Publications by authors named "Qing Yu"

747 Publications

Deleterious Role of Th9 Cells in Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Cells 2021 Nov 17;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, National Center for Respiratory Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182, China.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Immune disorders play an important role in IPF pathogenesis. Here, we show that Th9 cells differentiate and activate in the lung tissue of patients with IPF and bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis mice. Moreover, we found that Th9 cells promote pulmonary fibrosis in two ways. On the one hand, Th9 cells promote fibroblast differentiation, activation, and collagen secretion by secreting IL-9. On the other hand, they promote differentiation of Th0 cells into Th2 cells by secreting IL-4. Th9 cells and Th2 cells can promote each other, accelerating the Th1/Th2 imbalance and eventually forming a positive feedback of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, we found that neutralizing IL-9 in both preventive and therapeutic settings ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we identified several critical signaling pathways involved in the effect of neutralizing IL-9 on pulmonary fibrosis by proteomics study. From an immunological perspective, we elucidated the novel role and underlying mechanism of Th9 cells in pulmonary fibrosis. Our study suggested that Th9-based immunotherapy may be employed as a treatment strategy for IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10113209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8621886PMC
November 2021

Bi-phasic effect of gelatin in myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China.

Skeletal muscle regeneration requires extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, including an acute and transient breakdown of collagen that produces gelatin. Although the physiological function of this process is unclear, it has inspired us to apply gelatin to injured skeletal muscle for a potential pro-regenerative effect. Here we elaborate on a bi-phasic effect of gelatin in skeletal muscle regeneration, mediated by hormetic effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Low-dose gelatin stimulates ROS production from NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and simultaneously upregulates antioxidant system for cellular defense, reminiscent of the adaptive compensatory process during mild stress. This response triggers the release of myokine IL-6 that stimulates myogenesis and facilitates muscle regeneration. By contrast, high-dose gelatin stimulates ROS overproduction from NOX2 and mitochondrial chain complex, and ROS accumulation by suppressing antioxidant system, triggering release of TNFα, which inhibits myogenesis and regeneration. Our results have revealed a bi-phasic role of gelatin in regulating skeletal muscle repair mediated by intracellular ROS, antioxidant system, and cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα) signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.049290DOI Listing
November 2021

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells promote the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Nov 12;1868(2):166302. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

The Forsyth Institute, 245 First Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce type I interferons (IFNs) and promote pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune Sjögren's syndrome (SS) primarily affects salivary and lacrimal glands, causing their inflammation, destruction and dysfunction. pDCs and type I IFN activity are elevated in salivary glands of SS patients, and this study seeks to elucidate the in vivo actions of pDCs in SS pathogenesis using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. We confirmed the type I IFN-dependency of SS development in female NOD mice and elevation of pDC-type I IFN in their submandibular glands (SMGs). We administered a pDC-depleting anti-BST2/CD317 antibody to female NOD mice from 4 to 7 weeks of age at the early stage of SS, and assessed SS pathologies at age 10 weeks, the time of disease onset. Depletion of pDCs impeded the development of SMG inflammation and secretory dysfunction. It drastically reduced the amount of type I IFN mRNA and the number of total leukocytes, and T- and B lymphocytes in SMGs. Gene expression analyses showed that pDC depletion markedly diminished SMG expression of IL-7, BAFF, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL11, CD40, CD40L, Lt-α, Lt-β and NOS2. Hence, pDCs critically contribute to the development and onset of SS-like salivary gland exocrinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166302DOI Listing
November 2021

NLRP3 associated with chronic kidney disease progression after ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Oct 29;7(1):324. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), as an inflammatory regulator, has been implicated in acute kidney injury (AKI). Failed recovery after AKI can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the role of NLRP3 in the AKI-CKD transition is still unknown. A mild or severe AKI mouse model was performed by using ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We evaluated the renal NLRP3 expression in acute and chronic phases of ischemic AKI, respectively. Although serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in AKI chronic phase were equivalent to normal baseline, histological analysis and fibrotic markers revealed that severe AKI-induced maladaptive tubular repair with immune cell infiltration and fibrosis. Tubular damage was restored completely in mild AKI rather than in severe AKI. Of note, persistent overexpression of NLRP3 was also found in severe AKI but not in mild AKI. In the severe AKI-induced chronic phase, there was a long-term high level of NLRP3 in serum or urine. Overt NLRP3 was mainly distributed in the abnormal tubules surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis, which indicated the maladaptive repair. Renal Nlrp3 overexpression was correlated with infiltrating macrophages and fibrosis. Renal NLRP3 signaling-associated genes were upregulated after severe AKI by RNA-sequencing. Furthermore, NLRP3 was found increased in renal tubular epitheliums from CKD biopsies. Together, persistent NLRP3 overexpression was associated with chronic pathological changes following AKI, which might be a new biomarker for evaluating the possibility of AKI-CKD transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00719-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8556399PMC
October 2021

Decreasing toxicity of un-ionized ammonia on the gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa when moving from laboratory to field scale.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Dec 23;227:112933. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark; Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research, Beijing, China; Limnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey; Centre for Ecosystem Research and Implementation (EKOSAM), Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey; Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Mersin, Turkey. Electronic address:

Along with a steady increasing use of artificial nitrogen fertilizer, concerns have been raised about the effects that high nitrogen loading may have on ecosystems. Due to the toxicity of unionized ammonia (NH), tolerance criteria have been proposed for ambient water management in many countries; however, these are mainly based on acute or chronic tests carried out under lab conditions run with purified water. Aiming at understanding the responses of organisms to natural exposure to high ammonia concentrations, a Viviparidae gastropod, Bellamya aeruginosa, was tested at three experimental scales: standard 96-h lab test, one-month cage test in 6 experimental ponds with continuous nitrogen inputs, and intensive investigation of the B. aeruginosa from these ponds in spring and winter. The results were: 1) 96-h LC in the standard lab test was 0.56 mg NH-N/L and 343.3 mg TAN/L (total ammonia expressed as N, standardized at pH 7 and 20 ℃). 2) In the one-month cage test, the survival rate was 97% when NH-N was 0.61 mg/L (i.e., a higher concentration than the lab 96-h LC) and the body size of the gastropods actually increased with increasing NH-N concentrations. 3) In the winter-spring investigation, little effect of ammonia on the standing crops of gastropods was found, and the body size of the gastropods tended to increase with increasing ammonia concentrations (NH-N concentration range of 0.05 ~ 2.06 mg/L). Thus, B. aeruginosa showed higher tolerance to ammonia exposure (NH-N concentration < 0.81 mg/L) in the field than under laboratory conditions. Our study points to the necessity of considering the relevant scale when determining criteria for ammonia toxicity in water management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112933DOI Listing
December 2021

[Effect of inhalation of different-concentrations of moxa smoke on apoptosis and regeneration of olfactory epithelial cells in rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Oct;46(10):857-62

College of Acupuncture and Tuina, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012; Institute of Acupuncture and Meridian, Anhui Academy of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038.

Objective: To observe the effect of long-term inhalation of moxa-smoke on olfactory epithelial cells in rats, in order to explore the safety of moxa-smoke inhalation (MSI).

Methods: A total of 32 SD rats (half male and half female) were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal, low concentration (LCMSI), medium concentration (MCMSI) and high concentration (HCMSI), with 8 rats in each group. Rats of the LCMSI, MCMSI and HCMSI groups were put into closed boxes which were filled with ignited moxa stick-released smoke at concentrations of (0.11±0.05)mg/m, (0.23±0.05) mg/m and (0.53±0.05)mg/m, respectively. The treatment was given 4 h each time, twice a day for 90 days. Rats of the normal group were fed routinely. The rats' general state and behavior (including fur appearance, activities in cage, response to external stimuli, spirit, stool, diet and water drinking) were recorded, and the olfactory function was assessed by using latency of finding the buried food pellet (BFP) test. The number of apoptotic olfactory epithelial cells was counted after terminal labeling (TUNEL), and the proliferation of basal cells of the nasal mucosa was detected by BrdU incorporation immunohistochemical technique.

Results: The latency of BFP was significantly longer in the MCMSI and HCMSI groups than in the normal and LCMSI groups (<0.01), and had no significant differences between the LCMSI and normal groups, and between the MCMSI and HCMSI groups (>0.05). The numbers of the apoptotic olfactory epithelial cells and proliferative basal cell in the nasal mucus tissue were markedly more in the LCMSI, MCMSI and HCMSI groups than in the normal group (<0.01, <0.05), and obviously more in the MCMSI and HCMSI groups than in the LMCMSI group (<0.01), and apparently more in the HCMSI group than in the MCMSI group (<0.01). The general state observation showed that in the first 45 days, only yellowish fur and water intake increase were seen in rats of the 3 moxa smoke inhalation groups, while no obvious changes in rats of the LCMSI group, and decrease in activities, being sensitive to external stimulation and fiddle-footed, and lower spirit in rats of the MCMSI and HCMSI groups in comparison with rats of the normal group after 90 day's MSI.

Conclusion: Long-term inhalation of medium and high concentrations of moxa smoke may cause a reduction of the olfactory sensitivity and an increase of apoptosis of olfactory epithelial cells and proliferation of basal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200968DOI Listing
October 2021

Bifurcation of singularities of fluctuational paths for a noise-driven overdamped two-well system.

Authors:
Qing Yu Xianbin Liu

Chaos 2021 Sep;31(9):093110

State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control for Mechanical Structures, College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016, People's Republic of China.

Noise-induced escape in a 2D generalized Maier-Stein model with two parameters μ and α is investigated in the weak noise limit. With the WKB approximation, the patterns of extreme paths and singularities are displayed. By employing the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional and the asymptotic series, critical parameters α inducing singularity bifurcation are determined analytically for μ=1. The switching line will appear with singularities and is equivalent to the sliding set in the Filippov system. The pseudo-saddle-node bifurcation on the switching line is found. Then, when -1<μ<1, it is found that all bifurcation values α will decrease as μ decreases and the second-order bifurcation values are bigger than all first-order ones. In addition, the variation of the switching line is also analyzed and a new switching line will emerge when the location of the minimum quasi-potential on the boundary changes. At last, when the noise is anisotropic, only the noise intensity ratio will affect the bifurcation value α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0056784DOI Listing
September 2021

Reducing Canine Echinococcus Infection with Smart Deworming Collars - Tibet, China, June-November, 2020.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Dec;2(51):979-982

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Existing manual deworming programs launched have made great progress in reducing the infection rate of domestic dogs, but significant challenges remain in scattered nomadic communities inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau. The low deworming frequency and low levels of coverage were responsible for the high infection rate of spp. among dogs.



Smart deworming collars controlled by a remote management system (RMS) was found to increase the deworming frequency and coverage and subsequently reduce the canine infection rates with spp..



