Publications by authors named "Qing Tian"

396 Publications

Dioscin Attenuates Myocardial Ischemic/Reperfusion-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction through Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 5;2021:3766919. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cardiovascular Disease Translational Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

Myocardial ischemic/reperfusion (MI/R) is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying pathological reperfusion remain obscure. In this study, we found that dioscin, a natural product, could be a potential candidate for treating MI/R through modulating cardiac dysfunction. Mechanistically, our work revealed that dioscin could suppress the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) repressing the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 () and enhancing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). These findings indicate that dioscin may be a potential candidate for therapeutic interventions in MI/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3766919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520497PMC
October 2021

Long non-coding RNA BACE1-AS plays an oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through miR-214-3p/APLN axis.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin First Central Hospital (School of Medicine, Nankai University), Tianjin 300192, China.

BACE1 antisense RNA (BACE1-AS) is implicated in promoting cell proliferation in different types of tumors. However, the function and mechanism of BACE1-AS in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. In the present study, we found that the relative expression of BACE1-AS in HCC cell lines, HCC tissues, and serum samples of HCC patients was significantly increased, and its high expression was correlated with the poor prognosis of HCC patients. In addition, overexpression of BACE1 promoted HCC cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion, but inhibited cell apoptosis, while knockdown of BACE1 exerted the opposite role. Furthermore, BACE1-AS sponged microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) and inhibited its expression, thus promoting Apelin (APLN) expression. Overexpression or knockdown of miR-214-3p could partially reverse the abnormal proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, invasion, and apoptosis caused by overexpression or knockdown of BACE1. These findings suggest that the BACE1-AS/miR-214-3p/APLN axis is a novel signaling pathway that facilitates HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmab134DOI Listing
October 2021

lncRNA CYTOR promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth via miR-125b/SEMA4C axis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2021 Nov 17;22(5):796. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin First Central Hospital, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300192, P.R China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor worldwide with high morbidity and high mortality rates. Previous studies have demonstrated that cytoskeleton regulator RNA (CYTOR) plays critical roles in the tumorigenesis of various types of cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance, biological function and molecular mechanism of CYTOR in the progression of HCC. The expression level of CYTOR was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR in HCC tissues and cell lines. The biological function of CYTOR was investigated using CCK-8 assay, EdU immunofluorescence, western blotting and TUNEL assay . A xenograft tumor model and immunohistochemistry were used to validate the role of CYTOR . The downstream targets of CYTOR and micro-RNA (miR)-125b were confirmed by RNA immunoprecipitation assay and luciferase reporter assays. The results demonstrated that CYTOR was significantly increased in HCC tissues compared with non-tumor tissues and that CYTOR expression was associated with the poor prognosis of patients with HCC. Furthermore, CYTOR silencing could inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of HCC cells. CYTOR overexpression had the opposite effects. The results from xenograft demonstrated that CYTOR knockdown suppressed tumor growth. In addition, CYTOR could directly interact with and negatively regulate miR-125b. Furthermore, semaphorin 4C (SEMA4C) was the target of miR-125b and CYTOR regulated SEMA4C expression by modulating miR-125b. Taken together, the findings from the present study demonstrated that CYTOR could promote cell proliferation and tumor growth by sponging miR-125b and upregulating SEMA4C, which suggested that CYTOR may act as a potential therapeutic target in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.13057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461761PMC
November 2021

Effects of Aging Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of a Tensile Deformed Al-Cu-Mn-Fe-Zr Alloy in 3.5% NaCl Solution.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 3;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

In this paper, the effects of an aging treatment on the corrosion resistance/mechanism of a tensile deformed Al-Cu-Mn-Fe-Zr alloy are investigated. The impedance magnitude and polarization resistance increase, while the corrosion current decreases with the increased aging time and temperature. The discontinuously-distributed precipitates and precipitation-free zone, which can cut the corrosion channels, appear at grain boundaries when the temperature is relatively high and the aging time is relatively long. They can improve the corrosion resistance. Additionally, the intergranular and pitting corrosion are the main mechanisms. The intergranular corrosion is likely to occur in an under-aged alloy. This is because the potential difference between the grain boundaries and grains is high, due to the segregation of Cu atoms. When the aging degree is increased, the grain boundary precipitates reduce the potential difference, and the intragranular precipitates make the surrounding matrix prone to dissolution. As such, the pitting corrosion is likely to occur in the over-aged alloys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14175062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434585PMC
September 2021

Sodium hydrosulfide reverses β-microglobulin-induced depressive-like behaviors of male Sprague-Dawley rats: Involving improvement of synaptic plasticity and enhancement of Warburg effect in hippocampus.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Sep 6;417:113562. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institute of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, PR China; Institute of Neuroscience, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Our previous works demonstrated that β2-microglobulin (β2m), a systemic pro-aging factor, induce depressive-like behaviors. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is identified as a potential target for treatment of depression. The aim of the present work is to explore whether HS antagonizes β2m-induced depressive-like behaviors and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: The depressive-like behaviors were detected using the novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The expressions of Warburg-related proteins, including hexokinase II (HK II), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), and synaptic plasticity-related proteins, including postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and synaptophysin1 (SYN1), were determined by western blotting.

