Publications by authors named "Qing Kong"

77 Publications

Isotoxic investigation of F-FDG PET/CT-guided dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for LA-NSCLC.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Oct 1:1-24. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: This research compared differences of dosimetric and biological parameters between PET/CT-guided isotoxic SIB-IMRT plans and conventional radiotherapy plans for patients with LA-NSCLC, and it also evaluated the factors that affect dose escalation.

Materials And Methods: This study consisted of a retrospective cohort of thirty patients with IIIA-IIIB NSCLC. SIB-IMRT (Plan_iso) and conventional radiotherapy (Plan_primary) plans were generated using auto-planning. Dosimetric parameters such as mean lung dose (MLD) and other indicators were compared. Tumor control probability (TCP) of PTV and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of total lung, heart, esophagus and spinal cord were calculated. The relationships between dose escalation and 3D length of PTV and other factors were analyzed. Paired-samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Chi-Square test were performed for comparisons between datasets. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The dosimetric parameters of PTV in Plan_iso were higher than those of PTV in Plan_primary, and there were significant differences (p < 0.05). Compared with Plan_primary, Plan_iso slightly increased dosimetric parameters of total lung, heart, spinal cord, esophagus and MUs. The absolute differences were small. TCPs of PTV in Plan_iso were significantly higher than those in Plan_primary. NTCPs of total lung, esophagus and spinal cord in Plan_iso were higher than those in Plan_primary. There were significant differences, but the absolute differences were small. NTCP of heart in Plan_iso was slightly higher than that in Plan_primary, but there was no statistical difference.

Conclusions: For LA-NSCLC, the SIB based on isotoxic radiotherapy can significantly increase TCP under the premise that the toxicity of OARs is comparable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2021.1987557DOI Listing
October 2021

Selection of Atoxigenic for Potential Use in Aflatoxin Prevention in Shandong Province, China.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Sep 18;7(9). Epub 2021 Sep 18.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

is a common filamentous fungus widely present in the soil, air, and in crops. This facultative pathogen of both animals and plants produces aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins with strong teratogenic and carcinogenic properties. Peanuts are highly susceptible to aflatoxin contamination and consumption of contaminated peanuts poses serious threats to the health of humans and domestic animals. Currently, the competitive displacement of aflatoxin-producers from agricultural environments by atoxigenic is the most effective method of preventing crop aflatoxin contamination. In the current study, 47 isolates of collected from peanut samples originating in Shandong Province were characterized with molecular methods and for aflatoxin-producing ability in laboratory studies. Isolates PA04 and PA10 were found to be atoxigenic members of the L strains morphotype. When co-inoculated with NRRL3357 at ratios of 1:10, 1:1, and 10:1 (PA04/PA10: NRRL3357), both atoxigenic strains were able to reduce aflatoxin B (AFB) levels, on both culture media and peanut kernels, by up to 90%. The extent to which atoxigenic strains reduced contamination was correlated with the inoculation ratio. Abilities to compete of PA04 and PA10 were also independently verified against local aflatoxin-producer PA37. The results suggest that the two identified atoxigenic strains are good candidates for active ingredients of biocontrol products for the prevention of aflatoxin contamination of peanuts in Shandong Province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7090773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472152PMC
September 2021

Dosimetric Comparison, Treatment Efficiency Estimation, and Biological Evaluation of Popular Stereotactic Radiosurgery Options in Treating Single Small Brain Metastasis.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:716152. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to show the advantages of each stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment option for single small brain metastasis among Gamma Knife (GK), Cone-based VMAT (Cone-VMAT), and MLC-based CRT (MLC-CRT) plans.

Materials And Methods: GK, Cone-VMAT, and MLC-CRT SRS plans were retrospectively generated for 11 patients with single small brain metastasis whose volume of gross tumor volume (GTV) ranged from 0.18 to 0.76 cc (median volume 0.60 cc). Dosimetric parameters, treatment efficiency, and biological parameters of the three techniques were compared and evaluated. The metric variation with the planning target volume (PTV) was also studied.