As an innovative tool, smart deworming collars may drive the paradigm shift from manual deworming to smart deworming and stop the transmission of echinococcosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2020.265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393154PMC
December 2020

JaponiconeA induces apoptosis of bortezomib-sensitive and -resistant myeloma cells and by targeting IKK.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Affiliated Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with high rates of relapse. New therapeutic drugs are therefore urgently needed to improve the prognosis. JaponiconeA (JA), a natural product isolated from , has shown good anti-MM potential. A comprehensive study should therefore be conducted to identify both the and mechanisms of the anti-MM effects of JA.

Methods: CCK8 assays and flow cytometry were used to detect the proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of MM cell lines when treated with JA. experiments were conducted using subcutaneous xenograft mouse models. We also identified possible targets and the mechanism of JA using RNA-seq and c-Map databases, and identified the specific targets of JA in bortezomib-sensitive and -resistant MM cell lines using CETSA, DARTS, and rescue experiments. Furthermore, JA and bortezomib were used separately or together to characterize their possible synergistic effects.

Results: , JA inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in MM cell lines, and selectively killed primary CD138 MM cells. , JA also demonstrated a strong anti-tumor effect with no observable toxicity. In addition, JA showed synergetic effects in combination with bortezomib, and enhanced the anti-tumor effect of bortezomib in bortezomib-resistant cells. CETSA and DARTS confirmed direct binding of JA to NF-κB inhibitor kinase beta (IKKβ), and overexpression of IKKβ or knockdown of IκBα partially rescued the apoptosis induced by JA.

Conclusions: JA exhibited strong anti-tumor effects in MM. It sensitized myeloma cells to bortezomib and overcame NF-κB-induced drug resistance by inhibiting IKKβ, providing a new treatment strategy for MM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0473DOI Listing
September 2021

Recent advances in mass spectrometry analysis of neuropeptides.

Mass Spectrom Rev 2021 Sep 24:e21734. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Due to their involvement in numerous biochemical pathways, neuropeptides have been the focus of many recent research studies. Unfortunately, classic analytical methods, such as western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are extremely limited in terms of global investigations, leading researchers to search for more advanced techniques capable of probing the entire neuropeptidome of an organism. With recent technological advances, mass spectrometry (MS) has provided methodology to gain global knowledge of a neuropeptidome on a spatial, temporal, and quantitative level. This review will cover key considerations for the analysis of neuropeptides by MS, including sample preparation strategies, instrumental advances for identification, structural characterization, and imaging; insightful functional studies; and newly developed absolute and relative quantitation strategies. While many discoveries have been made with MS, the methodology is still in its infancy. Many of the current challenges and areas that need development will also be highlighted in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mas.21734DOI Listing
September 2021

Simultaneous or Prior Activation of Intrahepatic Type I Interferon Signaling Leads to Hepatitis B Virus Persistence in a Mouse Model.

J Virol 2021 Nov 22;95(24):e0003421. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

It remains controversial how interferon (IFN) response contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) control and pathogenesis. A previous study identified that hydrodynamic injection (HI) of type I IFN (IFN-I) inducer polyinosinic-poly(C) [poly(I·C)] leads to HBV clearance in a chronic HBV mouse model. However, recent studies have suggested that premature IFN-I activation in the liver may facilitate HBV persistence. In the present study, we investigated how the early IFN-I response induces an immunosuppressive signaling cascade and thus causes HBV persistence. We performed HI of the plasmid adeno-associated virus (pAAV)/HBV1.2 into adult BALB/c mice to establish an adult acute HBV replication model. Activation of the IFN-I signaling pathway following poly(I·C) stimulation or murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection resulted in subsequent HBV persistence. HI of poly(I·C) with the pAAV/HBV1.2 plasmid resulted in not only the production of IFN-I and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) but also the expansion of intrahepatic regulatory T cells (Tregs), Kupffer cells (KCs), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), all of which impaired the T cell response. However, when poly(I·C) was injected at day 14 after the HBV plasmid injection, it significantly enhanced HBV-specific T cell responses. In addition, interferon-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) blockade rescued T cell response by downregulating IL-10 expression and decreasing Treg and KC expansion. Consistently, Treg depletion or IL-10 blockade also controlled HBV replication. IFN-I plays a double-edged sword role during chronic HBV infection. Here, we identified that application of IFN-I at different time points causes contrast outcomes. Activation of the IFN-I pathway before HBV replication induces an immunosuppressive signaling cascade in the liver and consequently caused HBV persistence, while IFN-I activation post HBV infection enhances HBV-specific T cell responses and thus promotes HBV clearance. This result provided an important clue to the mechanism of HBV persistence in adult individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00034-21DOI Listing
November 2021

Water environmental pressure assessment in agricultural systems in Central Asia based on an Integrated Excess Nitrogen Load Model.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jan 27;803:149912. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Agricultural runoff is the main source of water pollution in Central Asia. Excessive nitrogen (N) inputs from overuse of chemical fertilizers are threatening regional water resources. However, the scarcity of quantitative data and simplified empirical models limit the reliability of grey water footprint (GWF), particularly in undeveloped regions. In this study, we developed an Integrated Excess Nitrogen Load Model (IENLM) to calculate excess N load and evaluate its potential water environmental pressure in Central Asia. The model optimized the biological N fixation and atmospheric N deposition modules by involving more environmental variables and human activities. Results showed that N fertilizer application contributed over 60% to total N input and was mainly responsible for 42.9% increase of total GWF from 101.5 to 145.0 billion m during 1992 - 2018. Water pollution level (WPL) increased from 0.55 in 1992 to 2.41 in 2018 and the pollution assimilation capacity of water systems has been fully consumed just by N load from agriculture since 2005. GWF intensity and grey water pollution - efficiency types in all Central Asian countries have improved in recent years except for Turkmenistan. N fertilizer application and agricultural economy development were the main driving factors induced N pollution. Results were validated by riverine nitrate concentrations and the estimates from prior studies. In future, combining the N fertilizer reduction with other farm management practices were projected to effectively improve the WPL. The modeling framework is favorable for N pollution research in data-scarce regions and provides a scientific basis for decision-making for agriculture and water resource managements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149912DOI Listing
January 2022

