Publications by authors named "Qing-Yan Shu"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A comprehensive study of three species of Paeonia stem and leaf phytochemicals, and their antioxidant activities.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 2;273:113985. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources/Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Paeonia plants have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicinal materials for more than 2,000 years in the treatment of cardiovascular, extravasated blood and female genital diseases; paeoniflorin and paeonol have been implicated as the plants' primary active ingredients.

Aim Of The Study: Previous studies have been singularly focused on the chemical constituents and content variation of the Paeonia roots in the advancement of traditional Chinese medicine, with the plants' stems and leaves considered useless. This study aims to explore the chemical constituents, content variation, and antioxidant capacity in Paeonia stems and leaves for the future utilization of traditional Chinese medicine, given that current practices of digging and trade endanger Paeonia in the wild.

Materials And Methods: Herein, secondary metabolites from the stems and leaves from six developmental stages of the annual growth cycle of Paeonia ostii T. Hong & J. X. Zhang, P. 'Hexie', and P. lactiflora Pall. were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Antioxidant capacity at each stage was also evaluated by various free radical scavenging assays.

Results: A total of 24 metabolites were detected and identified, including 5 monoterpene glycosides, 4 tannins, 5 phenols, 9 flavonoids, and paeonol. Excepting paeonol and the phenols, the levels of each metabolite category were significantly higher in the leaves than the stems during all developmental stages. The paeoniflorin content in the P. ostii leaves was the highest during the first developmental stage and higher than the standards of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, suggesting it to be the optimal harvesting stage for medicinal uses. Notably, the antioxidant capacity of the leaves was significantly greater than in the stems, particularly for the leaves of P. 'Hexie'.

Conclusion: Our study indicates that the leaves of P. 'Hexie' have the potential to be a worthy medicinal substitute to Paeonia roots due to their high monoterpene glycosides, phenols, and flavonoids as well as their strong antioxidant capacity. Further, this study provides a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of non-root Paeonia plant sections as medicinal plant resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113985DOI Listing
June 2021

Ecotopic over-expression of PoCHS from Paeonia ostii altered the fatty acids composition and content in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Physiol Plant 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources/Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and has been studied in many plants, but the function of the CHS gene has not been well characterized in Paeonia ostii. In this study, we obtained a CHS homolog gene from P. ostii, which possessed the putative conserved amino acids of chalcone synthase by multiple alignment analysis and demonstrated the highest expression in developing seeds. In vitro assays of the recombinant PoCHS protein confirmed enzymatic activity using malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA as substrates, and the optimal pH and reaction temperature were 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. Furthermore, ectopic over-expression of PoCHS in Arabidopsis up-regulated the expression levels of genes involved in seed development (ABI), glycolysis (PKp2, PDH-E1a, and SUS2/3), and especially fatty acid biosynthesis (BCCP2, CAC2, CDS2, FatA, and FAD3). This resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid content, especially α-linolenic acid, in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, we examined the functions of CHS homolog of P. ostii and demonstrated its new function in seed fatty acid biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13293DOI Listing
November 2020

Fatty Acid Composition, Phytochemistry, Antioxidant Activity on Seed Coat and Kernel of from Main Geographic Production Areas.

Foods 2019 Dec 28;9(1). Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

is an important woody oil plant cultivated in China on a large scale. Its seed oil is enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and a high content of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which are beneficial to human health. The aim of this research is to determine the qualitative traits characteristic of seed from various production areas in China. In this study, seed quality traits were evaluated on the basis of proximate composition, content of fatty acids, tocopherol, secondary metabolites, and the antioxidant activity of seed coat (PSC) and kernel (PSK). A high content of total fatty acids (298.89-399.34 mg g), crude protein (16.91%-22.73%), and total tocopherols (167.83-276.70 μg g) were obtained from PSK. Significant differences were found in the content of palmitic acids (11.31-14.27 mg g), stearic acids (2.42-4.24 mg g), oleic acids (111.25-157.63 mg g), linoleic acids (54.39-83.59 mg g), and ALA (99.85-144.71 mg g) in the 11 main production areas. Eight and seventeen compounds were detected in PSC and PSK, respectively. A significantly higher content of total phenols was observed in PSC (139.49 mg g) compared with PSK (3.04 mg g), which was positively related to antioxidant activity. This study indicates that seeds of would be a good source of valuable oil and provides a basis for seed quality evaluation for the production of edible oil and potential ALA supplements from the promising woody oil plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9010030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022864PMC
December 2019

Fatty acid desaturase 3 (PsFAD3) from Paeonia suffruticosa reveals high α-linolenic acid accumulation.