Results: The conformity index (CI) was similar in GK and MLC-CRT plans, higher than Cone-VMAT. Cone-VMAT achieved comparable volume covered by 12 Gy (V12) and gradient index (GI) as GK, lower than MLC-CRT. The heterogeneity index (HI) of GK, Cone-VMAT, and MLC-CRT decreased sequentially. GK gave the lowest volume covered by 3 Gy (V3) and 6 Gy (V6), while MLC-CRT got the highest. The beam-on time and treatment time of GK, Cone-VMAT, and MLC-CRT decreased in turn. Tumor control probability (TCP) of all three SRS plans was greater than 98%, and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of all organs at risk (OARs) was below 0.01%. GK and Cone-VMAT resulted in superior TCP and NTCP of the normal brain tissue than MLC-CRT. The relative value of Cone-VMAT and GK for all metrics hardly changed with the target volume. Except for the unchanged HI and TCP, the other results of MLC-CRT with respect to GK improved as the target volume increased. MLC-CRT could produce higher CI than GK and Cone-VMAT when the target volume increased above 2 and 1.44 cc, respectively.

Conclusion: For single small brain metastases, Cone-VMAT may be used as an alternative to GK-free centers. In addition to the advantage of short treatment time, MLC-CRT showed superiority in CI as the target volume increased. Treatment centers can choose appropriate SRS technique on a case-by-case basis according to institutional conditions and patients' individual needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.716152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447903PMC
August 2021

Colonization of in Rats and Its Effect on Intestinal Microbial Composition.

Microorganisms 2021 Jul 23;9(8). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Gut microorganisms participate in many physiological processes. In particular, can modulate gut microorganisms and treat diseases. The colonization and persistence of strains in the gut contribute to beneficial effects, and the colonization by in the gut is currently unknown. We investigated the total intestinal contents of at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and four and six days using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, after oral administration of to rats for seven consecutive days. We assessed the bacterial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that was mainly colonized in the colon. The total content of in the gut increased significantly at 12 h after administration. Exogenous could still be detected in the gut six days after administration. Administration of significantly enhanced gut microbial diversity. The relative abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacterial genera was shown to be higher than that of the control group, and treatment with elevated Firmicutes and diminished Bacteroidetes phyla compared with to the control group. These findings laid the foundation for the study of probiotic colonization capacity and the improvement of microflora for the prevention of gut diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401576PMC
July 2021

Regression models for predicting physical and EQD plan parameters of two methods of hybrid planning for stage III NSCLC.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 27;16(1):119. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background/purpose: To establish regression models of physical and equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD) plan parameters of two kinds of hybrid planning for stage III NSCLC.

Methods: Two kinds of hybrid plans named conventional fraction radiotherapy & stereotactic body radiotherapy (C&S) and conventional fraction radiotherapy & simultaneous integrated boost (C&SIB) were retrospectively made for 20 patients with stage III NSCLC. Prescription dose of C&S plans was 2 Gy × 30f for planning target volume of lymph node (PTV) and 12.5 Gy × 4f for planning target volume of primary tumor (PTV), while prescription dose of C&SIB plans was 2 Gy × 26f for PTV and sequential 2 Gy × 4f for PTV combined with 12.5 Gy × 4f for PTV. Regression models of physical and EQD plan parameters were established based on anatomical geometry features for two kinds of hybrid plans. The features were mainly characterized by volume ratio, min distance and overlapping slices thickness of two structures. The possibilities of regression models of EQD plan parameters were verified by spearman's correlation coefficients between physical and EQD plan parameters, and the influence on the consistence of fitting goodness between physical and EQD models was investigated by the correlations between physical and EQD plan parameters. Finally, physical and EQD models predictions were compared with plan parameters for two new patients.