[Effect of electroacupuncture preconditioning on neuronal activities in lateral hypothalamus area of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Aug;46(8):671-8

College of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China; Anhui Key Laboratory of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Hefei 230038.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning of "Shenmen" (HT7)-"Tongli" (HT5) segment of the Heart Meridian on neuronal electrical activities of lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) in rats with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI), so as to investigate its possible mechanism underlying improvement of MIRI.

Methods: Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into sham, model, EA and damage + EA (D+EA) groups, with 6 rats in each group. The MIRI model was established by occlusion of the anterior descending branch (ADB) of the left coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the sham operation group, the ADB was only threaded beneath the artery without ligation. EA (2 Hz, 1 V) was applied to bilateral HT7-HT5 for 20 min, once daily for 7 days. In the D+EA group, FN was injected with 0.4 μL of 1 g/L kainic acid solution. Electrocardiogram (ECG) of the neck-thoracic lead was recorded by using PowerLab. The electrical activities of the LHA region were recorded by the implanted microelectrode array (2×4) and Plexon multi-channel acquisition system. Cluster analysis of neuronal signals was carried out by Offline Sorter software. The discharge waveforms, autocorrelation and cross-correlation of neuronal activities were analyzed by using Neuro Explorer software.

Results: Compared with the sham group, the ECG-ST height was significantly increased (<0.05), the discharge frequency of pyramidal neurons was significantly reduced (<0.01), while the discharge frequency of interneurons was increased (<0.01) in the model group. After EA treatment, the ECG-ST height was significantly decreased (<0.05), the discharge frequency of pyramidal neurons was significantly increased (<0.01) relevant to the model group. In comparison with the EA group, the ECG-ST height in the D+EA group was significantly elevated (<0.05), whereas the discharge frequency of pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased (<0.01). The discharge frequency of interneurons was kept increasing after MIRI. Real-time spectrum analysis showed that the local field potential spectrum energy of the EA group was significantly lower than that of the model group and the D+EA group.

Conclusion: EA preconditioning of Heart Meridian can significantly increase the discharge frequency of LHA excitatory pyramidal neurons and reduce the energy of the local field potential spectrum, which maybe one of the important mechanisms of EA in anti -MIRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.201176DOI Listing
August 2021

Aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase (De Ritis ratio) predicts survival in major burn patients.

Burns 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Burn Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; Research Unit of Key Techniques for Treatment of Burns and Combined Burns and Trauma Injury, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Although treatment of burn patients has significantly improved in recent decades, major burns remain fatal. Therefore, the evaluation of the death risk of the patients with extensive burns is very important. The ratio between the serum levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase (De Ritis ratio) was an independent predictor of poor outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke, cardiac surgery, non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma, and upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Our aim was to determine whether the ratio between the serum levels of AST and ALT (De Ritis ratio) was useful to assess prognosis in extensively burned patients.

Methods: We conducted a single-center cohort study at the Burns Department of Changhai Hospital. This retrospective observational analysis was performed based on the clinical data of major burn patients admitted between May 1, 2005 and April 30, 2018. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on variables such as age, sex, total body surface area (TBSA), De Ritis ratio, and serum albumin level, which may affect mortality in major burn patients. We assessed their diagnostic value and found the cut-off value by receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We used the Kaplan-Meier curve to display the impact of the De Ritis ratio and serum albumin level on survival in burn patients.

Results: A total of 351 patients with extensive burns were included in the study. The cohort predominantly consisted of males (74.64%), and most of the patients (78.35%) had been burned by a flame. Age, TBSA, inhalation, and the De Ritis ratio were found to be independent risk factors for the 30-days mortality of major burn patients, while age, TBSA, inhalation, and the De Ritis ratio were independent risk factors for 90-day mortality. Further, the De Ritis ratio was a better mortality predictor than serum albumin in severely burned patients, whose area under ROC for 30-day and 90-day mortality was 0.771 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.708-0.835) and 0.750 (95% CI, 0.683, 0.818).

Conclusions: The De Ritis ratio was useful as a prognostic indicator for major burn patients, which can be conveniently obtained through blood examination. Regardless of whether the prediction was for 30-day or 90-day mortality, the accuracy remained high. Moreover, compared to serum albumin level, the De Ritis ratio was superior in assessing the prognosis of extensively burned patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2021.08.006DOI Listing
August 2021

A Compact Linear Ultrasonic Motor Composed by Double Flexural Vibrator.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Aug 13;12(8). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

College of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China.

A minimized linear ultrasonic motor was proposed, and two flexural bimorph vibrators were utilized to form its stator. The construction of the linear ultrasonic motor and its operation principle was introduced. Two working modes with the same local deformation distribution were chosen on the basis of Finite Element Analysis (FEA). To obtain its optimized structural parameters, sensitivities on frequency difference were calculated, and a way of decreasing the frequency difference of two working modes was introduced. A prototype of the optimized model was made. The modal testing of the stator and its performance evaluation was conducted. The modal testing results were in good agreement with that of the simulation. The maximum speed of the prototype is 245 mm/s, and its maximum thrust is 1.6 N.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12080958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402172PMC
August 2021

A Hybrid Recommendation Approach for Viral Food Based on Online Reviews.