Result: we found that NaHS (the donor of HS) attenuated the depressive-like behaviors in the β2m-exposed rats, as judged by NSFT, TST, FST, and OFT. We also demonstrated that NaHS enhanced the synaptic plasticity, as evidenced by the upregulations of PSD95 and SYN1 expressions in the hippocampus of β2m-exposed rats. Furthermore, NaHS improved the Warburg effect in the hippocampus of β2m-exposed rats, as evidenced by the upregulations of HK II, PKM2, LDHA and PDK1 expressions, and the downregulation of PDH expression.

Conclusion: HS prevents β2m-induced depressive-like behaviors, which is involved in improvement of hippocampal synaptic plasticity as a result of enhancement of hippocampal Warburg effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113562DOI Listing
September 2021

Hydrogen sulphide attenuates neuronal apoptosis of substantia nigra by re-establishing autophagic flux via promoting leptin signalling in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Neurology, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China.

Previous studies reveal that hydrogen sulphide (H S) exerts neuroprotection against neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study was aimed to investigate whether H S inhibits neuronal apoptosis of substantia nigra with the involvement of autophagy via promoting leptin signalling in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats. In this study, neuronal apoptosis was analysed by TUNEL staining, the activity of caspase-3 was measured by Caspase-3 fluorometric assay kit, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Beclin-1, LC3II, P62 and leptin were determined by Western blot analysis, and the numbers of autophagosomes and autolysosomes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that NaHS, a donor of exogenous H S, mitigates 6-OHDA-induced the increases in the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, the activity of caspase-3 and the expression of Bax, and attenuates 6-OHDA-induced a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 in substantia nigra of rats. In addition, 6-OHDA enhanced the expressions of Beclin-1, LC3-II and P62, increased the number of autophagosomes, and decreased the number of autolysosomes in the substantia nigra, which were also blocked by administration of NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS reversed 6-OHDA-induced the down-regulation of leptin expression in the substantia nigra, and treatment with leptin-OBR, a blocking antibody of leptin receptor, attenuated the inhibition of NaHS on neuronal apoptosis and the improvement of NaHS on the blocked autophagic flux in substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-treated rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that H S attenuates neuronal apoptosis of substantia nigra depending on restoring impaired autophagic flux through up-regulating leptin signalling in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13587DOI Listing
September 2021

Cataract-causing G91del mutant destabilised βA3 heteromers formation linking with structural stability and cellular viability.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Eye Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

Background/aims: Congenital cataracts, which are genetically heterogeneous eye disorders, result in visual loss in childhood around the world. CRYBA1/BA3 serves as an abundant structural protein in the lens, and forms homomers and heteromers to maintain lens transparency. In previous study, we identified a common cataract-causing mutation, βA3-glycine at codon 91 (G91del) (c.271-273delGAG), which deleted a highly conserved G91del and led to perinuclear zonular cataract. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying pathogenic mechanism of G91del mutation.

Methods: Protein purification, size-exclusion chromatography, spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation assays were used to investigate the effects on the heteromers formation and the protein structural properties of βA3-crystallin caused by G91del mutation. Intracellular βA3-G91del overexpression, MTT (3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide) and cell apoptosis were used to investigate the cellular functions of βA3-G91del.

Results: βA3-crystallin and βB2-crystallin could form heteromers, which have much more stable structures than βA3 homomers. Interestingly, βA3/βB2 heteromers improved their resistance against the thermal stress and the guanidine hydrochloride treatment. However, the pathogenic mutation βA3-G91del destroyed the interaction with βB2, and thereby decreased its structural stability as well as the resistance of thermal or chemical stress. What's more, the βA3-G91del mutation induced cell apoptosis and escaped from the protection of βB2-crystallin.

Conclusions: βA3/βB2 heteromers play an indispensable role in maintaining lens transparency, while the βA3-G91del mutation destabilises heteromers formation with βB2-crystallin, impairs cellular viability and induces cellular apoptosis. These all might contribute to cataract development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-320033DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical, radiographic features and long-term outcomes of paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome secondary to the ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

J Infect 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, 600# Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510630, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.08.025DOI Listing
August 2021

