Publications by authors named "Qing Zhao"

1,031 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Methylation of dual-specificity phosphatase 4 controls cell differentiation.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(4):109421

Department of Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address:

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are inactivated by dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs), the activities of which are tightly regulated during cell differentiation. Using knockdown screening and single-cell transcriptional analysis, we demonstrate that DUSP4 is the phosphatase that specifically inactivates p38 kinase to promote megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation. Mechanistically, PRMT1-mediated methylation of DUSP4 triggers its ubiquitinylation by an E3 ligase HUWE1. Interestingly, the mechanistic axis of the DUSP4 degradation and p38 activation is also associated with a transcriptional signature of immune activation in Mk cells. In the context of thrombocytopenia observed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we demonstrate that high levels of p38 MAPK and PRMT1 are associated with low platelet counts and adverse prognosis, while pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or PRMT1 stimulates megakaryopoiesis. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the role of the PRMT1-DUSP4-p38 axis on Mk differentiation and present a strategy for treatment of thrombocytopenia associated with MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109421DOI Listing
July 2021

Bioenergy Crops for Low Warming Targets Require Half of the Present Agricultural Fertilizer Use.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a key option for removing CO from the atmosphere over time to achieve climate mitigation. However, an overlooked impact of BECCS is the amount of nutrients required to sustain the production. Here, we use an observation-driven approach to estimate the future bioenergy biomass production for land-use scenarios maximizing BECCS and the pertaining nutrient requirements. The projected global biomass production during the 21st century is comparable to the CO removal target for 2 °C warming scenarios. However, 9-19% of this future production hinges on agrotechnology improvement, which remains uncertain. Additional nutrients from fertilizers, corresponding to 56.8 ± 6.1% of the present-day agricultural fertilizer, will be needed to replenish the nutrients removed in harvested biomass at the end of the century, resulting in additional costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Our study reveals the nutrient challenges associated with BECCS and calls for additional management efforts to grow bioenergy crops in a sustainable way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02238DOI Listing
July 2021

Post-traumatic stress symptoms in COVID-19 survivors: a self-report and brain imaging follow-up study.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Previous coronavirus pandemics were associated elevated post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), but the self-report and neurological basis of PTSS in patients who survived coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are largely unknown. We conducted a two-session study to record PTSS in the COVID-19 survivors discharged from hospitals for a short (i.e., about 3 months, Session 1) to a medium period (i.e., about 6 months, Session 2), as well as brain imaging data in Session 2. The control groups were non-COVID-19 locals. Session 1 was completed for 126 COVID-19 survivors and 126 controls. Session 2 was completed for 47 COVID-19 survivors and 43 controls. The total score of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) score was significantly higher in COVID-19 survivors compared with controls in both sessions. The PCL-5 score in COVID-19 survivors was positively correlated with the duration after discharge (r = 0.27, p = 0.003 for Session 1), and increased by 20% from Session 1 to Session 2 for the survivors who participated both sessions. The increase was positively correlated with individual's test-retest duration (r = 0.46, p = 0.03). Brain structural volume and functional activity in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala were significantly larger in COVID-19 survivors compared with controls. However, the volumes of the left hippocampus and amygdala were negatively correlated with the PCL-5 score for the COVID-19 survivors. Our study suggests that COVID-19 survivors might face possible PTSS deteriorations, and highlights the importance of monitoring mental wellness of COVID-19 survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01223-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290134PMC
July 2021

Distinctive Pseudopalisaded Histiocytic Hyperplasia Characterizes the Transition of Exudative to Proliferative Phase of Diffuse Alveolar Damage in Patients Dying of COVID-19.

Hum Pathol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, 02118, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Severe COVID-19 results in a glucocorticoid responsive form of acute respiratory distress (ARDS)/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Herein we compare the immunopathology of lung tissue procured at autopsy in patients dying of SARS-CoV-2 with those dying of DAD prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Autopsy gross and microscopic features stratified by duration of illness in twelve patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA as well as seven patients dying of DAD prior to the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated with multiplex (5-plex: CD4, CD8, CD68, CD20, AE1/AE3) and SARS-CoV immunohistochemistry to characterize the immunopathologic stages of DAD.

Results: We observed a distinctive pseudopalisaded histiocytic hyperplasia interposed between the exudative and proliferative phase of COVID-19 associated DAD which was most pronounced at the fourth week from symptom onset. Pulmonary macrothrombi were seen predominantly in cases with pseudopalisaded histiocytic hyperplasia and/or proliferative phase DAD. Neither pseudopalisaded histiocytic hyperplasia nor pulmonary macrothrombi were seen in non-COVID-19 DAD cases, whereas microthrombi were common in DAD regardless of etiology.

Conclusion: The inflammatory pattern of pseudopalisaded histiocytic hyperplasia may represent the distinctive immunopathology associated with the dexamethasone responsive form of DAD seen in severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2021.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278870PMC
July 2021

Association between SNPs and hepatotoxicity in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma on high-dose methotrexate therapy.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P.R. China.

