Publications by authors named "Qing-Qing Cao"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Optimization of brewing conditions for Tieguanyin oolong tea by quadratic orthogonal regression design.

NPJ Sci Food 2022 Apr 25;6(1):25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Tea Research Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, 9 South Meiling Road, 310008, Hangzhou, China.

Tieguanyin is one of the most consumed oolong teas because of its distinctive flavor. The brewing process is crucial for the flavor performance of traditional teas, thus the effects of brewing conditions, including water/tea ratio (R), brewing temperature (T), and time (S) on the sensory traits, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of Tieguanyin tea infusion were investigated using quadratic orthogonal regression design. Results showed that R affected all the quality variables most, its reduction could lead to the promotion of tea infusion concentration, antioxidant activity, and taste intensity, which was favored by the tea consumers drinking tea almost daily (DTD) but unacceptable for those drinking tea hardly (DTH). Based on the optimization of brewing conditions in response surface methodology (RSM), we recommended several brewing schemes for diverse consume goals: R = 34 mL/g, T = 80 °C, S = 80 s for DTH; R = 39 mL/g, T = 100 °C, S = 127 s for DTO (the consumers drinking tea occasionally); R = 20 mL/g, T = 100 °C, S = 100 s for DTD; R = 26 mL/g, T = 100 °C and S = 127 s for the common consumers seeking for flavor and health benefits. These results would be helpful for tea consumers with multiple demands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41538-022-00141-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9038793PMC
April 2022

A targeted and nontargeted metabolomics study on the oral processing of epicatechins from green tea.

Food Chem 2022 Jun 11;378:132129. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Tea Research Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, 9 South Meiling Road, Hangzhou 310008, China. Electronic address:

Oral processing (OP), referring to the whole process of food digestion in human mouth, has a major influence on food flavor perception. This study focused on the compositional changes of the four green tea epicatechins (viz., EC, EGC, ECG, EGCG) during OP, based on targeted and nontargeted metabolomics. It was found that the four epicatechins were all extensively lost through transformation undergoing OP, among which EC was the most stable one, whereas EGCG the least. EGCG was further revealed to be susceptible to human oral cavity in the simulated OP in vitro. It could be converted physically by precipitating with mucin in saliva, and chemically through hydrolysis and dimerization, mediated mainly by the neutral pH condition. The OP of epicatechins also caused salivary composition changes possibly involving health benefits of green tea. These findings could raise awareness of the interactions between epicatechins, or any other food materials, with human mouth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132129DOI Listing
June 2022

Sensory and chemical characteristics of oolong tea after roasting.

Food Chem X 2021 Dec 2;12:100178. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Tea Research Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, 9 South Meiling Road, Hangzhou 310008, China.

Roasting, a critical process for oolong tea, has been applied to tea to improve flavor attributes. To investigate the effects of the roasting on the flavor of , the global metabolomics analysis on the non-volatile and volatile components were proceeded. The weakening of bitterness and astringency, caused by roasting, may be attributed to the decreasing of flavonoids glycosides and procyanidins, whereas the enhancing of sweet aftertaste to the increasing of gallic acid. Besides, l-theanine flavan-3-ols adducts (-ehtyl-2-pyrrolidinone substituted flavan-3-ols) increased dramatically at 130 °C compared with 105 °C, with the reduction of l-theanine and flavan-3-ols. Meanwhile, high temperature hampered the volatiles' diversity and intensity, resulting from the lowering of floral volatiles, i.e., β-ionone, jasmine, and nerolidol, yet the nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds increased, e.g., pyrroles and pyrazines. The results can help to comprehensively understand the influences of roasting technology on the flavor and chemistry of oolong tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fochx.2021.100178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8651997PMC
December 2021

Anticoagulant treatment for pulmonary embolism in patient with cerebral hemorrhage secondary to mechanical thrombectomy: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Nov;9(33):10279-10285

Department of Neurology, Bishan Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 402760, China.