Classification of First-Episode Schizophrenia, Chronic Schizophrenia and Healthy Control Based on Brain Network of Mismatch Negativity by Graph Neural Network.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 10;29:1784-1794. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Mismatch negativity (MMN) has been consistently found deficit in schizophrenia, which was considered as a promising biomarker for assessing the impairments in pre-attentive auditory processing. However, the functional connectivity between brain regions based on MMN is not clear. This study provides an in-depth investigation in brain functional connectivity during MMN process among patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ), chronic schizophrenia (CSZ) and healthy control (HC). Electroencephalography (EEG) data of 128 channels is recorded during frequency and duration MMN in 40 FESZ, 40 CSZ patients and 40 matched HC subjects. We reconstruct the cortical endogenous electrical activity from EEG recordings using exact low-resolution electromagnetic tomography and build functional brain networks based on source-level EEG data. Then, graph-theoretic features are extracted from the brain networks with the support vector machine (SVM) to classify FESZ, CSZ and HC groups, since the SVM has good generalization ability and robustness as a universally applicable nonlinear classifier. Furthermore, we introduce the graph neural network (GNN) model to directly learn for the network topology of brain network. Compared to HC, the damaged brain areas of CSZ are more extensive than FESZ, and the damaged area involved the auditory cortex. These results demonstrate the heterogeneity of the impacts of schizophrenia for different disease courses and the association between MMN and the auditory cortex. More importantly, the GNN classification results are significantly better than those of SVM, and hence the EEG-based GNN model of brain networks provides an effective method for discriminating among FESZ, CSZ and HC groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2021.3105669DOI Listing
October 2021

Molecular Mediators of Estrogen Reduction-induced Otolith Shedding.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Aug 17;41(4):667-672. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Neurology, Medical Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital of Navy Medical University, Shanghai, 200003, China.

Objective: Previous study suggested that estradiol (E2) plays an important role in otolith shedding by regulating the expression of otoconin 90 (OC90). The purpose of this article is to provide further data on the effect and mechanism of E2 on the morphology of otolith.

Methods: The rats receiving bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) were used as animal models. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to observe the relationship between estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα). The morphology of otolith was observed under the scanning electron microscopy. Western blotting and qPCR were used for quantitative analysis of the roles of ER and ERRα in regulating OC90 expression.

Results: The looser otoliths were observed in rats receiving bilateral OVX, which could be reversed by supplementation with E2. The level of ERRα was decreased in bilateral OVX rats. ER and ERRα interacted with each other on the regulation of the expression of OC90.

Conclusion: Our results suggest ER and ERRα are both important downstream receptors involved in regulating OC90 expression in utricles of rats, and ERRα probably functions by interacting with ER. This provides evidence for the mechanism of otolith shedding. And it may be significant for future studies of targeted prevention and therapies for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2421-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Emodin Prevented Depression in Chronic Unpredicted Mild Stress-Exposed Rats by Targeting miR-139-5p/5-Lipoxygenase.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:696619. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Neurological Disease of National Education Ministry, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: The use of medicinal plant ingredients is one of the goals of developing potential drugs for treating depression. Compelling evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory medicines may block the occurrence of depression. We studied the effect of a natural compound, emodin, on the development of psychosocial stress-induced depression and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) for 7 weeks was performed to replicate psychosocial stress in rats. The sucrose preference test, force swimming test, and open field test were used to evaluate their behaviors. The differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus were analyzed using proteomics. Nissl staining and Golgi staining were used to detect the loss of neurons and synapses, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the activation of microglia, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were also performed.

Results: Hippocampal inflammation with up-regulated 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) was observed in the depressed rats after CUMS exposure. The upregulation of 5-LO was caused by decreased miR-139-5p. To observe the effect of emodin, we screened out depression-susceptible (DeS) rats during CUMS and treated them with emodin (80 mg/kg/day). Two weeks later, emodin prevented the depression behaviors in DeS rats along with a series of pathological changes in their hippocampi, such as loss of neurons and spines, microglial activation, increased interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the activation of 5-LO. Furthermore, we demonstrated that emodin inhibited its excess inflammatory response, possibly by targeting miR-139-5p/5-LO and modulating glycogen synthase kinase 3β and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2.

Conclusion: These results provide important evidence that emodin may be a candidate agent for the treatment of depression and established a key role of miR-139-5p/5-LO in the inflammation of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.696619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350171PMC
July 2021

The mediating effect of skeletal muscle index on the relationship between menarcheal age and bone mineral density in premenopausal women by race/ethnicity.

Menopause 2021 07 26;28(10):1143-1149. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.

Objective: To examine the contribution of skeletal mass index (SMI) as a mediator in the relationship between menarcheal age and hip/spine bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women by race/ethnicity.

Methods: The data of 4,329 participants (age ≥ 18; mean age=35.7 ± 9.5) of Whites (n = 2,543), African Americans (n = 1,236), and Asians (n = 550) enrolled from October 2011 to January 2019 from the Louisiana Osteoporosis Study were analyzed. After adjustment for physiological and behavioral factors, multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate each component of the proposed mediation models, and mediation was verified by the bootstrapping resampling approach.