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of methotrexate pathway genes and high-dose methotrexate-related hepatotoxicity in Chinese patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Methods: Sixty-five patients in 411 treatment courses were enrolled and their toxicities were evaluated. The association between 30 candidate SNPs from 20 methotrexate pathway genes and high-dose methotrexate-related hepatotoxicity was analysed by PLINK and logistic regression.

Key Findings: TYMS 6 bp DI + II (rs151264360; OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.25-0.66; P = 0.00029), MTHFD1 1958 GA + AA (rs2236225; OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.91; P = 0.020) and CCND1 870 GA + GG (rs9344; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.24-0.73; P = 0.0024) had less risk of hepatotoxicity compared with their homozygotes (DD, GG and AA, respectively), while ABCC2 intron 29 GA + GG (rs3740065; OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.89-5.20; P = 0.00001) was more prevalent in patients with hepatotoxicity than TT.

Conclusions: TYMS 6 bp DI + II, MTHFD1 1958 GA + AA, CCND1 870 GA + GG genotypes were associated with a lower probability of hepatotoxicity in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma on high-dose methotrexate therapy, and ABCC2 intron 29 GA + GG was correlated with increased risk of hepatotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab099DOI Listing
July 2021

Downregulation of Long Noncoding RNA LINC00261 Attenuates Myocardial Infarction through the miR-522-3p/Trinucleotide Repeat-Containing Gene 6a (TNRC6A) Axis.

Cardiovasc Ther 2021 18;2021:6628194. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510240, China.

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is cardiac tissue necrosis caused by acute and persistent ischemic hypoxia of the coronary arteries. This study is aimed at investigating the expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) LINC00261 in MI and its effect on myocardial cells.

Methods: qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of LINC00261, miR-522-3p, and TNRC6A in normal and MI cells. Western blotting analysis was performed to detect the expression of TNRC6A protein. Viability and apoptosis of myocardial cells after MI with the knockout of LINC00261 or TNRC6A were detected. The relationships among miR-522-3p, LINC00261, and TNRC6A in cardiomyocytes were evaluated using a double luciferase reporter gene assay. Hypoxic preconditioning in normal cells was used to construct a simulated MI environment to investigate the effect of LINC00261 on apoptosis of cardiac cells.

Results: LINC00261 and TNRC6A were upregulated, while miR-522-3p was downregulated in coronary heart disease tissues with MI. Knockout of LINC00261 can increase the viability of cardiomyocytes and inhibit cell apoptosis. LINC00261 targets miR-522-3p in cardiomyocytes. In addition, miR-522-3p targets TNRC6A in cardiomyocytes. TNRC6A regulates cell viability and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes after MI, and TNRC6A-induced MI can be reversed by overexpression of miR-522-3p.

Conclusions: LINC00261 downregulated miR-522-3p in cardiomyocytes after MI by directly targeting miR-522-3p. TNRC6A is the direct target of miR-522-3p. Our results indicated that LINC00261 might serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6628194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235986PMC
July 2021

Stabilizing Zinc Electrodeposition in a Battery Anode by Controlling Crystal Growth.

Small 2021 Jul 6:e2101798. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA.

Reversible electrodeposition of metals at liquid-solid interfaces is a requirement for long cycle life in rechargeable batteries that utilize metals as anodes. The process has been studied extensively from the perspective of the electrochemical transformations that impact reversibility, however, the fundamental challenges associated with maintaining morphological control when a intrinsically crystalline solid metal phase emerges from an electrolyte solution have been less studied, but provide important opportunities for progress. A crystal growth stabilization method to reshape the initial growth and orientation of crystalline metal electrodeposits is proposed here. The method takes advantage of polymer-salt complexes (PEG-Zn -aX ) (a = 1,2,3) formed spontaneously in aqueous electrolytes containing zinc (Zn ) and halide (X ) ions to regulate electro-crystallization of Zn. It is shown that when X = Iodine (I), the complexes facilitate electrodeposition of Zn in a hexagonal closest packed morphology with preferential orientation of the (002) plane parallel to the electrode surface. This facilitates exceptional morphological control of Zn electrodeposition at planar substrates and leads to high anode reversibility and unprecedented cycle life. Preliminary studies of the practical benefits of the approach are demonstrated in Zn-I2 full battery cells, designed in both coin cell and single-flow battery cell configurations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101798DOI Listing
July 2021

Cu(II) assisted peroxymonosulfate oxidation of sulfonamide antibiotics: The involvement of Cu(III).