Results: Physical and EQD plan parameters of PTV CI have shown strong positive correlations with PTV volume and min distance, and strong negative correlations with PTV volume for two kinds of hybrid plans. PTV CI is not only correlated with above three geometry features, but also negatively correlated with overlapping slices thickness. When neck lymph node metastasis was excluded from PTV volume, physical and EQD total lung V showed a high linear correlation with corrected volume ratio Meanwhile, physical total lung mean dose (MLD) had a high linear correlation with corrected volume ratio, while EQD total lung MLD was not only affected by corrected volume ratio but also volume ratio Heart D, D and mean dose (MHD) would be more susceptible to overlapping structure. Min distance may be an important feature for predicting EQD esophageal max dose for hybrid plans. It's feasible for regression models of EQD plan parameters, and the consistence of the fitting goodness of physical and EQD models had a positive correlation with spearman's correlation coefficients between physical and EQD plan parameters. For total lung V, ipsilateral lung V, and ipsilateral lung MLD, the models could predict that C&SIB plans were higher than C&S plans for two new patients.

Conclusion: The regression models of physical and EQD plan parameters were established with at least moderate fitting goodness in this work, and the models have a potential to predict physical and EQD plan parameters for two kinds of hybrid planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01848-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237456PMC
June 2021

BRCA1 binds TERRA RNA and suppresses R-Loop-based telomeric DNA damage.

Nat Commun 2021 06 10;12(1):3542. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

R-loop structures act as modulators of physiological processes such as transcription termination, gene regulation, and DNA repair. However, they can cause transcription-replication conflicts and give rise to genomic instability, particularly at telomeres, which are prone to forming DNA secondary structures. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1 binds TERRA RNA, directly and physically via its N-terminal nuclear localization sequence, as well as telomere-specific shelterin proteins in an R-loop-, and a cell cycle-dependent manner. R-loop-driven BRCA1 binding to CpG-rich TERRA promoters represses TERRA transcription, prevents TERRA R-loop-associated damage, and promotes its repair, likely in association with SETX and XRN2. BRCA1 depletion upregulates TERRA expression, leading to overly abundant TERRA R-loops, telomeric replication stress, and signs of telomeric aberrancy. Moreover, BRCA1 mutations within the TERRA-binding region lead to an excess of TERRA-associated R-loops and telomeric abnormalities. Thus, normal BRCA1/TERRA binding suppresses telomere-centered genome instability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23716-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192922PMC
June 2021

Identification of an Altered Matrix Signature in Kidney Aging and Disease.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

R Lennon, Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Division of Cell-Matrix Biology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Accumulation of extracellular matrix in organs and tissues is a feature of both aging and disease. In the kidney, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis accompany the decline in function, which current therapies cannot address, leading to organ failure. Whilst histological and ultrastructural patterns of excess matrix form the basis of human disease classifications, comprehensive molecular resolution of abnormal matrix is lacking. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics we resolved matrix composition over age in mouse models of kidney disease. We compared the changes in mice with a global characterization of human kidney matrix during aging and to existing kidney disease datasets to identify common molecular features. Ultrastructural changes in basement membranes are associated with altered cell adhesion and metabolic processes and with distinct matrix proteomes during aging and kidney disease progression in mice. Within the altered matrix, basement membrane components (laminins, type IV collagen, type XVIII collagen) were reduced and interstitial matrix proteins (collagens I, III, VI, XV, fibrinogens and nephronectin) were increased, a pattern also seen in human kidney aging. Indeed, this signature of matrix proteins was consistently modulated across all age and disease comparisons and the increase in interstitial matrix was also observed in human kidney disease datasets. This study provides deep molecular resolution of matrix accumulation in kidney aging and disease and identifies a common signature of proteins that provides insight into mechanisms of response to kidney injury and repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020101442DOI Listing
May 2021

Biotransformation of alkylamides and alkaloids by lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum meal.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 11;330:124944. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China.

