51 DEGs involved in auxin biosynthesis and signalling and 10 DEGs involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling. We also isolated seven LtEXPANSINs, including four EXPAs, one EXPB, one EXLA and one EXLB. LtEXLB1 (GenBank: MN856627) was expressed at higher levels in UFS and RFS, compared with CBS. Silencing LtEXLB1 in leaf discs and tepals by virus-induced gene silencing significantly decreased cell expansion under rehydration conditions. Further analysis revealed that more cell numbers were existed in the abaxial and adaxial subepidermis in the silenced LtEXLB1 samples. As the first transcriptome of L. tsingtauense, the unigenes are a valuable resource for future studies on tepal development, and LtEXLB1 functions in cell expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP20253DOI Listing
February 2021

Anther and ovule development of Clematis serratifolia (Ranunculaceae)-with new formation types in megaspore and nucellus.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(10):e0240432. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

College of Landscape Architecture and Forestry, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, PR. China.

Morphological indices of vegetative organs or reproductive organs, which are often used to analyze the evolution and classify Clematis, indicate that Clematis serratifolia and C. glauca could be related members at similar evolutionary levels. However, this assumption differs with phylogenetic studies based on genetics. Embryonic characteristics, which are more stable, are commonly used to estimate the phylogeny and evolution of angiosperms. We studied the microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, megasporogenesis and macrogametogenesis development of C. serratifolia, and compared the early embryological characteristics among C. serratifolia, C. serratifolia and other Clematis species reported to provide a reference for the taxonomy of the genus Clematis. Our results showed that C. serratifolia and C. glauca differ in megaspore formation and nucellus types suggesting that they have originated from different ancestors. The differences among Clematis were mainly found in the type of the anther wall development, tapetum, pollen grains, megaspore formation and nucellus types.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240432PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561163PMC
December 2020