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 25;284:131329. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Shanghai Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Environmental Standard and Risk Management of Chemical Pollutants, School of Resources & Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China; State Environmental Protection Key Lab of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Processes, School of Resources & Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Cu(II) is generally considered to be a poor activator for PMS decomposition, thus the potential impact of trace Cu(II) on PMS induced oxidation of typical pollutants is always overlooked. In this study, we reported that trace Cu(II) could significantly promote PMS induced degradation of four selected sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs), namely, sulfamehoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMZ), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM). Different from conventional PMS-induced oxidation process, high-valent Cu(III) was ascertained as the primary reactive intermediate for SAs degradation, which was confirmed by raman tests and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). High concentrations of Cu(II) or PMS were beneficial to degradation of the selected contaminants. In PMS/Cu(II) oxidation system, all the selected SAs could undergo several different degradation pathways including continuous oxidation of aniline group, hydroxylation and S-N bond cleavage. In particular, for six-membered SAs, such as SMZ and SMM, a SO extrusion pathway was also detected. The potential mechanism for Cu(III) formation was also proposed, which was believed to be highly related to the nature of the SAs. Hydroxylamine-SAs (N-OH-SAs), generated from direct PMS oxidation of SAs, was deduced as the "promoter" for the whole oxidation process. And the generation of Cu(III) was likely to proceed through the interaction between PMS and Cu(I), which possibly derived from the reduction of Cu(II) by N-OH-SAs. The results obtained in this study validated the contribution of Cu(III) to the elimination of pollutants and expanded our understanding of the oxidation process of PMS in the presence of trace amounts of Cu(II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131329DOI Listing
June 2021

Can China's industrial policies enhance the green competitiveness of the manufacturing industry?

PLoS One 2021 30;16(6):e0253774. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Economics and Commerce, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Zhongshan Institute, Zhongshan, China.

This study innovatively uses local government regulations related to manufacturing to quantitatively identify industrial policies. The degree of influence and functional mechanism of China's industrial policies on the green competitiveness of the manufacturing industry are empirically examined using the provincial and regional panel data. Additionally, the synergistic complementary effect between industrial policy power and market forces and the fiscal decentralization's role in influencing industrial policies are investigated. The results reveal that the promulgation and implementation of industrial policies have significantly promoted the green competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. Regarding functional mechanisms, environmental governance has played a positive role in promoting the green competitiveness of the manufacturing industry supported by industrial policies, resource allocation, and innovation incentives. Meanwhile, industrial policies on green competitiveness in manufacturing depend on marketization and fiscal decentralization in local governments. The above findings demonstrate that the local governments in China, a developing economy, can play the role of development-oriented governments. Based on conforming to market deepening and system optimization, they can formulate and implement industrial policies in a rational manner and achieve green development and upgrade the manufacturing industry.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253774PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244902PMC
June 2021

Pleural Fluid GSDMD Is a Novel Biomarker for the Early Differential Diagnosis of Pleural Effusion.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:620322. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: Gasdermin D (GSDMD), controlling pyroptosis in cells, has multiple physiological functions. The diagnostic role of GSDMD in pleural effusion (PE) remains unknown.

Methods: Sandwich ELISA kits that we developed were applied to measure the level of GSDMD for 335 patients with a definite cause of PE, including transudative PE, tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE), parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE), and malignant pleural effusion (MPE). The diagnostic accuracy of Light's criteria vs. the new marker GSDMD was performed. Clinical follow-up of 40 cases of PPE was conducted and divided into efficacy and non-efficacy groups according to the therapeutic outcome. Nucleated cells (NCs) in PE were isolated and further infected with bacteria to verify the cell source of GSDMD.

Results: The diagnostic accuracy of GSDMD for the diagnosis of PE were 96% (sensitivity) and 94% (specificity). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that GSDMD can be an efficient biomarker for the differential diagnosis of transudative PE and other groups (all AUC > 0.973). Noteworthily, the highest AUC belonged to tuberculosis diagnosis of 0.990, and the cut-off value was 18.40 ng/mL. Moreover, the same cut-off value of PPE and MPE was 9.35 ng/mL. The combination of GSDMD, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) will further improve the diagnostic efficiency especially between TPE and PPE (AUC = 0.968). The AUC of GSDMD change at day 4, which could predict the therapeutic effect at an early stage, was 0.945 ( < 0.0001). Interestingly, bacterial infection experiments further confirm that the pleural fluid GSDMD was expressed and secreted mainly by the NCs.

Conclusion: GSDMD and its combination are candidates as a potentially novel biomarker not only to separate PEs early and effectively, but also monitor disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.620322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215111PMC
June 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

Zookeys 2021 8;1042:51-72. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Plant Protection, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, China Shanxi Agricultural University Taigu China.

(Linnaeus, 1758) is an important agroforestry pest widely distributed in the Palaearctic region. In this study, we sequence and annotate the complete mitochondrial genome of and reconstruct the phylogenetic trees for Pentatomoidea using existing data for eight families published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The mitogenome of is 15,887-bp-long, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region, with an A+T content of 77.7%. The genome structure, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage of the mitogenome of were consistent with those of typical Hemiptera insects. Among the protein-coding genes of Pentatomoidea, the evolutionary rate of ATP8 was the fastest, and COX1 was found to be the most conservative gene in the superfamily. Substitution saturation assessment indicated that neither transition nor transversion substitutions were saturated in the analyzed datasets. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian inference method showed that belonged to Pentatomidae. The node support values based on the dataset concatenated from protein-coding and RNA genes were the highest. Our results enrich the mitochondrial genome database of Pentatomoidea and provide a reference for further studies of phylogenetic systematics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1042.62302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206063PMC
June 2021