Background: Cerebral hemorrhage secondary to cerebral embolism after mechanical thrombectomy is characterized by high morbidity, disability and mortality. If the patient also has severe pulmonary embolism (PE) at the same time, the treatment becomes more complex. This report describes the treatment strategy for a patient with PE and cerebral hemorrhage secondary to cerebral embolism after mechanical thrombectomy.

Case Summary: A 70-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with right-sided hemiplegia and mixed aphasia of 2.5 h duration. She was diagnosed with left cerebral embolism, left internal carotid artery occlusion, PE and left calf intramuscular vein thrombosis. Following mechanical thrombectomy, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebral infarction with basal ganglia hemorrhage. We observed changes in cerebral hemorrhage on serial monitoring of brain computed tomography and adjusted the dose of anticoagulant drugs. After 3 wk of treatment, the patient's neurological and respiratory symptoms significantly improved, and a favorable prognosis was obtained.

Conclusion: Anticoagulation could be a potential option for PE accompanied by hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i33.10279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8638063PMC
November 2021

Effects of brewing water on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of tea infusions.

Food Chem 2021 Dec 20;364:130235. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Tea Research Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, 9 South Meiling Road, Hangzhou 310008, China. Electronic address:

The effects of brewing water on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of tea infusions made from Chinese teas were investigated. The tea infusions brewed in water with higher pH and total dissolved solids (TDS), generally had a darker color and lower overall sensory acceptability. Moreover, those infusions had less catechins, particularly galloylated-catechins, and lower antioxidant capacity. The teas with less fermentation contained more galloylated-catechins and had higher antioxidant capacity, but were much more susceptible to high mineral brewing water. Green tea was proved to be the most susceptible one, whereas dark tea the most stable one. Green tea infusions prepared with higher pH/TDS water were more rapidly oxidized, resulting in a darker color due to polymerization of catechins, when exposed to the air. These findings suggested that low mineral brewing water was better for Chinese tea, both from the sensory and health benefit perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130235DOI Listing
December 2021

Combined treatment with acetazolamide and cisplatin enhances the chemosensitivity of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma TU868 cells.

Arch Oral Biol 2020 Nov 9;119:104905. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

ENT Department, the Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 250013, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: To investigate whether combination of acetazolamide and cisplatin can enhance the chemosensitivity of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line TU868.

Methods: MTT assay was performed to determine the effect of acetazolamide, cisplatin and their combination on the proliferation of TU868 cells. Then the effect of these 2 drugs on the expression of proliferation-related and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by Western blot. Moreover, the effect of acetazolamide and cisplatin on the expression of aquaporin-1 was detected by RT-qPCR. Loss-of-function assays was performed to assess whether the effect of acetazolamide and cisplatin on TU868 cells was mediated by aquaporin-1. The effect of acetazolamide and cisplatin on tumor cell growth was confirmed in mice by testing the tumor growth size.

Results: Acetazolamide and cisplatin treatment displayed synergistic effects on the inhibition of TU868 cell growth compared with the drugs used alone. Moreover, the acetazolamide/cisplatin combination could decrease the level of PCNA but increase the level of p53; decrease the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increase the expression of caspase-3 compared with the single drug treated group. Moreover, we found that the combination also significantly inhibits aquaporin-1 expression. Loss-of-function assays suggested that the anti-tumor effect of these 2 drugs was achieved via affecting aquaporin-1. Consistent with the in vitro assays, combined treatment with acetazolamide and cisplatin significantly inhibits the tumor growth in mice compared with the single drug treated group.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that combined treatment with acetazolamide and cisplatin could synergistically inhibit the malignant development of HNSCC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104905DOI Listing
November 2020

A predictive model for astringency based on in vitro interactions between salivary proteins and (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 26;340:127845. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Tea Research Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 9 South Meiling Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310008, China. Electronic address:

Astringency is an important quality attribute of green tea infusion, and (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main contributor to astringency. Turbidity was used to predict the intensity of astringency for EGCG. The interactions between the selected proteins and EGCG, and the impacts of temperature, pH, protein structure, and EGCG concentration were studied. Mucin was selected as the protein in study for the prediction of EGCG astringency intensity. A predictive model (R = 0.994) was developed based on the relationship between the astringency of EGCG and the turbidity of EGCG/mucin mixtures at pH 5.0 and 37 °C. The fluorescence quenching analyses showed the interactions between EGCG and the selected proteins, which induced the reversible protein molecule conformational changes. The interactions were considered as the main reason that causes the astringency of tea infusions. The results provided a biochemical approach to explore the sensory qualities of green tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127845DOI Listing
March 2021

Chromatin modified protein 4C (CHMP4C) facilitates the malignant development of cervical cancer cells.

FEBS Open Bio 2020 07 30;10(7):1295-1303. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinan Eighth People's Hospital, Shandong, China.

Despite improvements in prevention and treatment, cervical cancer (CC) still poses a serious threat to women's health. CHMP4C (chromatin modified protein 4C) is a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport, which is expressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Here, we examined the effect of CHMP4C on the biological behavior of CC cells and the underlying mechanisms. We report that CHMP4C expression is higher in CC tissues, and high CHMP4C expression is associated with lower survival. Up-regulation of CHMP4C in C-33A cells accelerates cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas down-regulation of CHMP4C in Ca Ski cells had the opposite effect. Moreover, overexpression of CHMP4C induced activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway, whereas depletion of CHMP4C inhibited activation. Our results suggest that CHMP4C contributes to the viability and motility of CC cells by modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and may facilitate the identification of novel biomarkers for CC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327912PMC
July 2020

Improving the taste of autumn green tea with tannase.

Food Chem 2019 Mar 2;277:432-437. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Tea Research Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, 9 South Meiling Road, Hangzhou 310008, China. Electronic address:

Green tea processed from autumn leaves is more bitter and astringent than that from spring leaves, mainly due to gallated catechins. The present study aimed to improve the taste of autumn green tea and green tea infusion by using tannase to treat tea leaves and tea infusion. The results showed that, after hydrolysis, the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability improved, and the ratio of gallated catechins decreased, as did the bitterness and astringency of the autumn green tea. The pH value was significantly correlated with the concentrations of gallated catechins (r = 0.930, p < 0.01), non-gallated catechins (r = -0.893, p < 0.01), and gallic acid (r = 0.915, p < 0.01), as well as with the intensities of bitterness, astringency, and sweet aftertaste during hydrolysis. Gallic acid contributed to the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion. These results will help to improve autumn green tea products with tannase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.146DOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of the Akt inhibitor Src-homology 5 on proliferation and apoptosis of the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Jan;14(1):208-212

Department of Otolaryngology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250000, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Akt inhibitor Src-homology 5 (SH-5) on the proliferation and apoptosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells (LSCC; Hep-2 cells) and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of such effects.

Materials And Methods: Hep-2 cells were treated with different concentrations of the Akt inhibitor SH-5. The inhibitory effect of SH-5 on cell proliferation was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, whereas apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric based on Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. In addition, the expression level of Akt protein was evaluated by Western blot analysis.

Results: MTT assay results revealed that SH-5 inhibited the proliferation of Hep-2 cells, with its greatest effect being observed at 2 μM. Apoptosis of Hep-2 cells increased following treatment with SH-5. Treatment of Hep-2 cells with SH-5 decreased the expression of Akt, and this effect was statistically significantly when compared with that in controls (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: SH-5 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in the LSCC cell line Hep-2. These effects may be caused by inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway. We believe that our data will provide useful insights into LSCC target treatment and future researchn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.199454DOI Listing
January 2018

A UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of five flavonoids from Stellera chamaejasme L. in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