Plant Sci 2018 Sep 29;274:212-222. Epub 2018 May 29.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

α-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed ω6: ω3 fatty acid ratio in the diet are thought to be a major cause for the high incidence of cardiovascular, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. Recent years, tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) with the high proportion of ALA (more than 45% in seed oil) is widely concerned. However, the underlying accumulation mechanism of the ALA in tree peony seeds remains unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed between two cultivars ('Saiguifei' and 'Jingshenhuanfa') with different ALA contents. The analysis of the metabolic enzymes associated with ALA biosynthesis and temporal accumulation patterns of unsaturated fatty acids demonstrated the importance of microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3). Moreover, PsFAD3 gene was identified from tree peony seeds, which was located in endoplasmic reticulum and the expression levels of PsFAD3 were consistent with ALA accumulation patterns in seeds. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the isolated PsFAD3 protein could catalyze ALA synthesis. These results indicated that PsFAD3 was involved in the synthesis of ALA in seeds and could be exploited by the genetic breeding of new cultivars with high ALA content in tree peony as well as other potential crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.05.027DOI Listing
September 2018

Identification of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs involved in fatty acid biosynthesis in tree peony seeds.

Gene 2018 Aug 5;666:72-82. Epub 2018 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as important molecular regulators in a wide range of biological processes during plant development and seed formation, including oil production. Tree peony seeds contain >90% unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and high proportions of α-linolenic acid (ALA, > 40%). To dissect the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) pathway involved in fatty acids synthesis in tree peony seeds, we construct six small RNA libraries and six transcriptome libraries from developing seeds of two cultivars (J and S) containing different content of fatty acid compositions. After deep sequencing the RNA libraries, the ncRNA expression profiles of tree peony seeds in two cultivars were systematically and comparatively analyzed. A total of 318 known and 153 new miRNAs and 22,430 lncRNAs were identified, among which 106 conserved and 9 novel miRNAs and 2785 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the two cultivars. In addition, potential target genes of the microRNA and lncRNAs were also predicted and annotated. Among them, 9 miRNAs and 39 lncRNAs were predicted to target lipid related genes. Results showed that all of miR414, miR156b, miR2673b, miR7826, novel-m0027-5p, TR24651|c0_g1, TR24544|c0_g15, and TR27305|c0_g1 were up-regulated and expressed at a higher level in high-ALA cultivar J when compared to low-ALA cultivar S, suggesting that these ncRNAs and target genes are possibly involved in different fatty acid synthesis and lipid metabolism through post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a better understanding of the roles of ncRNAs during fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism in tree peony seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.05.011DOI Listing
August 2018

Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation.

Sci Rep 2016 Jan 12;6:19245. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources/Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep19245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4709722PMC
January 2016

Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia.

J Exp Bot 2015 Nov 23;66(21):6563-77. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources/ Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, PR China

Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623676PMC
November 2015

Fatty acid composition of developing tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) seeds and transcriptome analysis during seed development.

BMC Genomics 2015 Mar 18;16:208. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.

Background: Tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) is known for its excellent ornamental and medicinal values. In 2011, seeds from P. ostii have been identified as novel resource of α-linolenic acid (ALA) for seed oil production and development in China. However, the molecular mechanism on biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in tree peony seeds remains unknown. Therefore, transcriptome data is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms.

Results: In this study, lipid accumulation contents were measured using GC-MS methods across developing tree peony seeds, which exhibited an extraordinary ALA content (49.3%) in P. ostii mature seeds. Transcriptome analysis was performed using Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 144 million 100-bp paired-end reads were generated from six libraries, which identified 175,874 contigs. In the KEGG Orthology enrichment of differentially expressed genes, lipid metabolism pathways were highly represented categories. Using this data we identified 388 unigenes that may be involved in de novo fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis. In particular, three unigenes (SAD, FAD2 and FAD8) encoding fatty acid desaturase with high expression levels in the fast oil accumulation stage compared with the initial stage of seed development were identified.

Conclusions: This study provides the first comprehensive genomic resources characterizing tree peony seeds gene expression at the transcriptional level. These data lay the foundation for further understanding of molecular mechanism responsible for lipid biosynthesis and the high unsaturated fatty acids (especially ALA) accumulation. Meanwhile, it provides theoretical base for potential oilseed application in the respect of n-6 to n-3 ratio for human diets and future regulation of target healthy components of oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1429-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4404109PMC
March 2015

Multipoint-likelihood maximization mapping on 4 segregating populations to achieve an integrated framework map for QTL analysis in pot azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids).

BMC Mol Biol 2010 Jan 13;11. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Caritasstraat 21, 9090 Melle, Belgium.

Background: Azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) is the most important flowering pot plant produced in Belgium, being exported world-wide. In the breeding program, flower color is the main feature for selection, only in later stages cultivation related plant quality traits are evaluated. As a result, plants with attractive flowering are kept too long in the breeding cycle. The inheritance of flower color has been well studied; information on the heritability of cultivation related quality traits is lacking. For this purpose, QTL mapping in diverse genetic backgrounds appeared to be a must and therefore 4 mapping populations were made and analyzed.