Disrupted Network Topology Contributed to Spatial Navigation Impairment in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 3;13:630677. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Impairment in spatial navigation (SN) and structural network topology is not limited to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and can be detected earlier in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We recruited 32 MCI patients (65.91 ± 11.33 years old) and 28 normal cognition patients (NC; 69.68 ± 10.79 years old), all of whom underwent a computer-based battery of SN tests evaluating egocentric, allocentric, and mixed SN strategies and diffusion-weighted and T-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). To evaluate the topological features of the structural connectivity network, we calculated its measures such as the global efficiency, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and shortest path length with GRETNA. We determined the correlation between SN accuracy and network topological properties. Compared to NC, MCI subjects demonstrated a lower egocentric navigation accuracy. Compared with NC, MCI subjects showed significantly decreased clustering coefficients in the left middle frontal gyrus, right rectus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right inferior parietal gyrus and decreased shortest path length in the left paracentral lobule. We observed significant positive correlations of the shortest path length in the left paracentral lobule with both the mixed allocentric-egocentric and the allocentric accuracy measured by the average total errors. A decreased clustering coefficient in the right inferior parietal gyrus was associated with a larger allocentric navigation error. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) did not affect the correlation between network properties and SN accuracy. This study demonstrated that structural connectivity network abnormalities, especially in the frontal and parietal gyri, are associated with a lower SN accuracy, independently of WMH, providing a new insight into the brain mechanisms associated with SN impairment in MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.630677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210585PMC
June 2021

lncRNA CDKN2A-AS1 facilitates tumorigenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer via modulating the SOSTDC1-mediated BMP-SMAD signaling pathway.

Cell Cycle 2021 Jun 10;20(12):1147-1162. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth most common female malignant tumor and the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the predominant type of OC. Investigating the mechanism underlying tumorigenesis and progression of EOC is urgent. Our previous research has shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) CDKN2A-AS1 is upregulated in EOC tissues and cells. Furthermore, we have predicted that CDKN2A-AS1 is associated with the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling pathway, which is negatively regulated by the sclerostin domain containing 1 (SOSTDC1). Therefore, we conjecture that the CDKN2A-AS1 regulate BMP-SMAD signaling pathway via interacting with SOSTDC1, which need more investigation. Moreover, the functions of the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway and the SOSTDC1 on EOC are still unclear. Herein, we unearthed that CDKN2A-AS1, BMP2/4/7, SMAD1/5/9 and phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/9 (p-SMAD1/5/9) were upregulated in EOC tissues and cells, whereas SOSTDC1 was downregulated in EOC tissues and cells. We firstly demonstrated that CDKN2A-AS1 bound directly with the SOSTDC1. CDKN2A-AS1 downregulated the expression of SOSTDC1, but upregulated the expression of BMP2/4/7, SMAD1/5/9, and p-SMAD1/5/9. CDKN2A-AS1 promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion of EOC cells and tumor growth in vivo, whereas SOSTDC1 inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of EOC cells. Knockdown SOSTDC1 rescued the inhibitory effect of si-lncRNA CDKN2A-AS1 on the EOC cells proliferation, migration and invasion. These results demonstrated that CDKN2A-AS1activated the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway by directly bind with SOSTDC1 to promote EOC tumor growth. CDKN2A-AS1/SOSTDC1 axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for EOC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2021.1924947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265817PMC
June 2021

The benefit of exercise-based rehabilitation programs in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Pulm Circ 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):20458940211007810. Epub 2021 May 27.

Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Several studies have suggested that exercise capacity and quality of life are reduced in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and exercise-based rehabilitation can improve exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of exercise-based rehabilitation in patients with pulmonary hypertension through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to November 2018. All randomized controlled trials comparing exercise capacity and quality of life between patients undergoing exercise-based rehabilitation and those undergoing non-exercise training were included. Data were extracted separately and independently by two investigators, and discrepancies were arbitrated by the third investigator. We used the random-effects model to analyze the results, the GRADE to assess the risk of bias in the included studies, and I statistic to estimate the degree of heterogeneity. Nine randomized controlled trials are included; however, only seven randomized controlled trials were able to extract data. Including inpatients and outpatients, the total number of participants was 234, most of whom were diagnosed as pulmonary artery hypertension. The study duration ranged from 3 to 15 weeks. The mean six-minute walking distance after exercise training was 51.94 m higher than control (27.65-76.23 m,  = 234, 7 randomized controlled trials, low quality evidence), the mean peak oxygen uptake was 2.96 ml/kg/min higher (2.49-3.43 ml/kg/min,  = 179, 4 randomized controlled trials, low-quality evidence) than in the control group. In conclusion, our finding suggests that an exercise-based training program positively influences exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20458940211007810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165522PMC
May 2021

Environmental stability and cytotoxicity of layered black phosphorus modified with Polyvinylpyrrolidone and Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-67.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;790:148105. Epub 2021 May 29.

Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Layered black phosphorus (LBP) is regarded as a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial in various application fields. As bare LBP is unstable in humid environment, many modification methods have been developed recently. However, environmental risks of modified LBP nanomaterials are largely unknown. Herein, by sonication and in-situ surface-confined synthesis, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated LBP (LBP/PVP), and zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) modified LBP (LBP/PVP-ZIF-67) nanomaterials were synthesized. Environmental stability and toxicity of the modified nanomaterials were compared with bare LBP. Results show that LBP/PVP-ZIF-67 exhibits excellent photothermal performance, and higher potential in electrochemical hydrogen evolution than bare LBP or LBP/PVP. Characteristic visible light absorbance at 593 nm was introduced into the nanomaterial by ZIF-67. LBP/PVP has stability in aqueous environment or cytotoxicity similar to LBP. LBP/PVP-ZIF-67 is completely stable in water within 120 h, in contrast to over 30% degradation of LBP or LBP/PVP. More than 50% of LBP in the LBP/PVP-ZIF-67 can degrade to dissolvable phosphorus in oxygenated water after 17 days, indicating the nanomaterial will not be persistent in the environment. Moreover, modification with ZIF-67 can reduce cytotoxicity of LBP. Therefore, this study develops a safe strategy to modify LBP and provides basic information for ecological risk assessment of LBP based materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148105DOI Listing
May 2021

Abiotic and Biotic Influences on the Movement of Reintroduced Chinese Giant Salamanders () in Two Montane Rivers.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 21;11(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762, USA.

Understanding animal movement is a key question in ecology and biodiversity conservation, which is particularly important for the success of reintroduction projects. The movement of critically endangered Chinese giant salamander () remains poorly understood due to the rareness of wild individuals of this species. We lack movement details about the full annual cycle after reintroduction, especially the abiotic and biotic influences that affect its movement. We utilized pilot reintroduction projects as opportunities to fill in some knowledge gaps on their movement ecology. We released 31 juvenile captive-reared Chinese giant salamanders of two age groups in two rivers in the Qinling Mountains of central China and monitored their daily movements for 16 months using surgically implanted radio transmitters. We examined the impacts of individual traits (body mass, body condition) and environmental conditions (temperature, precipitation, and moon phase) on their daily movement patterns. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects logistic regression model to understand the drivers of their movement tendency (i.e., whether they move or not) and a linear mixed-effects model was used to understand the drivers of their movement distance. We found that movement tendency of the older salamander cohort was positively affected by the moon phase, increasing near the Full Moon, whereas the younger cohort of animals were not impacted by the moon phase. For daily distance moved, we found temperature had a strong positive effect on both cohorts, whereas precipitation had moderate but opposite effects on the two cohorts Body mass and body condition did not have any significant impacts on either age classes' movement tendency or distance. This study provides insight into the abiotic factors that impact the temporal and spatial movement ecology of reintroduced giant salamander, which will in turn help with designing best practices for future releases and conservation of this iconic montane aquatic predator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224018PMC
May 2021

The comprehensive measurement method of energy conservation and emission reduction in the whole process of urban sewage treatment based on carbon emission.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

North China Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute Co. Ltd., Tianjin, 300074, China.

It is of great significance to establish a carbon emission management system and carbon emission reduction target to put forward emission reduction measures for each subunit of a sewage treatment plant. In this paper, a mathematical model was constructed for calculating carbon emission in the whole sewage treatment system process. Meanwhile, the model calculated the carbon emission changes after upgrading three sewage treatment plants and identified the critical controlling unit. The results showed that the CO produced from electric energy consumption and chemical application was the primary source of carbon emission of wastewater treatment. Raising sewage discharge standards appropriately could effectively reduce the carbon emission generated by each link of the wastewater treatment plant. Further improvement of effluent standards could adversely affect sewage treatment plants in terms of energy, resources, and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, raising the standard of total phosphorus concentration in the effluent may lead to a corresponding increase in the amount of phosphorus removal agents, as well as an increase in indirect carbon emission, material consumption, and chemical sludge. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sewage treatment technologies that are economical, applicable, energy-saving, and environmental friendly to realize the environmental benefits of carbon emission reduction in sewage treatment and sustainable utilization of energy and resource from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14472-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic risk factors and survival models for T3 locally advanced rectal cancer: what can we learn from the baseline MRI?

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 18;31(7):4739-4750. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the baseline MRI characteristics for predicting survival outcomes and construct survival models for risk stratification to facilitate personalized treatment and follow-up strategies in patients with MRI-defined T3 (mrT3) locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 256 mrT3 LARC patients evaluated between 2008 and 2012 in our institution, with an average follow-up period of 6.8 ± 1.2 years. The baseline MRI characteristics, clinical data, and follow-up information were evaluated. The patients were randomized into a training cohort (TC, 186 patients) and validation cohort (VC, 70 patients). The TC dataset was used to develop multivariate nomograms for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), while the VC dataset was used for independent validation of the models. Harrell concordance (C) indices and Hosmer-Lemeshow calibration were used to evaluate the performances of the models.

Results: Baseline mrT3 substage, extramural venous invasion (EMVI) grading, mucinous adenocarcinoma, mesorectal fascia involvement, elevated pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen level, and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) were independent predictors of DFS. T3 substage, EMVI grading, and NCRT were also independent predictors of OS. The nomograms constructed permitted the individualized prediction of 3-year and 5-year DFS and 5-year OS with high discrimination (C-index range, 0.833-0.892) and good calibration in the TC and VC.