Results: Premenopausal women with early menarcheal age tended to have higher SMI and BMD than women with normal menarcheal age among all races/ethnicities included. Women with late menarcheal age were, however, more likely to have a lower SMI than their counterparts with normal menarcheal age (r = -0.212, 95% CI = [-0.321 to -0.103] for White women; r = -0.181, 95% CI = [-0.410 to -0.008] for African-American women; r = -0.174, 95% CI = [-0.343 to -0.006] for Asian women). Similar results were found for both spine and hip BMD. SMI fully mediated the difference in BMD due to different menarcheal ages among Whites, African Americans, and Asian women with early menarcheal age; however, no mediating effects were observed for Asian women with late menarcheal age.

Conclusions: SMI, as a full mediator, affected the relationship between menarcheal age and BMD among premenopausal women, and the mediating effects varied by race/ethnicity. To prevent or slow down the loss of hip/spine BMD and the development of osteoporosis, measures aiming at minimizing the risk for muscle mass loss should be recommended, especially for White and African-American women with late menarcheal age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514157PMC
July 2021

Identification of Intercellular Crosstalk between Decidual Cells and Niche Cells in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 19;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Decidualization is a crucial step for human reproduction, which is a prerequisite for embryo implantation, placentation and pregnancy maintenance. Despite rapid advances over recent years, the molecular mechanism underlying decidualization remains poorly understood. Here, we used the mouse as an animal model and generated a single-cell transcriptomic atlas of a mouse uterus during decidualization. By analyzing the undecidualized inter-implantation site of the uterus as a control, we were able to identify global gene expression changes associated with decidualization in each cell type. Additionally, we identified intercellular crosstalk between decidual cells and niche cells, including immune cells, endothelial cells and trophoblast cells. Our data provide a valuable resource for deciphering the molecular mechanism underlying decidualization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306874PMC
July 2021

A transcriptome-wide association study to detect novel genes for volumetric bone mineral density.

Bone 2021 12 10;153:116106. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Tulane Center for Biomedical Informatics and Genomics, Deming Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) systematically investigate the association of genetically predicted gene expression with disease risk, providing an effective approach to identify novel susceptibility genes. Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease, associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures, whereas genetic factors explain approximately 70% of the variance in phenotypes associated with bone. BMD is commonly assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to obtain measurements (g/cm) of areal BMD. However, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measured 3D volumetric BMD (vBMD) (g/cm) has important advantages compared with DXA since it can evaluate cortical and trabecular microstructural features of bone quality, which can be used to directly predict fracture risk. Here, we performed the first TWAS for volumetric BMD (vBMD) by integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from two independent cohorts, namely the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n = 3298) and the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS, n = 4641), with tissue-specific gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We first used stratified linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression approach to identify 12 vBMD-relevant tissues, for which vBMD heritability is enriched in tissue-specific genes of the given tissue. Focusing on these tissues, we subsequently leveraged GTEx expression reference panels to predict tissue-specific gene expression levels based on the genotype data from FHS and MrOS. The associations between predicted gene expression levels and vBMD variation were then tested by MultiXcan, an innovative TWAS method that integrates information available across multiple tissues. We identified 70 significant genes associated with vBMD, including some previously identified osteoporosis-related genes such as LYRM2 and NME8, as well as some novel loci such as DNAAF2 and SPAG16. Our findings provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of osteoporosis and highlight several novel vBMD-associated genes that warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478845PMC
December 2021

Protective effects of Da-cheng-qi decoction in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage.

Phytomedicine 2021 Sep 17;90:153630. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Key Laboratory of Neurological Disease of National Education Ministry and Hubei Province, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the most fatal subtype of stroke, has no disease-modifying treatment. Da-cheng-qi decoction (DCQ), composed of rhubarb, is one of the most commonly used Chinese traditional decoctions in ICH treatment. But the mechanism is not clear. Emodin is an active compound found in rhubarb.

Purpose: To study the protective effects of DCQ on ICH and its possible mechanisms of action.

Methods: The ICH model was reproduced by injecting collagenase-VII into the left caudate putamen (CPu) of rats. DCQ and emodin were used to treat the ICH rats for 7 days. Behavior tests, proteomic analysis, morphological studies, and western blotting were performed.

Results: The neurological deficits in the ICH rats recovered with DCQ and emodin on the 14 day after ICH. The proteomics data revealed that DCQ significantly corrected the pathological signals in the CPu and hippocampus after ICH. The numbers of amoebic microglia in the CPu and M2 microglia in both CPu and hippocampus were significantly increased after DCQ and emodin treatment. The increase in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor (NR2B) and postsynaptic density protein-95, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signals in the CPu, and secondary neurodegeneration (SND) in the hippocampus were significantly recovered in DCQ-treated rats. Inhibition of MAPK p38 (p38) in the hippocampus was observed after DCQ and emodin treatment.

Conclusion: The protective effects of DCQ on ICH were confirmed in this study, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of MAPK and activation of M2 microglia. These results are beneficial to the development of ICH therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153630DOI Listing
September 2021

Epigenetic Modulation of Microglia Function and Phenotypes in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Neural Plast 2021 29;2021:9912686. Epub 2021 May 29.