Foods 2021 Aug 4;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Kunlun Trust Co., Ltd., Beijing 100033, China.

Nowadays, there are many types of viral foods and consumers expect to be able to quickly find foods that meet their own tastes. Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based on the popularity of viral foods or user ratings. However, because of the different sentimental levels of users, deviations occur and it is difficult to meet the user's specific needs. Based on the characteristics of viral food, this paper constructs a hybrid recommendation approach based on viral food reviews and label attribute data. A user-based recommendation approach is combined with a content-based recommendation approach in a weighted combination. Compared with the traditional recommendation approaches, it is found that the hybrid recommendation approach performs more accurately in identifying the sentiments of user evaluations, and takes into account the similarities between users and foods. We can conclude that the proposed hybrid recommendation approach combined with the sentimental value of food reviews provides novel insights into improving the existing recommendation system used by e-commerce platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394136PMC
August 2021

The Neural Codes Underlying Internally Generated Representations in Visual Working Memory.

J Cogn Neurosci 2021 05;33(6):1142-1157

University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Humans can construct rich subjective experience even when no information is available in the external world. Here, we investigated the neural representation of purely internally generated stimulus-like information during visual working memory. Participants performed delayed recall of oriented gratings embedded in noise with varying contrast during fMRI scanning. Their trialwise behavioral responses provided an estimate of their mental representation of the to-be-reported orientation. We used multivariate inverted encoding models to reconstruct the neural representations of orientation in reference to the response. We found that response orientation could be successfully reconstructed from activity in early visual cortex, even on 0% contrast trials when no orientation information was actually presented, suggesting the existence of a purely internally generated neural code in early visual cortex. In addition, cross-generalization and multidimensional scaling analyses demonstrated that information derived from internal sources was represented differently from typical working memory representations, which receive influences from both external and internal sources. Similar results were also observed in intraparietal sulcus, with slightly different cross-generalization patterns. These results suggest a potential mechanism for how externally driven and internally generated information is maintained in working memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8594925PMC
May 2021

Unique Dual-Sites Boosting Overall CO Photoconversion by Hierarchical Electron Harvesters.

Small 2021 10 22;17(40):e2103796. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Institute for Energy Research, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, P. R. China.

Low selectivity and poor activity of photocatalytic CO reduction process are usually limiting factors for its applicability. Herein, a hierarchical electron harvesting system is designed on CoNiP hollow nano-millefeuille (CoNiP NH), which enables the charge enrichment on CoNi dual active sites and selective conversion of CO to CH . The CoNiP serves as an electron harvester and photonic "black hole" accelerating the kinetics for CO -catalyzed reactions. Moreover, the dual sites form from highly stable CoONiC intermediates, which thermodynamically not only lower the reaction energy barrier but also transform the reaction pathways, thus enabling the highly selective generation of CH from CO . As an outcome, the CoNiP NH/black phosphorus with dual sites leads to a tremendously improved photocatalytic CH generation with a selectivity of 86.6% and an impressive activity of 38.7 µmol g  h .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103796DOI Listing
October 2021

Porous silver microrods by plasma vulcanization activation for enhanced electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jan 11;606(Pt 1):793-799. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Institute of Energy Research, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China. Electronic address:

Metal electrode is considered as an ideal candidate for electrocatalytic carbon dioxide (CO) reduction considering its excellent chemical stability, application potential and eco-friendly properties. Optimization process such as morphological control, non-metallic doping, alloying is widely studied to improve the efficiency of metal electrodes. In this work, we successfully improved the CO reduction performance of silver using a facile plasma vulcanization treatment. The obtained sulfide derived silver (Ag) porous microrods (SD-AgPMRs) are optimized from both morphology and composition aspects, and demonstrates high Faradaic efficiency and partial current density for carbon monoxide (CO) production at low potentials. The larger specific surface area of porous microrod structure and the improved adsorption energy of important intermediates in comparison with Ag foil are realized by introduction of sulfur (S) atoms after plasma vulcanization activation, as suggested by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This work presents a novel strategy to optimize metal electrocatalysts for CO reduction as well as to improve catalysis in other fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.061DOI Listing
January 2022

[Effect of Jiedu Limai decoction in septic patients with syndrome of heat-toxin exuberance].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Jul;33(7):815-820

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 201620, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of Jiedu Limai decoction in septic patients with syndrome of heat-toxin exuberance.

Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. From March 2019 to April 2020, septic patients with syndrome of heat-toxin exuberance admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Shanghai General Hospital and Songjiang Branch of Shanghai General Hospital were enrolled as the research objects, and they were divided into routine treatment group and Jiedu Limai decoction group by the random number table method. Patients in both groups were given standard treatment in accordance with the guidelines, and patients in the Jiedu Limai decoction group were given Jiedu Limai decoction in addition to the standard treatment, once a day for 14 days. The 28-day survival of patients of the two groups were recorded, the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, coagulation indexes, infection indexes, inflammatory cytokines and organ function indicators before treatment and 7 days after treatment in both groups were recorded, and the prognosis of the two groups were recorded.