Biomed Chromatogr 2018 Jun 12;32(6):e4189. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Stellera chamaejasme L. has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of scabies, tinea, stubborn skin ulcers, chronic tracheitis, cancer and tuberculosis. A sensitive and selective ultra-high liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of five flavonoids (stelleranol, chamaechromone, neochamaejasmin A, chamaejasmine and isochamaejasmin) of S. chamaejasme L. in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.7 μm) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and the total analysis time was 7 min. The analytes were detected using multiple reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated for specificity, linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, recovery, matrix effect and stability. The validated method exhibited good linearity (r ≥ 0.9956), and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.51 to 0.64 ng/mL for five flavonoids. The intra- and inter-day precision were both <10.2%, and the accuracy ranged from -11.79 to 9.21%. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of five flavonoids in rats after oral administration of ethyl acetate extract of S. chamaejasme L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4189DOI Listing
June 2018

[Study on the current status and influential factors of neglect of left-behind children in rural area of Anhui province].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2011 Dec;32(12):1212-5

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Objective: To understand the status and influential factors of those neglect of left-behind children in rural area, and to provide bases for the development of intervention measures.

Methods: 2917 students were selected as the study subjects from Changfeng county of Anhui province with cluster sampling method and were evaluated by a Parents-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and questionnaire on influential factors.

Results: 1694 left-behind children, accounted for 58.1% of the total students, were surveyed in this investigation. The prevalence rates of neglect, among total children, left-behind children, non-left-behind children were 67.4%, 70.2%, 63.5%, respectively. The prevalence of neglect among left-behind children was higher than that among non-left-behind children (χ(2) = 14.322, P < 0.000). There were no significant associations with the neglect rate of left-behind children regarding gender or age differences. Result from multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the neglect among the left-behind children were associated with family dysfunction (OR values of moderate and serious family dysfunctions compared to good family function were 1.628 and 2.341, respectively) and the rate of keeping in touch with parents (OR values of sometimes and seldom keeping in touch compared to regular in touch were 1.299 and 1.844, respectively). The starting age of being left-behind (OR values of starting age that being left-behind from 6 to 10 and ≤ 5 years relative to starting age of left-behind ≥ 11 years were 0.703 and 0.630, respectively) appeared to be the protection factor to the neglect of those left-behind children.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the status of neglect among the left-behind children was serious. Prevention programs on the issue should target on a number of factors, including the characteristics of the children them-selves, as well as on the family of the children.
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December 2011

[Study on injuries and ways of coping to them among primary and middle school students in one rural area of Anhui province].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2011 Nov;32(11):1117-21

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Objective: To describe the current epidemiological characteristics of injuries among primary and middle school students in one rural area of Anhui province and to explore the relationship between the ways of coping and related injuries.

Methods: Through cluster sampling methods, all students from 3 to 9 grades in 5 primary schools and 3 middle schools in Changfeng county of Anhui province were investigated with questionnaire. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire concerning their experiences with injuries during the 12 months preceding the survey. The ways of coping to injuries were evaluated by Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. Factors associated with injuries were identified using a negative binomial regression analysis.

Results: Of 2917 students, the annual event-based rate of injuries was 17.4 per 100 students. Positive coping score had no significant differences between the injury and non-injury groups (33.98 ± 6.38 vs. 33.66 ± 6.37) (t = 0.979, P = 0.328). The score of negative coping style was higher in injury group than in non-injury group (27.65 ± 7.79 vs. 26.54 ± 7.62) (t = 2.775, P = 0.006). Statistically, the annual injury rates were significantly different in three groups on their negative styles of coping (χ(2) = 6.131, P = 0.013). Data from the multivariable negative binomial regression analysis, after adjusted for demographic characteristics, showed no significant difference on the relationship between positive coping style and injury incidence. Those with moderate negative style of coping had lower risks compared to those with highly negative one (IRR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.63 - 0.94).

Conclusion: Negative ways of coping was an important risk factor for injuries. Data from our research suggested that psychological preventive measure need to be taken to improve the style of coping. It was also important to promote the related personality development in planning the strategies for future prevention on injuries.
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November 2011
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