Conclusions: We have identified baseline MRI characteristics that help independently predict survival outcomes in patients with mrT3 LARC. The survival models based on these characteristics allow for the individualized pretreatment risk stratification in patients with mrT3 LARC.

Key Points: • Baseline MRI characteristics can independently stratify risk and predict survival outcomes in patients with mrT3 LARC. • The nomograms built using selected baseline MRI characteristics facilitate the individualized pretreatment risk stratification and help with clinical decision-making in patients with mrT3 LARC. • MR-defined risk factors should, therefore, be carefully reported in the baseline MRI evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08045-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Culture, Sex, and Group-Bias in Trait and State Empathy.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:561930. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Empathy is sharing and understanding others' emotions. Recently, researchers identified a culture-sex interaction effect in empathy. This phenomenon has been largely ignored by previous researchers. In this study, the culture-sex interaction effect was explored with a cohort of 129 participants (61 Australian Caucasians and 68 Chinese Hans) using both self-report questionnaires (i.e., Empathy Quotient and Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and computer-based empathy tasks. In line with the previous findings, the culture-sex interaction effect was observed for both trait empathy (i.e., the generalized characteristics of empathy, as examined by the self-report questionnaires) and state empathy (i.e., the on-spot reaction of empathy for a specific stimulus, as evaluated by the computer-based tasks). Moreover, in terms of state empathy, the culture-sex interaction effect further interacted with stimulus traits (i.e., stimulus ethnicity, stimulus sex, or stimulus emotion) and resulted in three- and four-way interactions. Follow-up analyses of these higher-order interactions suggested that the phenomena of ethnic group bias and sex group favor in empathy varied among the four culture-sex participant groups (i.e., Australian female, Australian male, Chinese female, and Chinese male). The current findings highlighted the dynamic nature of empathy (i.e., its sensitivity toward both participant traits and stimulus features). Furthermore, the newly identified interaction effects in empathy deserve more investigation and need to be verified with other Western and Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.561930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113867PMC
April 2021

Precise Species Detection in Traditional Herbal Patent Medicine, Qingguo Wan, Using Shotgun Metabarcoding.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:607210. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

As one of the high-incidence diseases in the world, pharyngitis seriously affects the lives of those with the condition. Qingguo Wan is a herbal medicine used for treating pharyngitis, and its quality evaluation is currently only accomplished via traditional identification. However, precise identification becomes challenging with fake products on the market or fungal contamination during the production process. This study used the Illumina NovaSeq platform for targeting the ITS2, , , and sequences to survey the species composition of lab-made and commercial samples. The results showed that a total of 34.56 Gb of raw data that was obtained represented more than 0.23 billion reads. After assembly, annotation, and operational taxonomic unit clustering, 103, 12, 10, and 12 OTUs were obtained, which belonged to the ITS2, , , and sequences of the mock lab-made and commercial samples. The analytical results indicated that the sequences of all the prescription ingredients were successfully obtained in the two lab-made samples. The positive control medicinal L. sequence was obtained in HSZY175, while Georgi, Thunb. DC. and Pall. were detected in the three commercial samples. The detection results of the other four herbs in different fragments were not all the same. In addition, a total of 28 fungi OTUs, representing 19 families and 20 genera, were obtained from both the commercial and mock lab-made samples. and dominated among the 20 genera. This study demonstrated that the shotgun metabarcoding method is a powerful tool for the molecular identification of the biological ingredients in Qingguo Wan. It can be used to effectively supplement traditional methods while providing a new technique for the quality evaluation of Qingguo Wan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.607210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113863PMC
April 2021

Sex Differences in Re-experiencing Symptoms Between Husbands and Wives Who Lost Their Only Child in China: A Resting-State Functional Connectivity Study of Hippocampal Subfields.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 28;15:655044. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

: Losing one's only child may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), of which re-experiencing is the core symptom. However, neuroimaging studies of sex differences in re-experiencing in the context of the trauma of losing one's only child and PTSD are scarce; comparisons of the functional networks from the hippocampal subfields to the thalamus might clarify the neural basis. : Thirty couples without any psychiatric disorder who lost their only child (non-PTSD group), 55 patients with PTSD, and 50 normal controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity (FC) from the hippocampal subregions to the thalamus and the correlations of FC with re-experiencing symptoms were analyzed within and between the sexes. : Compared with husbands without PTSD, wives without PTSD had higher re-experiencing symptoms and weaker FC between the right hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (RCA3) and the right thalamus (RT; RCA3-RT). Moreover, only the correlation between the RCA3-RT FC and re-experiencing in wives without PTSD was significant. Among the three groups, only the RCA3-RT FC in female subjects was markedly different. Additionally, the RCA3-RT FC in wives without PTSD was remarkably lower relative to female patients with PTSD. : Wives without PTSD who lost their only child had worse re-experiencing symptoms relative to their husbands, which was associated with the FC alteration between the hippocampal subregions and the thalamus. Importantly, the low level of the RCA3-RT FC may play a potentially protective role against the development of PTSD in wives who have lost their only child.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.655044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113639PMC
April 2021

Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio is Associated with the Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2021 May;15(3):206-212

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, China.