Results: A total of 259 patients with infection or clinical diagnosis of infection admitted during the experimental observation period were included, and those who did not meet the Sepsis-3 diagnostic criteria, more than 80 years old or less than 18 years old, with multiple tumor metastases, autoimmune system diseases, with length of ICU stay less than 24 hours, with acute active gastrointestinal bleeding and with incomplete data were excluded. One hundred patients were finally enrolled, with 50 patients in the routine treatment group and 50 patients in the Jiedu Limai decoction group. There were no statistically significant differences in coagulation indexes, infection indicators, inflammatory cytokines and organ function indicators before treatment between the two groups. After 7 days of treatment, the coagulation indexes, infection biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in the Jiedu Limai decoction group were significantly lower than those in the routine treatment group [D-dimer (mg/L): 2.2 (1.8, 8.5) vs. 4.0 (1.5, 8.7), fibrinogen (Fib, g/L): 3.7 (3.4, 4.3) vs. 4.2 (3.7, 4.3), fibrinogen degradation product (FDP, mg/L): 7.2 (5.4, 10.2) vs. 13.2 (9.2, 15.2), procalcitonin (PCT, μg/L): 0.4 (0.2, 2.9) vs. 0.5 (0.2, 0.9), C-reactive protein (CRP, mg/L): 50.1 (9.5, 116.0) vs. 75.1 (23.5, 115.2), interleukin-6 (IL-6, ng/L): 31.6 (21.6, 81.0) vs. 44.1 (14.0, 71.3), all P < 0.05], and the levels of B-type brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were significantly lowered [BNP (ng/L): 261.1 (87.5, 360.3) vs. 347.3 (128.8, 439.4), KIM-1 (μg/L): 0.86 (0.01, 1.40) vs. 1.24 (1.05, 1.57), both P < 0.05]. Compared with the routine treatment group, the number of new organ failure in the Jiedu Limai decoction group was decreased (30.0% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between the two groups (P > 0.05), the 28-day mortality in the Jiedu Limai decoction group was lower than that in the routine treatment group (18.0% vs. 24.0%).

Conclusions: Combining Jiedu Limai decoction to the sepsis guideline in treating syndrome of heat-toxin exuberance can effectively improve patients' coagulation function, the situation of heart and renal injury, reduce the level of inflammatory cytokines, and fewer people develop new organ failure after treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20201228-00776DOI Listing
July 2021

Etching-Free Ultrafast Fabrication of Self-Rolled Metallic Nanosheets with Controllable Twisting.

Nano Lett 2021 09 19;21(17):7159-7165. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

The rapid development of state-of-the-art nanotechnology is driven by the emerging novel nanofabrication methods, such as self-rolling of 2D materials or nanosheets. Nonetheless, the traditional chemical etching-based "roll-up" technologies suffer from a low fabrication efficiency and generally produce only scroll-like structures. In this work, we develop a versatile, ultrafast, and etching-free method to synthesize self-rolled metallic nanostructures through hydrogel surface buckling enabled exfoliation, which enables rapid exfoliation and self-rolling of metallic nanosheets at a rate about 1 to 2 orders of magnitude faster than other methods. Furthermore, we observe a scroll-helix-scroll transition through the twisting of the self-rolled nanosheets. Through extensive finite element simulations and experiments, we reveal the thermodynamics underpinning these configurational transitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01789DOI Listing
September 2021

Associations Between Trajectory of Different Blood Pressure Components in Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes - A Real World Study.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 8;14:3255-3263. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: High blood pressure during pregnancy has been suggested to be associated with adverse birth outcomes (ABO), but it is unclear how different blood pressure changes and the extent of the effect. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between blood pressure trajectories (systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP)) of pregnant women and ABO in a real-world study.

Material And Methods: Leveraging 28,679 pregnant women and their fetuses from a register-based cohort from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2019. Blood pressure trajectories were estimated by package "traj" in R software using real-world blood pressure data of routine antenatal care examinations. Logistic regression models were applied to examine the association between trajectories of different blood pressure components (SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) during pregnancy and the risk of ABO.

Results: Trajectories of all blood pressure components were identically labeled as low-stable, moderate-increasing, moderate-decreasing and high-stable. After adjusting for confounding factors, compared with pregnant women with the low-stable pattern, pregnant women with a high-stable or moderate-increasing pattern had a significantly increased risk of developing adverse birth outcomes. Pregnant women with a moderate-decreasing pattern had no significant increased risk of ABO but had a lower risk of adverse birth outcomes than those with a moderate-increasing pattern. The trajectories crossed at 17-20 weeks of gestation for all blood pressure components.

Conclusion: Our study results indicated that reduction and maintenance of blood pressure to a low level of less than 110 mmHg for SBP and 65 mmHg for DBP after 20 weeks of gestation would benefit prevention of adverse birth outcomes, regardless of the level of blood pressure at early pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S318956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360358PMC
August 2021

A 66-Year-Old Woman With Progressive Dyspnea and Obstructive Pneumonia.

Chest 2021 Aug;160(2):e177-e180

Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Case Presentation: A 66-year-old woman with a history of diabetes presented with an intermittent low-grade fever, cough, shortness of breath, and decreased activity tolerance over a 3-month period. She is a farmer, and denied a history of chronic pulmonary disease. Her only medical history was type 2 diabetes managed without medication. She denied smoking or tobacco use. She did not report any recent travel and denied having birds at home. Imaging at a local hospital showed left lower lobe atelectasis with a small pleural effusion. An infection with mucormycosis was diagnosed through transbronchial biopsy. The patient was given nebulized amphotericin B along with concurrent IV liposomal amphotericin B for a total of 15 days. She experienced no significant improvement in symptoms during therapy and, in fact, developed worsening, progressive dyspnea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.078DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of Various Laser-Activated Irrigation Protocols on Endodontic Sealer Penetration into the Dentinal Tubules: A Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Study.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2021 Aug 30;39(8):544-549. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, P.R. China.