College of Acupuncture and Orthopedics, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is one of the most remarkable hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), including AD, PD, and ALS. Accumulating evidence indicates that microglia play both neuroprotective and detrimental roles in the onset and progression of NDDs. Yet, the specific mechanisms of action surrounding microglia are not clear. Modulation of microglia function and phenotypes appears to be a potential strategy to reverse NDDs. Until recently, research into the epigenetic mechanisms of diseases has been gradually developed, making it possible to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the epigenetic regulation of microglia in NDDs. This review highlights the function and phenotypes of microglia, elucidates the relationship between microglia, epigenetic modifications, and NDDs, as well as the possible mechanisms underlying the epigenetic modulation of microglia in NDDs with a focus on potential intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9912686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181095PMC
May 2021

Genome-Wide Screen and Validation of Microglia Pro-Inflammatory Mediators in Stroke.

Aging Dis 2021 Jun 1;12(3):786-800. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

1Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine and Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Stroke activates microglia pro-inflammatory response that not only induces the early neuronal injuries but also causes the secondary brain infarction. Yet, the underlying mechanisms for how microglia become activated in stroke are still unknown. Here, using the next-generation of RNA sequencing we find a total of 778 genes increasingly expressed in brain of stroke mice. Of these, we identified Hmgb2 as a microglia pro-inflammatory mediator by promoting the transcription of Ctss. Inhibition of either Hmgb2 or Ctss blocks microglia pro-inflammatory response and protects against brain damages and improves the neurological functions of stroke mice. This study uncovers Hmgb2 and Ctss as the major microglia inflammatory response mediators in stroke and hence warrants the promising targets for stroke therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.0926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139211PMC
June 2021

[Effect of electroacupuncture on expression of heat shock protein 70 in mice with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 May;46(5):391-6

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Third Affiliated Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Objective: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the body weight, disease progression and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in lumbar spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice, so as to explore the mechanism of EA on treating ALS.

Methods: Eighteen ALS transgenic SOD1 mice were randomly divided into model, EA and medication groups, with 6 mice in each group, and six C57BL/6J mice were used as the normal group. Mice in the EA group received EA at "Quchi"(LI11)-"Hegu"(LI4), "Zusanli"(ST36)- "Sanyinjiao"(SP6), 30 min/time, 5 times/week, for 8 weeks.Mice in the medication group were given riluzole solution (7.6 mg·kg·d) by gavage for 8 weeks. The body weight of the mice was recorded and the motor function of the hind limbs was evaluated by the neurological function scoring stan-dard of the ALS Therapeutic Development Institute. The expression of HSP70 in lumbar spinal cord was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively.

Results: Compared with the normal group, the body weight and the expression of HSP70 in the model group decreased significantly (<0.05), while no significant difference in the body weight was found among other groups(>0.05). After intervention and in comparison with the model group, the disease onset time and paralysis time of the EA group and the medication group were significantly delayed (<0.05, <0.01), the expression of HSP70 in the EA group and the medicine group was significantly increased (<0.05, <0.01).But there was no significant difference in the survival time among all groups(P>0.05). The disease onset time of the EA group was shorter than that in the medication group (<0.05).

Conclusion: EA can increase the expression of HSP70 in lumbar spinal cord, thereby delaying the progression of ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200639DOI Listing
May 2021

Mechanistic insights into the anti-depressant effect of emodin: an integrated systems pharmacology study and experimental validation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 29;13(11):15078-15099. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Key Laboratory of Neurological Disease of National Education Ministry, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disease involved multiple targets and signaling pathways. Systems pharmacology studies could potentially present a comprehensive molecular mechanism to delineate the anti-depressant effect of emodin (EMO). In this study, we investigated the anti-depressant effects of EMO in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression and gained insights into the underlying mechanisms using systems pharmacology and molecular simulation analysis. Forty-three potential targets of EMO for treatment of depression were obtained. GO biological process analysis suggested that the biological functions of these targets mainly involve the regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process, response to lipopolysaccharide, regulation of inflammatory response, etc. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin resistance, IL-17 signaling pathway were the most significantly enriched signaling pathways. The molecular docking analysis revealed that EMO might have a strong combination with ESR1, AKT1 and GSK3B. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting showed that 2 weeks' EMO treatment (80 mg/kg/day) reduced depression related microglial activation, neuroinflammation and altered PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Our findings provide a systemic pharmacology basis for the anti-depressant effects of EMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221295PMC
May 2021

Expressions of cytokeratin 14 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath of a Vps4b knockout mouse.

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;39(3):274-278

Dept. of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objectives: The effect of Vps4b gene mutation on the expressions of cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) is investigated.