Introduction: Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is widely used as an inflammatory marker and is associated with poor prognosis in some diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and malignancies. However, the association between the PLR and all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is unclear.

Methods: A total of 939 patients were enrolled. The X-tile program was performed to calculate the optimal cut-off values for the PLR, and the patients were divided into three groups according to the cut-off values: a low PLR group (< 108.33), medium PLR group (108.33 to 257.50), and high PLR group (> 257.50). Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of PLR. The primary end point was all-cause mortality.

Results: Of the 939 patients, the mean age was 49.9 years, and 57% of the patients were male. During a median follow-up of 27.5 months (interquartile range, 13.6-41.6 months), 221 (23.5%) died, in whom 114 (51.6%) deaths were attributed to cardiovascular mortality. Patients in the high PLR group had a higher mortality rate than patients in the low PLR group (log rank = 13.75, P < .001). The 1-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 88.9% and 71.7% for patients in the high PLR group compared with 98.6% and 86.2% for patients in the low PLR group, respectively. Similarly, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the mortality rate was higher in the high PLR group than in the low PLR group (HR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.63, P < .05).

Conclusion: An increased PLR value was independently associated with all-cause mortality in PD patients.
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May 2021

Oxidation process of lead sulfide nanoparticle in the atmosphere or natural water and influence on toxicity toward Chlorella vulgaris.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 8;417:126016. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China. Electronic address:

Lead sulfide nanoparticle (nano-PbS) released into environment can cause hazards to human or ecosystem. Nano-PbS potentially undergoes oxidation in the environment, but oxidation mechanism is not understood yet. Herein, oxidation kinetics and products of nano-PbS by ozone (O), hydrogen peroxide (HO) and hydroxyl radical (HO·) in the atmosphere or natural water were investigated. Results show that oxidation process of nano-PbS can be divided into three stages, producing sulfate, ions and oxides of lead in sequence. O or HO·leads to faster release of ionic lead from nano-PbS in the initial stage than HO, but causes significant decrease of ionic lead by transforming divalent lead to tetravalent lead oxides in the second or third stage. Toxicity determined taking Chlorella Vulgaris as an example follows an order of PbO < PbO < nano-PbS < PbO < PbSO. Toxicity of lead particles is mainly determined by sizes influencing cellular uptake and solubility product constant (K) related with dissolution of lead in cells. The results indicate that the toxicity of nano-PbS increases in an initial oxidation stage and decreases in further oxidation stages. This study provides new insights into environmental behavior of nano-PbS and mechanism understandings for assessing ecological risks of nano-PbS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126016DOI Listing
September 2021

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor as a potential novel biomarker for cognitive function in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 May 13:48674211013086. Epub 2021 May 13.

Peking University Huilongguan Clinical Medical School, Beijing Huilongguan Hospital, Changping district, Beijing 100096, China.

Objective: Cognitive impairment is prevalent in schizophrenia. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor which is released into the circulation under stress or inflammation, is associated with cognition and also plays an important role in immunity. However, no study has investigated the relationship between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia patients at baseline or after treatment. This study investigated the pre- and post-risperidone treatment correlations between serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels and cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

Methods: A total of 83 first-episode schizophrenia patients who received risperidone monotherapy and 57 healthy controls - matched for sex, age, smoking status, education (years), marital status and waist-to-hip ratio - were included. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels were measured before and 10 weeks after treatment in the patient group and at baseline in the controls. Pre- and post-treatment cognitive functions in patients were assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery.

Results: At baseline, macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels were significantly higher in first-episode schizophrenia patients than those in healthy controls ( < 0.01) and decreased in patients after 10 weeks of risperidone treatment compared with baseline ( < 0.05). The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery total score and the sub-scores for the Trail Making Test, Symbol Coding, Letter Number Sequence, Maze and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised improved significantly after risperidone treatment. After controlling for age, sex, education, waist-to-hip ratio and smoking status, partial correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between baseline macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels and patients' baseline MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery verbal memory scores ( = 0.29,  = 0.01). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor changes correlated negatively with verbal memory changes ( = -0.26,  = 0.04). Multiple linear regression analysis identified a definite correlation between the changes in word memory test score and macrophage migration inhibitory factor level (β = -0.09,  = 0.04).

Conclusion: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor may be involved in the process of cognitive impairment in first-episode schizophrenia and repair mechanisms following risperidone treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00048674211013086DOI Listing
May 2021

Causal structural covariance network revealing atrophy progression in Alzheimer's disease continuum.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Aug 12;42(12):3950-3962. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

The structural covariance network (SCN) has provided a perspective on the large-scale brain organization impairment in the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) continuum. However, the successive structural impairment across brain regions, which may underlie the disrupted SCN in the AD continuum, is not well understood. In the current study, we enrolled 446 subjects with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or normal aging (NA) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The SCN as well as a casual SCN (CaSCN) based on Granger causality analysis were applied to the T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of the subjects. Compared with that of the NAs, the SCN was disrupted in the MCI and AD subjects, with the hippocampus and left middle temporal lobe being the most impaired nodes, which is in line with previous studies. In contrast, according to the 194 subjects with records on CSF amyloid and Tau, the CaSCN revealed that during AD progression, the CaSCN was enhanced. Specifically, the hippocampus, thalamus, and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were identified as the core regions in which atrophy originated and could predict atrophy in other brain regions. Taken together, these findings provide a comprehensive view of brain atrophy in the AD continuum and the relationships among the brain atrophy in different regions, which may provide novel insight into the progression of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288084PMC
August 2021

Development of genic SSR marker resources from RNA-seq data in Camellia japonica and their application in the genus Camellia.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9919. Epub 2021 May 10.