Zanthoxylum bungeanum meal (ZBM) is the by-product of Z. bungeanum seeds after pressing. It is restricted as a feed additive because it contains stimulating and potentially harmful substances, which are alkylamides and alkaloids. This study described the use of Lactobacillus paracasei and L. acidipiscis isolated from ZBM in solid-state fermentation of ZBM to reduce the concentration of undesirable alkylamides and alkaloids. By optimizing the substrate and fermentation conditions, the minimum contents of alkylamide and alkaloid were 2.96 and 3.20 mg/g, and the degradation rates reached 51.86% and 39.59%, respectively. Moreover, the biotransformation pathways of hydroxyl-α-sanshool and chelerythrine were established by identifying the metabolites. Bacterial diversity was shift significantly, and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased from 0.10% to 99.0% after fermentation. In conclusion, this study introduced a reliable strategy for processing ZBM as a feed additive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124944DOI Listing
June 2021

Model-Based Reasoning of Clinical Diagnosis in Integrative Medicine: Real-World Methodological Study of Electronic Medical Records and Natural Language Processing Methods.

JMIR Med Inform 2020 Dec 21;8(12):e23082. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Healthcare Center, Fudan University Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: Integrative medicine is a form of medicine that combines practices and treatments from alternative medicine with conventional medicine. The diagnosis in integrative medicine involves the clinical diagnosis based on modern medicine and syndrome pattern diagnosis. Electronic medical records (EMRs) are the systematized collection of patients health information stored in a digital format that can be shared across different health care settings. Although syndrome and sign information or relative information can be extracted from the EMR and content texts can be mapped to computability vectors using natural language processing techniques, application of artificial intelligence techniques to support physicians in medical practices remains a major challenge.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate model-based reasoning (MBR) algorithms for the clinical diagnosis in integrative medicine based on EMRs and natural language processing. We also estimated the associations among the factors of sample size, number of syndrome pattern type, and diagnosis in modern medicine using the MBR algorithms.

Methods: A total of 14,075 medical records of clinical cases were extracted from the EMRs as the development data set, and an external test data set consisting of 1000 medical records of clinical cases was extracted from independent EMRs. MBR methods based on word embedding, machine learning, and deep learning algorithms were developed for the automatic diagnosis of syndrome pattern in integrative medicine. MBR algorithms combining rule-based reasoning (RBR) were also developed. A standard evaluation metrics consisting of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score was used for the performance estimation of the methods. The association analyses were conducted on the sample size, number of syndrome pattern type, and diagnosis of lung diseases with the best algorithms.

Results: The Word2Vec convolutional neural network (CNN) MBR algorithms showed high performance (accuracy of 0.9586 in the test data set) in the syndrome pattern diagnosis of lung diseases. The Word2Vec CNN MBR combined with RBR also showed high performance (accuracy of 0.9229 in the test data set). The diagnosis of lung diseases could enhance the performance of the Word2Vec CNN MBR algorithms. Each group sample size and syndrome pattern type affected the performance of these algorithms.

Conclusions: The MBR methods based on Word2Vec and CNN showed high performance in the syndrome pattern diagnosis of lung diseases in integrative medicine. The parameters of each group's sample size, syndrome pattern type, and diagnosis of lung diseases were associated with the performance of the methods.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03274908; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03274908.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/23082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781803PMC
December 2020

Improving the kinetic stability of a hyperthermostable β-mannanase by a rationally combined strategy.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 2;167:405-414. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