Results: An integrated framework map on four individual linkage maps in Rhododendron simsii hybrids was constructed. For genotyping, mainly dominant scored AFLP (on average 364 per population) and MYB-based markers (15) were combined with co-dominant SSR (23) and EST markers (12). Linkage groups were estimated in JoinMap. A consensus grouping for the 4 mapping populations was made and applied in each individual mapping population. Finally, 16 stable linkage groups were set for the 4 populations; the azalea chromosome number being 13. A combination of regression mapping (JoinMap) and multipoint-likelihood maximization (Carthagène) enabled the construction of 4 maps and their alignment. A large portion of loci (43%) was common to at least two populations and could therefore serve as bridging markers. The different steps taken for map optimization and integration into a reference framework map for QTL mapping are discussed.

Conclusions: This is the first map of azalea up to our knowledge. AFLP and SSR markers are used as a reference backbone and functional markers (EST and MYB) were added as candidate genes for QTL analysis. The alignment of the 4 maps on the basis of framework markers will facilitate in turn the alignment of QTL regions detected in each of the populations. The approach we took is thoroughly different than the recently published integrated maps and well-suited for mapping in a non-model crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2199-11-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2837023PMC
January 2010

Determination of anthocyanins and exploration of relationship between their composition and petal coloration in crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia hybrid).

J Integr Plant Biol 2008 May;50(5):581-8

College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Petal coloration and pigment components in 12 American crape myrtle cultivars (Lagerstroemia indicaxLagerstroemia fauriei) and five Chinese crape myrtle cultivars (L. indica hybrids) were studied. Color was measured by CIEL*a*b* scale and anthocyanin composition of crape myrtle was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The presence of the previously reported delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were confirmed. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was identified in crape myrtle for the first time. We explored the relationship between petal color and anthocyanin contents by multiple linear regression analyses. The results indicated that total flavones and flavonols were important variables and contributed to blue-enhancing in crape myrtle. Based on anthocyanins and co-pigments analysis, flower color breeding in crape myrtle towards true-red and blue were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00649.xDOI Listing
May 2008

Studies on Paeonia cultivars and hybrids identification based on SRAP analysis.

Hereditas 2008 Feb;145(1):38-47

Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Haidian District, Beijing, PR China.

Plants of Paeonia are valuable for their ornamental and medicinal values. Genetic relations and hybrids identification among different sections of Paeonia were studied using sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. A total of 29 cultivars including 2 intersectional hybrids, 13 sect. Moutan and 14 from sect. Paeonia were used. A total of 197 bands were produced using 24 primer combinations, among which 187 bands showed polymorphism. From the bands amplified, we can identify the peony cultivars using unique SRAP markers and specific primer combinations. Fourteen peony cultivars were distinguished among each other by using totally 35 SRAP markers, which were generated by 16 primer pairs. Two specific primer pairs of Me8/Em8 and Me8/Em1 can be used to identify cultivars from different sections. The mean genetic similarity coefficient (GS), the gene diversity (GD), and the Shannon's information index of peony cultivars were 0.45, 0.19 and 0.32, respectively. Both UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average) dendrogram and PCA (principle component analysis) analysis showed clear genetic relationships among the 29 peony cultivars, and within section and its intersectional hybrids. The above results are valuable for estimating and analyzing genetic background of Paeonia, parent selection in crossing breeding programs, molecular marker assisted selection (MAS) breeding for further germplasm innovation programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0018-0661.2008.2013.xDOI Listing
February 2008

Molecular characterization of tree peony germplasm using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

Biochem Genet 2008 Apr 26;46(3-4):162-79. Epub 2008 Jan 26.

Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxin Cun, Xiangshan, Haidian District, Beijing, 100093, P.R. China.

This study examined 63 tree peony specimens, consisting of 3 wild species and 63 cultivars, using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers for the purpose of detecting genomic polymorphisms. Bulk DNA samples from each specimen were evaluated with 23 SRAP primer pairs. Among the 296 different amplicons, 262 were polymorphic. The maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average trees were largely in congruence. In the three trees, the wild species Paeonia ludlowii and P. delavayi formed separate clusters with strong bootstrap support, and P. ostii was closely related to all cultivars. The cultivars were divided into groups with various corresponding bootstrap values. The genetic similarity among the genotypes ranged from 0.02 to 0.73. These results demonstrate that SRAP markers are effective in detecting genomic polymorphisms in the tree peony and should be useful for linkage map construction and molecular marker assisted selection breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-007-9140-8DOI Listing
April 2008