Methods: The bilateral mandibular tissues of mouse on postnatal days 5, 9, 11, 15, and 19 were removed. The mandibular first molar tissue sections were obtained after paraffin embedding. The CK14 and PCNA expressions in the epithelial root sheath of the normal mouse and Vps4b knockout mouse were compared through immunohistochemistry.

Results: On postnatal day 5, the normal mouse began to form HERS and had a strong positive PCNA expression in the HERS cells; on postnatal day 9, the HERS structure was continuous, and PCNA was positive in the HERS cells; on postnatal day 11, a small portion of HERS began to break, and PCNA was weakly positive in the HERS cells; on postnatal day 15, HERS continued to fracture; PCNA was weakly and positively expressed in the HERS cells on the root surface; on postnatal day 19, the tooth root reached normal physiological length, and PCNA was positively expressed in the HERS cells of the terminal part. Similar to the normal mouse, the gene knockout mouse also formed a HERS structure on postnatal day 5. However, HERS began to break on postnatal day 9. On postnatal day 19, only a few fragments of HERS were found on the root surface, and the root development was immature. Moreover, the expression intensity of PCNA in the gene knockout mouse was decreased.

Conclusions: The Vps4b gene mutation may change the CK14 and PCNA expressions, leading to abnormal root development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218261PMC
June 2021

Core-shell [email protected] composites reduce phosphate inhibition of ZVI dissolution and enhance methane production in an anaerobic sewage treatment.

Water Res 2021 Jul 29;199:117197. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Inhibitory effects of phosphate on zero-valent iron (ZVI) dissolution have been studied mainly focusing on a single chemical system. Little is known about inhibitory effects and the mechanism of phosphate on ZVI dissolution within a bioreactor during long-term operation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving energy recovery from phosphate-containing domestic sewage using an efficient anaerobic reactor with micro-sized or nano-sized ZVI addition. The results indicate that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and methane production are enhanced by ZVI addition. A maximum COD removal efficiency of 89% and methane content of 60% was achieved. However, the strengthening effect of ZVI on methane production is weakened by the presence of phosphate in domestic sewage. Analyzing the variations of Fe ions and phosphate concentrations and characterizing the micro-morphology of corroded ZVI proved that the generated Fe ions reacts with phosphate and forms a passivation layer on the ZVI surface, inhibiting further dissolution of ZVI. As an improved alternative, we chose the double layered core-shell structured [email protected] composite as an excellent candidate to reduce the inhibitory effects of phosphate on ZVI dissolution. In this way, the direct formation of precipitates on the ZVI surface can be avoided due to the protective carbon layer which adjusts the ion transfer. Adding [email protected] composites accelerate the methane content by 16%. To our knowledge, this is the first report on adding [email protected] composites to promote the anaerobic metabolism in studies, which are focusing on reducing the inhibition of ZVI by phosphate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117197DOI Listing
July 2021

Progranulin in neurodegenerative dementia.

J Neurochem 2021 Jul 28;158(2):119-137. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Key Laboratory of Neurological Disease of National Education Ministry, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Long-term or severe lack of protective factors is important in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative dementia. Progranulin (PGRN), a neurotrophic factor expressed mainly in neurons and microglia, has various neuroprotective effects such as anti-inflammatory effects, promoting neuron survival and neurite growth, and participating in normal lysosomal function. Mutations in the PGRN gene (GRN) have been found in several neurodegenerative dementias, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, PGRN deficiency and PGRN hydrolytic products (GRNs) in the pathological changes related to dementia, including aggregation of tau and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), amyloid-β (Aβ) overproduction, neuroinflammation, lysosomal dysfunction, neuronal death, and synaptic deficit have been summarized. Furthermore, as some therapeutic strategies targeting PGRN have been developed in various models, we highlighted PGRN as a potential anti-neurodegeneration target in dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15378DOI Listing
July 2021

Heterogeneous Domain Adaptation With Structure and Classification Space Alignment.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Apr 22;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Domain adaptation (DA) aims at facilitating the target model training by leveraging knowledge from related but distribution-inconsistent source domain. Most of the previous DA works concentrate on homogeneous scenarios, where the source and target domains are assumed to share the same feature space. Nevertheless, frequently, in reality, the domains are not consistent in not only data distribution but also the representation space and feature dimensions. That is, these domains are heterogeneous. Although many works have attempted to handle such heterogeneous DA (HDA) by transforming HDA to homogeneous counterparts or performing DA jointly with domain transformation, nearly all of them just concentrate on the feature and distribution alignment across domains, neglecting the structure and classification space preservation for domains themselves. In this work, we propose a novel HDA model, namely, heterogeneous classification space alignment (HCSA), which leverages knowledge from both the source samples and model parameters to the target. In HCSA, structure preservation, distribution, and classification space alignment are implemented, jointly with feature representation by transferring both the source-domain representation and model knowledge. Moreover, we design an alternating algorithm to optimize the HCSA model with guaranteed convergence and complexity analysis. In addition, the HCSA model is further extended with deep network architecture. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by showing its superiority to the compared approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3070545DOI Listing
April 2021

Mechanism of Action of Acupuncture in Obesity: A Perspective From the Hypothalamus.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 2;12:632324. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Acupuncture and Orthopedics, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China.