Feasible and easily accessible methods for the rational design of enzyme engineering strategies remain to be established. Thus, a new rationally combined strategy based on disulfide bond engineering and HotSpot Wizard 3.0 was proposed and experimentally demonstrated to be effective using a hyperthermostable β-mannanase. Ten of 42 mutants showed prominent enhancement of kinetic stability with 26.4%-39.9% increases in t (75 °C) compared with the parent enzyme ManAKH. The best mutant, D273-V308, showed apparent increases in both optimal temperature (5 °C) and T (6.8 °C), as well as advanced catalytic efficiency. The low rate of inactive mutants and the high rate of positive mutants indicated that newly introduced screening factors (distance from catalytic residues, Gibbs free energy term, molecular simulation, and visual inspections) greatly enhance the design of thermostable β-mannanase. Moreover, these findings further advance the industrial application of β-mannanase (ManAK) in food and food-related applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.202DOI Listing
January 2021

Antimicrobial Peptides: Classification, Design, Application and Research Progress in Multiple Fields.

Front Microbiol 2020 16;11:582779. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of small peptides that widely exist in nature and they are an important part of the innate immune system of different organisms. AMPs have a wide range of inhibitory effects against bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and the increasing of concerns about the use of antibiotics resulted in the development of AMPs, which have a good application prospect in medicine, food, animal husbandry, agriculture and aquaculture. This review introduces the progress of research on AMPs comprehensively and systematically, including their classification, mechanism of action, design methods, environmental factors affecting their activity, application status, prospects in various fields and problems to be solved. The research progress on antivirus peptides, especially anti-coronavirus (COVID-19) peptides, has been introduced given the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide in 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.582779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596191PMC
October 2020

Biotransformation of aflatoxin B by Lactobacillus helviticus FAM22155 in wheat bran by solid-state fermentation.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 24;341(Pt 1):128180. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China. Electronic address:

Lactobacillus helveticus FAM22155 was the most efficient among five lactic acid bacteria at removing aflatoxin B (AFB) during solid-state fermentation on wheat bran substrate. The mechanism of removal was explored by comparing different fermentation modes. Liquid fermentation had little effect on the breakdown of AFB. However, a protein extract from the fermented bran was equally effective at degrading aflatoxin B as living cell digestion. After treatment with heat and protease K, the degrading capacity of the protein extract was significantly reduced. Taken together, the observed biotransformation of AFB was mainly associated with proteins produced during bran fermentation. Four products of U-[C]-AFB were found by mass spectrometry, including Ⅱ-1 (CHO), Ⅱ-2 (CHO), III (CHO), and IV (CHO). These products all lack the lactone ring indicating lower toxicity than aflatoxin B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128180DOI Listing
March 2021

Prediction of Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy Optimal Dose Distributions for Lung Cancer Patients With Asymmetric Network.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 04 6;25(4):1120-1127. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

The iterative design of radiotherapy treatment plans is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In order to provide a guidance to treatment planning, Asymmetric network (A-Net) is proposed to predict the optimal 3D dose distribution for lung cancer patients. A-Net was trained and tested in 392 lung cancer cases with the prescription doses of 50Gy and 60Gy. In A-Net, the encoder and decoder are asymmetric, able to preserve input information and to adapt the limitation of GPU memory. Squeeze and excitation (SE) units are used to improve the data-fitting ability. A loss function involving both the dose distribution and prescription dose as ground truth are designed. In the experiment, A-Net is separately trained and tested in the 50Gy and 60Gy dataset and most of the metrics A-Net achieve similar performance as HD-Unet and 3D-Unet, and some metrics slightly better. In the 50Gy-and-60Gy-combined dataset, most of the A-Net's metrics perform better than the other two. In conclusion, A-Net can accurately predict the IMRT dose distribution in the three datasets of 50Gy and 50Gy-and-60Gy-combined dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2020.3025712DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy and safety of Jia Wei Bushen Yiqi formulas as an adjunct therapy to systemic glucocorticoids on acute exacerbation of COPD: study protocol for a randomized, double-blinded, multi-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Trials 2020 Sep 3;21(1):760. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Systemic glucocorticoids are effective for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation but have serious adverse effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can bring additional benefits to these patients but has few adverse effects. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Jia Wei Bushen Yiqi (JWBY) formulas in patients who suffer from COPD exacerbations and to investigate whether the short-term (5-days) systemic glucocorticoid therapy is non-inferior to the long-term (9-day) regime.