To study the effect of various laser-activated irrigation protocols on endodontic sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules. Laser-activated irrigation is helpful for smear layer removal and thus might increase the penetration of endodontic sealer into the dentinal tubules. Forty-eight mandibular premolars with straight canals were instrumented and divided into four groups: C-I group, conventional needle irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); Er:YAG-I, Er,Cr:YSGG-I, and Nd:YAP-I groups, NaOCl and EDTA irrigations activated by erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG), erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG), and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-perovskite (Nd:YAP) lasers, respectively. The cleanness of the treated canals was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, canals were obturated with AH-Plus sealer labeled with rhodamine B (0.1%) and combined with gutta-percha. After setting, canals were sectioned at 2, 5, and 8 mm short from the root apex, and the penetration area of the AH-Plus into the dentinal tubules was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). SEM results indicated that the Er:YAG-I and Er,Cr:YSGG-I lasers were more effective than the Nd:YAP-I and C-I in removing the smear layer. CLSM results indicated that the average AH-Plus penetration areas among the tested groups were in ascending order: C-I < Nd:YAP-I < Er:YAG-I, Er,Cr:YSGG-I ( < 0.05). Laser-activated irrigations significantly increased the penetration of the endodontic sealer into the dentinal tubules, among which Er:YAG-I and Er,Cr:YSGG-I lasers were the most effective and may be considered routine protocols for endodontic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2020.4924DOI Listing
August 2021

Multiparametric MRI-based Radiomics approaches on predicting response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with rectal cancer.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 11 24;46(11):5072-5085. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Fundamental Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the value of multiparametric MRI-based radiomics on predicting response to nCRT in patients with rectal cancer.

Methods: This study enrolled 193 patients with pathologically confirmed LARC who received nCRT treatment between Apr. 2014 and Jun. 2018. All patients underwent baseline T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W) and T2-weighted fat-suppression (T2FS) MRI scans before neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Radiomics features were extracted and selected from the MRI data to establish the radiomics signature. Important clinical predictors were identified by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The nomogram integrating the radiomics signature and important clinical predictors was constructed using multivariate logistic regression. Prediction capabilities of each model were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Performance of the nomogram was evaluated by its calibration and potential clinical usefulness.

Results: For the prediction of good response (GR) and pathologic complete response (pCR), the developed radiomics signature comprising 10 and 7 features, respectively, were significantly associated with the therapeutic response to nCRT. The nomogram incorporating the radiomics signature and important clinical predictors (CEA and CA19-9 for predicting GR; CEA, posttreatment length and posttreatment thickness for predicting pCR) achieved favorable prediction efficacy, with AUCs of 0.918 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.867-0.971, Sen = 0.972, Spe = 0.828) and 0.944 (95% CI: 0.891-0.997, Sen = 0.943, Spe = 0.828) in the training and validation cohort for predicting GR, respectively; with AUCs of 0.959 (95% CI: 0.927-0.991, Sen = 1.000, Spe = 0.833) and 0.912 (95% CI: 0.843-0.982, Sen = 1.000, Spe = 0.815) in the training and validation cohort for predicting pCR, respectively. Decision curve analysis confirmed potential clinical usefulness of our nomogram.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the MRI-based radiomics nomogram is predictive of response to nCRT and can be considered as a promising tool for facilitating treatment decision-making for patients with LARC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03219-0DOI Listing
November 2021

Identification of inflammation related lncRNAs and Gm33647 as a potential regulator in septic acute lung injury.

Life Sci 2021 Oct 21;282:119814. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders (Chongqing), China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, PR China. Electronic address:

Sepsis is commonly complicated by acute lung injury (ALI). We aimed to determine the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs expression profiles. Septic acute lung injury mouse model was established by cecal ligation and puncture. LPS was applied to induce inflammation in mouse alveolar macrophages (MH-s). Besides, LPS/Nigericin sodium salt was used to activate inflammasome in MH-s. LncRNA and mRNA profiles were detected using an Agilent microarray and identified by qPCR. Bioinformatic analyses were employed to analyze the expression profiles and multiple biological functions. Inflammation-related mRNAs were selected according to KEGG pathways and GO terms including inflammation response, immune response and cytokine activity. A network of inflammation related mRNAs and co-expressed lncRNAs was conducted. Finally, Gm33647 was identified as potential regulator in septic acute lung injury. Gm33647 was knock-downed via siRNA to explore functions. The results showed 353 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 3116 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified. Co-expression networks of lncRNA-mRNA showed Gm33647 was a hub gene. Cis- and trans-regulation analyses revealed Gm41442, Gm38850 and Gm36841 could function as a network in septic ALI. LncRNA Gm33647 was reduced by LPS and increased by inflammasome activation in MH-s. Silencing Gm33647 up-regulated IL-6, IL10 and TNF-α in MH-s. When inflammasome was activated by LPS/Nigericin sodium salt, IL-1β, IL-18 and Caspase 1 were increased by silencing Gm33647 in MH-s. These results identified inflammation related lncRNAs and Gm33647 as potential regulators in septic ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119814DOI Listing
October 2021

Lentiviral CRISPR-guided RNA library screening identified Adam17 as an upstream negative regulator of Procr in mammary epithelium.

BMC Biotechnol 2021 07 19;21(1):42. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Background: Protein C receptor (Procr) has recently been shown to mark resident adult stem cells in the mammary gland, vascular system, and pancreatic islets. More so, high Procr expression was also detected and used as indicator for subsets of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Previous study has revealed Procr as a target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling; however, direct upstream regulatory mechanism of Procr remains unknown. To comprehend the molecular role of Procr during physiology and pathology, elucidating the upstream effectors of Procr is necessary. Here, we provide a system for screening negative regulators of Procr, which could be adapted for broad molecular analysis on membrane proteins.