Obesity is a prevalent metabolic disease caused by an imbalance in food intake and energy expenditure. Although acupuncture is widely used in the treatment of obesity in a clinical setting, its mechanism has not been adequately elucidated. As the key pivot of appetite signals, the hypothalamus receives afferent and efferent signals from the brainstem and peripheral tissue, leading to the formation of a complex appetite regulation circuit, thereby effectively regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. This review mainly discusses the relationship between the hypothalamic nuclei, related neuropeptides, brainstem, peripheral signals, and obesity, as well as mechanisms of acupuncture on obesity from the perspective of the hypothalamus, exploring the current evidence and therapeutic targets for mechanism of action of acupuncture in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.632324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050351PMC
April 2021

The Main Alkaloids in and Their Anti-Alzheimer's Disease Mechanism Determined by a Network Pharmacology Approach.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 31;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Neurological Disease of National Education Ministry, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing concern in modern society, and effective drugs for its treatment are lacking. (UR) and its main alkaloids have been studied to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. This study aimed to uncover the key components and mechanism of the anti-AD effect of UR alkaloids through a network pharmacology approach. The analysis identified 10 alkaloids from UR based on HPLC that corresponded to 90 anti-AD targets. A potential alkaloid target-AD target network indicated that corynoxine, corynantheine, isorhynchophylline, dihydrocorynatheine, and isocorynoxeine are likely to become key components for AD treatment. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed the Alzheimers disease (hsa05010) was the pathway most significantly enriched in alkaloids against AD. Further analysis revealed that 28 out of 90 targets were significantly correlated with Aβ and tau pathology. These targets were validated using a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset. Molecular docking studies were carried out to verify the binding of corynoxine and corynantheine to core targets related to Aβ and tau pathology. In addition, the cholinergic synapse (hsa04725) and dopaminergic synapse (hsa04728) pathways were significantly enriched. Our findings indicate that UR alkaloids directly exert an AD treatment effect by acting on multiple pathological processes in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036964PMC
March 2021

Risk factors of deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity in patients undergone gynecological laparoscopic surgery: what should we care.

Authors:
Qing Tian Meng Li

BMC Womens Health 2021 03 26;21(1):130. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Sichuan University, Sichuan Province, No. 20, Section 3, Renmin South Road, Wuhou District, Chengdu, China.

Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) significantly influences the prognosis of patients. It's necessary to analyze the risk factors for postoperative DVT in patients undergone gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

Methods: Patients who underwent gynecological laparoscopic surgery from January 1, 2018 to May 31, 2020 were included. The characteristics and clinical data of DVT and non DVT patients were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of DVT in patients undergone gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

Results: A total of 355 patients undergone gynecological laparoscopic surgery were included, the incidence of postoperative DVT was 11.55%. There were significant differences in the age, hypertension, D-dimer, duration of surgery, intraoperative pneumoperitoneum pressure, duration of days in bed between DVT and non-DVT groups (all p < 0.05), and there were no significant difference in the BMI, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ASA classification and intraoperative blood transfusion between DVT and non-DVT groups (all p > 0.05). Age > 50 years (OR 4.246, 95% CI 1.234-7.114), hypertension (OR 2.219, 95% CI 1.153-4.591), D-dimer > 0.5 mg/L (OR 3.914, 95% CI 1.083-5.229), duration of surgery ≥ 60 min (OR 2.542, 95% CI 1.101-4.723), intraoperative pneumoperitoneum pressure ≥ 15 mmHg (OR 3.845, 95% CI 1.119-5.218), duration of days in bed > 3 days (OR 1.566, 95% CI 1.182-1.994) was the independent risk factors for DVT in patients undergone gynecological laparoscopic surgery (all p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The incidence of postoperative DVT in patients undergone gynecological laparoscopic surgery is high, and those high-risk factors should be targeted to intervene in order to reduce the postoperative DVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01276-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004430PMC
March 2021

Dissolved organic matter byproducts from combined low-level alkaline and mechanical treatment of sludge: species, and their bioavailability.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Mar;83(6):1446-1458

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, DongHua University, 2999 Shanghai North People's Road, 201620, Shanghai, China E-mail: Aquatische Biotechnologie Biofilm Centre, University Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen, Germany and Technical University and Minin04 g Academy, 09599, Freiberg, Germany.