Methods: In this multi-center, randomized, double-blinded trial, eligible inpatients with COPD exacerbation are randomly assigned to four groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A will receive placebo plus 5-day prednisone, group B will receive placebo plus 9-day prednisone, group C will receive JWBY formulas plus 5-day prednisone, and group D will receive JWBY formulas plus 9-day prednisone. The primary outcomes are the time interval to the patient's next exacerbation during a 180-day following up and the COPD assessment test (CAT) during treatment. Secondary outcomes include lung function, TCM syndrome assessment, laboratory tests, and safety. The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenaline axis (HPA axis) and inflammatory cytokine will be measured as well.

Discussion: By demonstrating the advantages of utilizing TCM and an appropriate duration of systemic glucocorticoids, this effectiveness comparison trial will provide new references to physicians on how to improve the management of COPD exacerbation. The results of HPA axis and inflammation cytokine measurements will shed light on the molecular mechanisms and entail further mechanism studies.

Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn ChiCTR1900023364. Registered on 24 May 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04669-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468179PMC
September 2020

Expression and Characterization of an Alginate Lyase and Its Thermostable Mutant in .

Mar Drugs 2020 Jun 11;18(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Alginate is one of the most abundant polysaccharides in algae. Alginate lyase degrades alginate through a β-elimination mechanism to produce alginate oligosaccharides with special bioactivities. Improving enzyme activity and thermal stability can promote the application of alginate lyase in the industrial preparation of alginate oligosaccharides. In this study, the recombinant alginate lyase cAlyM and its thermostable mutant 102C300C were expressed and characterized in . The specific activities of cAlyM and 102C300C were 277.1 U/mg and 249.6 U/mg, respectively. Both enzymes showed maximal activity at 50 °C and pH 8.0 and polyG preference. The half-life values of 102C300C at 45 °C and 50 °C were 2.6 times and 11.7 times the values of cAlyM, respectively. The degradation products of 102C300C with a lower degree of polymerization contained more guluronate. The oligosaccharides with a polymerization degree of 2-4 were the final hydrolytic products. Therefore, 102C300C is potentially valuable in the production of alginate oligosaccharides with specific M/G ratio and molecular weights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18060305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345639PMC
June 2020

Developing a unidirectionally permeable edible film based on ĸ-carrageenan and gelatin for visually detecting the freshness of grass carp fillets.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Aug 7;241:116336. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, PR China.

In this study, a unidirectionally permeable film (UPF, the inner layer is a hydrophilic film and outer layer is a hydrophobic film) was applied to the preservation of grass carp fillets for the first time. The hydrophilic film was made of ĸ-carrageenan, gelatin, and curcumin, which was a smart indicator for aquatic product's freshness detection. The hydrophobic film was made of zein. The optimum dosage of UPF were ĸ-carrageenan (1.5 % w/v), gelatin (1.03 % w/v), curcumin (60 mg/100 mL), zein (10.1 % w/v) and glycerol (0.29 % w/w) according to response surface methodology. The results showed that UPF had better mechanical strength and was more resistant to water than hydrophilic films (p < 0.05). Subsequently, UPF was implemented to pack and store fresh grass carp fillets at 4 ℃. With the increase of storage time, UPF detected the change of freshness and informed consumers through its color changes from yellow to red.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116336DOI Listing
August 2020

Identification of AflR Binding Sites in the Genome of Aspergillus flavus by ChIP-Seq.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Apr 21;6(2). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Shandong Peanut Research Institute, Qingdao 266110, China.