Results: We established a screening system which combines CRISPR-Cas9 guided gene disruption with fluorescence activated cell sorting technique (FACS). CommaDβ (murine epithelial cells line) was used for the initial Procr upstream effector screening using lentiviral CRISPR-gRNA library. Shortlisted genes were further validated through individual lentiviral gRNA infection followed by Procr expression evaluation. Adam17 was identified as a specific negative inhibitor of Procr expression. In addition, MDA-MB-231 cells and Hs578T cells (human breast cancer cell lines) were used to verify the conserved regulation of ADAM17 over PROCR expression.

Conclusion: We established an efficient CRISPR-Cas9/FACS screening system, which identifies the regulators of membrane proteins. Through this system, we identified Adam17 as the negative regulator of Procr membrane expression both in mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12896-021-00703-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290623PMC
July 2021

Smart deworming collar: A novel tool for reducing Echinococcus infection in dogs.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 07 8;15(7):e0009443. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from canines to humans and livestock. Periodic deworming is recommended by the WHO/OIE as a highly effective measure against echinococcosis. However, manual deworming involves significant challenges, particularly in remote areas with scarce resources. The insufficient awareness delivering praziquantel (PZQ) baits for dogs leads to low compliance rate. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a novel smart collar for dogs to address these challenges. We developed a smart Internet of Things (IoT)-based deworming collar which can deliver PZQ baits for dogs automatically, regularly, quantitatively with predominant characteristics of being waterproof, anti-collision, cold-proof and long life battery. Its performance was tested in two remote locations on the Tibetan Plateau. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the compliance of the dog owners. Further, a randomized controlled study was performed to evaluate the difference between smart-collar deworming and manual deworming. The collar's effectiveness was further assessed on the basis of Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE). The testing and evaluation was done for 10 smart deworming collars in factory laboratory, 18 collars attached for 18 dogs in Seni district, Tibet Autonomous Region, China, and 523 collars attached for 523 dogs in Hezuo city, Gansu province, China. The anti-collision, waterproof, and coldproof proportion of the smart collars were 100.0%, 99.5%, and 100.0%, respectively. When compared to manual deworming, the dogs' risk of infection with Echinococcus on smart-collar deworming is down to 0.182 times (95% CI: 0.049, 0.684) in Seni district and 0.355 (95%CI: 0.178, 0.706) in Hezuo city, the smart collar has a significant protective effect. The owners' overall compliance rate to attach the smart collars for their dogs was 89%. The smart deworming collar could effectively reduce the dogs' risk of infection with Echinococcus in dogs, significantly increase the deworming frequency and coverage and rapidly remove worm biomass in dogs. Thus, it may be a promising alternative to manual deworming, particularly in remote areas on the Tibetan Plateau.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266112PMC
July 2021

Biting pain reproduced by the Tooth Slooth: aid for early diagnosis of cracked tooth.

Quintessence Int 2021 Jul 8;0(0). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to find a reliable method to reproduce biting pain to facilitate an early diagnosis of cracked tooth and to verify the feasibility of the Tooth Slooth in diagnosing a cracked tooth.

Method And Materials: In this study, 46 intact teeth diagnosed as cracked teeth were selected. Patients were asked to bite wet cotton rolls and the Tooth Slooth, and clinical findings were recorded. The difference in the relevance ratio between these two bite test methods was determined.

Results: The relevance ratio of biting pain by the Tooth Slooth and wet cotton rolls was 91.3% and 32.6%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between these two bite tests (P < .001).

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the relevance ratio of biting pain by the Tooth Slooth was significantly higher than that of the wet cotton rolls. The Tooth Slooth was a reliable method to reproduce biting pain and was useful for early diagnosis of cracked teeth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.qi.a41498DOI Listing
July 2021

Different Functional Network Connectivity Patterns in Epilepsy: A Rest-State fMRI Study on Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Benign Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spike.

Front Neurol 2021 28;12:668856. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

The stark discrepancy in the prognosis of epilepsy is closely related to brain damage features and underlying mechanisms, which have not yet been unraveled. In this study, differences in the epileptic brain functional connectivity states were explored through a network-based connectivity analysis between intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECT). Resting state fMRI imaging data were collected for 14 MTLE patients, 12 BECT patients and 16 healthy controls (HCs). Independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the cortical functional networks. Subcortical nuclei of interest were extracted from the Harvard-Oxford probability atlas. Network-based statistics were used to detect functional connectivity (FC) alterations across intranetworks and internetworks, including the connectivity between cortical networks and subcortical nuclei. Compared with HCs, MTLE patients showed significant lower activity between the connectivity of cortical networks and subcortical nuclei (especially hippocampus) and lower internetwork FC involving the lateral temporal lobe; BECT patients showed normal cortical-subcortical FC with hyperconnectivity between cortical networks. Together, cortical-subcortical hypoconnectivity in MTLE suggested a low efficiency and collaborative network pattern, and this might be relevant to the final decompensatory state and the intractable prognosis. Conversely, cortical-subcortical region with normal connectivity remained well in global cooperativity, and compensatory internetwork hyperconnectivity caused by widespread cortical abnormal discharge, which might account for the self-limited clinical outcome in BECT. Based on the fMRI functional network study, different brain network patterns might provide a better explanation of mechanisms in different types of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.668856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193721PMC
May 2021
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