Low-level alkalinity (pH 9-10) coupled with ultrasonic or mechanical cutting with different energy input for obtaining carbon sources were tested for sludge pretreatment process before anaerobic sludge digestion. The differences between the primary sludge (PS) and waste activated sludge (WAS)-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) species were evaluated for their bioavailability and affinity (in the form of amino acids) to the bio-nutrient removal (BNR) biomass. Soluble microbial by-product-like substances as the predominant DOM components in the raw PS and WAS increased by 23 and 22%, respectively, after low-level alkaline treatment (pH 9-10) and ultrasonication. In addition, the protein components were degraded further as free amino acids (FAAs). The sludge-derived aspartate, glutamate, followed by arginine were the most commonly used FAAs by the BNR biomass. The pattern of recovering this special sludge-derived carbon source to enhance P removal and recovery in the BNR process is depicted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.059DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification and Functional Characterization of Metabolites for Bone Mass in Peri- and Postmenopausal Chinese Women.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 07;106(8):e3159-e3177

Tulane Center for Biomedical Informatics and Genomics, School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Context: Although metabolic profiles appear to play an important role in menopausal bone loss, the functional mechanisms by which metabolites influence bone mineral density (BMD) during menopause are largely unknown.

Objective: We aimed to systematically identify metabolites associated with BMD variation and their potential functional mechanisms in peri- and postmenopausal women.

Design And Methods: We performed serum metabolomic profiling and whole-genome sequencing for 517 perimenopausal (16%) and early postmenopausal (84%) women aged 41 to 64 years in this cross-sectional study. Partial least squares regression and general linear regression analysis were applied to identify BMD-associated metabolites, and weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed to construct co-functional metabolite modules. Furthermore, we performed Mendelian randomization analysis to identify causal relationships between BMD-associated metabolites and BMD variation. Finally, we explored the effects of a novel prominent BMD-associated metabolite on bone metabolism through both in vivo/in vitro experiments.

Results: Twenty metabolites and a co-functional metabolite module (consisting of fatty acids) were significantly associated with BMD variation. We found dodecanoic acid (DA), within the identified module causally decreased total hip BMD. Subsequently, the in vivo experiments might support that dietary supplementation with DA could promote bone loss, as well as increase the osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in normal/ovariectomized mice. Dodecanoic acid treatment differentially promoted osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, especially for osteoclast differentiation at higher concentrations in vitro (eg,10, 100 μM).

Conclusions: This study sheds light on metabolomic profiles associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis risk, highlighting the potential importance of fatty acids, as exemplified by DA, in regulating BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277206PMC
July 2021

Blue light-triggered Fe-release from monodispersed ferrihydrite nanoparticles for cancer iron therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 04 3;271:120739. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710072, China. Electronic address:

Site-specific Fe generation is promising for tumor therapy. Up to now, reported materials or systems for Fe delivery do not naturally exist in the body, and their biological safety and toxicity are concerned. Herein, inspired by the natural biomineral ferrihydrite in ferritin, we synthesized monodispersed ferrihydrite nanoparticles and demonstrated a light triggered Fe generation on tumor sites. Ferrihydrite nanoparticles of 20-30 nm in diameter possessed high cellular uptake efficiency and good biocompatibility. Under common blue light illumination, a large amount of Fe could be released from ferrihydrite and promote the iron/reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related irreversible DNA fragmentation and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) inhibition, which led to the apoptosis- and ferroptosis-depended cancer cell proliferation inhibition. On mice, this method induced tumor associated macrophage (TAM) polarization from the tumor-promoting M2 type to the tumor-killing M1 type. With the intravenous pre-injection of ferrihydrite, the combinational effects of the light/Fe-approach attenuated pulmonary metastasis on mice. These results demonstrated a novel external light controlled Fe-generation approach based on biomineral, which will fully tap the anti-cancer potential of Fe in chemo-dynamic, photo-dynamic and immune-activating therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120739DOI Listing
April 2021

Virtual Water Trade in the Service Sector: China's Inbound Tourism as a Case Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 11;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

School of Geography and Tourism, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 276826, China.

Research on virtual water and the water footprint is mainly focused on agriculture and industry, and less so on the service sector. The trade in products generates virtual water flow, as does the flow of people. The flow of international tourists will inevitably lead to the transfer and exchange of water resources embedded in the virtual form. This study takes China's inbound tourism flow as the research object, from the perspective of the water footprint, in order to explore virtual water "exports" to the world. Based on kernel density estimation and ArcGIS spatial analysis, spatial-temporal evolution and structural difference were investigated. Virtual water "exports" showed an increasing trend. The kernel density estimation curves basically exhibited a "single peak" feature which indicated that virtual water "exports" from tourism were not significantly polarized in China. In terms of spatial evolution, this varied greatly at the provincial and regional level and Guangdong was always in the high value area. The south displayed greater values than the north, but this difference in provinces narrowed over the years. The water footprint of food was the largest, more specifically, the green component of this water footprint. Promoting a reasonable diet, reducing food waste, improving agricultural production technology, reducing the frequency of changing hotel supplies, and encouraging the use of new energy helped to reduce the water footprint. Virtual water trade in the service sector provides a new idea for helping to mitigate the global water crisis, in addition to virtual water flow for agricultural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918046PMC
February 2021
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