Forestry and Fruit Tree Research Institute, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430075, China.

Camellia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae, and several species in this genus have economic importance. Although a great deal of molecular makers has been developed for molecular assisted breeding in genus Camellia in the past decade, the number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) publicly available for plants in this genus is insufficient. In this study, a total of 28,854 potential SSRs were identified with a frequency of 4.63 kb. A total of 172 primer pairs were synthesized and preliminarily screened in 10 C. japonica accessions, and of these primer pairs, 111 were found to be polymorphic. Fifty-one polymorphic SSR markers were randomly selected to perform further analysis of the genetic relationships of 89 accessions across the genus Camellia. Cluster analysis revealed major clusters corresponding to those based on taxonomic classification and geographic origin. Furthermore, all the genotypes of C. japonica separated and consistently grouped well in the genetic structure analysis. The results of the present study provide high-quality SSR resources for molecular genetic breeding studies in camellia plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89350-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110538PMC
May 2021

Association of serum uric acid with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertension: a meta-analysis.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Cardiology, The Third Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, No. 69 Yongding Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100039, China.

Studies on the association of uric acid with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertension have produced contradictory results. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic utility of uric acid in hypertensive patients. We comprehensively searched PubMed and Embase databases (until July 31, 2020) to identify eligible studies that reported the association of uric acid with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients. Outcome measures included cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Eleven eligible studies of 49,800 hypertensive patients were identified. For patients with the highest than those with reference lower group of uric acid level, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.02) for all-cause mortality, 1.68 (95% CI 1.28-2.20) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.55) for CAD, and 1.48 (95% CI 1.28-1.70) for MACEs. However, there was no significant association between elevated uric acid level and incident stroke in hypertensive patients. This meta-analysis indicates that elevated uric acid level is significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, CAD and MACEs in hypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients with highest uric acid level exhibited a tendency for reduced risk of stroke, but the difference is not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-021-02453-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Turning Waste into Wealth: Remotely NIR Light-Controlled Precious Metal Recovery by Covalently Functionalized Black Phosphorus.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jul 21;14(13):2698-2703. Epub 2021 May 21.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

It is a great challenge to refine precious metals from e-wastes under mild conditions without hazardous reagents. Herein, black phosphorus (BP) was covalently functionalized with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) to obtain thermo/near-infrared (NIR)-responsive BP-P for precious metal recovery. Precious metals (Au, Ag, and Pd) with higher redox potentials than BP-P could be efficiently recovered by reduction-driven enrichment. Taking Au as an example, the recovery process presented fast kinetics (<15 min), excellent selectivity, and high efficiency (≈98 %). Remote operation with NIR light could generate heat by BP, which induced the hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition of PNIPAM, allowing the spontaneous gathering, facile collection, and practical recycle of BP-P following Au extraction. Thanks to the unique features of BP-P, not only could high-quality Au nanoparticles (20-30 nm) be economically extracted (cost: $0.731-1.222 g Au nanoparticles; 5-6 orders of magnitude lower than the market price), but also the formed BP-P-Au nanocomposites have potential application in hydrogen evolution reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202100801DOI Listing
July 2021

Distinct clinical manifestations of obsessive-compulsive disorder are associated with cortical thickness alteration.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 May 5:48674211009623. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shanghai Mental Health Centre, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Although brain structural changes have been reported in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), results from previous studies have been inconsistent. A growing number of studies have focused on obsessive beliefs and impulsivity which could be involved in the occurrence and maintenance of OCD symptoms. The present study aimed to examine whether there are distinct brain structural changes in patients with different OCD subgroups.

Methods: Eighty-nine patients with OCD and 42 healthy controls were recruited to undergo structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. OCD patients were classified into subgroups according to scores of the Obsessive Belief Questionnaire (OBQ-44) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) using cluster analysis. Group comparisons in cortical thickness and subcortical volumes between all OCD patients and healthy controls, as well as between subgroups of OCD patients and healthy controls, were carried out.

Results: OCD patients with more obsessive beliefs and attentional impulsivity (OCD_OB_AT) had reduced cortical thickness at the inferior parietal gyrus, the superior and middle temporal gyrus and the insula compared with OCD patients with higher score on the non-planning impulsivity (OCD_NP, corrected  < 0.05). The whole group of OCD patients and both subgroups showed reduced cortical thickness at the superior parietal gyrus compared with controls (uncorrected  < 0.01, number of vertices > 100).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that apart from distinct phenomenology, there are distinct neural correlates of different OCD subgroups based on obsessive beliefs and impulsivity. These neural correlates may have clinical significance and should be considered in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00048674211009623DOI Listing
May 2021
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