We report here the AflR binding motif of for the first time with the aid of ChIP-seq analysis. Of the 540 peak sequences associated with AflR binding events, 66.8% were located within 2 kb upstream (promoter region) of translational start sites. The identified 18-bp binding motif was a perfect palindromic sequence, 5'-CSSGGGWTCGAWCCCSSG'3' with S representing G or C and W representing A or T. On closer examination, we hypothesized that the 18-bp motif sequence identified contained two identical parts (here called motif A and motif B). Motif A was in positions 8-18 on the upper strand, while motif B was in positions 11-1 on the bottom strand. The inferred length and sequence of the putative motif identified in were similar to previous findings in and . Gene ontology analysis indicated that AflR bound to other genes outside the aflatoxin biosynthetic gene cluster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6020052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344883PMC
April 2020

Gasdermin E suppresses tumour growth by activating anti-tumour immunity.

Nature 2020 03 11;579(7799):415-420. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Cleavage of the gasdermin proteins to produce pore-forming amino-terminal fragments causes inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis). Gasdermin E (GSDME, also known as DFNA5)-mutated in familial ageing-related hearing loss-can be cleaved by caspase 3, thereby converting noninflammatory apoptosis to pyroptosis in GSDME-expressing cells. GSDME expression is suppressed in many cancers, and reduced GSDME levels are associated with decreased survival as a result of breast cancer, suggesting that GSDME might be a tumour suppressor. Here we show that 20 of 22 tested cancer-associated GSDME mutations reduce GSDME function. In mice, knocking out Gsdme in GSDME-expressing tumours enhances, whereas ectopic expression in Gsdme-repressed tumours inhibits, tumour growth. This tumour suppression is mediated by killer cytotoxic lymphocytes: it is abrogated in perforin-deficient mice or mice depleted of killer lymphocytes. GSDME expression enhances the phagocytosis of tumour cells by tumour-associated macrophages, as well as the number and functions of tumour-infiltrating natural-killer and CD8 T lymphocytes. Killer-cell granzyme B also activates caspase-independent pyroptosis in target cells by directly cleaving GSDME at the same site as caspase 3. Uncleavable or pore-defective GSDME proteins are not tumour suppressive. Thus, tumour GSDME acts as a tumour suppressor by activating pyroptosis, enhancing anti-tumour immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2071-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7123794PMC
March 2020

Fabrication of a Novel Antifouling Polysulfone Membrane with in Situ Embedment of Mxene Nanosheets.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 11 22;16(23). Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Wanjiang University of Technology, Maanshan 243031, China.

Membrane fouling is still a critical issue for the application of ultrafiltration, which has been widely used in water treatment due to its efficiency and simplicity. In order to improve the antifouling property, a new 2D material MXene was used to fabricate composite ultrafiltration membrane with the approach of in situ embedment during the phase inversion process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle, bovine serum albumin rejection and porosity measurements were utilized to characterize the prepared membranes. Due to the hydrophilicity of the MXene, the composite membranes obtained higher hydrophilicity, confirmed by the decreased water contact angle. All the modified membranes had a high bovine serum albumin rejection above 90% while that of the pristine polysulfone membrane was 77.48%. The flux recovery ratio and the reversible fouling ratio of the membranes were also improved along with the increasing content of the MXene. Furthermore, the highest flux recovery ratio could also reach 76.1%. These indicated the good antifouling properties of MXene composite membranes. The enhanced water permeability and protein rejection and excellent antifouling properties make MXene a promising material for antifouling membrane modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926845PMC
November 2019

Comparison of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus at different temperatures and media: Proteome analysis based on TMT.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Nov 24;310:108313. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA 70124, United States.

Aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus is affected by abiotic factors such as temperature, water activity, oxidative stress, etc. These factors likely affect different metabolic pathways and result in altered aflatoxin production. Aflatoxin was determined in liquid media at 28 °C, solid media at 28 °C and solid media at 37 °C. The proteomic method was used to elucidate the mechanism of aflatoxin production in A. flavus in liquid media at 28 °C, solid media at 28 °C and solid media at 37 °C. Potential factors affecting aflatoxin production were found by GO and KEGG analysis. A. flavus produces more aflatoxin at 28 °C compared to 37 °C. Our study also found that A. flavus cultured on solid media produced more aflatoxin than in liquid media. In this study, we identified 5029 proteins from A. flavus NRRL3357, in which 1547 differential proteins were identified between liquid media and solid-state media, while 546 differential proteins were identified between 28 °C and 37 °C. Biological informatics analysis showed that these differential proteins were widely involved in a variety of biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components, and were associated with multiple metabolic pathways. Compared to the liquid media, extracellular hydrolase for nutrient uptake and proteins related to sclerotia development were differentially expressed on solid media (p < 0.05). Enzymes involved in oxidative stress showed significantly down-regulated in liquid media and up-regulated at 28 °C (p < 0.05). Furthermore, our research also revealed aflatoxin synthesis is a complex process that is affected by a variety of factors such as nutrient uptake, oxidative stress, sclerotia development, G protein signaling pathways and valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, and a speculative model summarizing the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108313DOI Listing
November 2019

A Real-World Evidence Study for Distribution of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome and Its Elements on Respiratory Disease.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 12;2018:8305892. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the distribution and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome and its elements on respiratory diseases (RDs) based on real-world data (RWD).

Methods: A real-world study was performed to explore the relationships among TCM syndrome and RDs based on electronic medical information. A total of 26,074 medical records with complete data were available for data analysis. Factor analyses were used to reduce dimensions of TCM syndrome elements and detect common factors. Additionally, cluster analyses were employed to assess combinations of TCM syndrome elements. Finally, association rule analyses were performed to investigate the structures of TCM syndrome elements to estimate the patterns of TCM syndrome.

Results: A total of 27 TCM syndromes were extracted from RWD in this work. There were four TCM syndromes with >5.0% frequency based on the distribution frequency. The top five pathogenesis TCM syndrome elements were Tan, Huo, Feng, Qi_Xu, and Han. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, and association rule analysis demonstrated that Tan, Huo, Feng, Qi_Xu, Shen, and Fei were the core TCM syndrome elements.

Conclusion: Four common Shi TCM syndromes on RDs were identified: Tan_Re_Yong_Fei, Tan_Zhuo_Zu_Fei, Feng_Re_Fan_Fei, and Feng_Han_Xi_Fei; two core common Xu TCM syndromes (Fei_Shen_Qi_Xu and Fei_Yin_Xu) and two core common Mix TCM syndromes (Fei_Pi_Qi_Xu-Tan_Shi_Yun_Fei and Fei_Shen_Qi_Xu-Tan_Yu_Zu_Fei) were also determined. The core TCM syndrome elements of Tan, Huo, Feng, Qi_Xu, Shen, and Fei were identified in this work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8305892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311270PMC
December 2018

Nondigestible carbohydrates, butyrate, and butyrate-producing bacteria.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019 22;59(sup1):S130-S152. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

a College of Food Science and Engineering , Ocean University of China , Qingdao , China.

Nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs) are fermentation substrates in the colon after escaping digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Among NDCs, resistant starch is not hydrolyzed by pancreatic amylases but can be degraded by enzymes produced by large intestinal bacteria, including clostridia, bacteroides, and bifidobacteria. Nonstarch polysaccharides, such as pectin, guar gum, alginate, arabinoxylan, and inulin fructans, and nondigestible oligosaccharides and their derivatives, can also be fermented by beneficial bacteria in the large intestine. Butyrate is one of the most important metabolites produced through gastrointestinal microbial fermentation and functions as a major energy source for colonocytes by directly affecting the growth and differentiation of colonocytes. Moreover, butyrate has various physiological effects, including enhancement of intestinal barrier function and mucosal immunity. In this review, several representative NDCs are introduced, and their chemical components, structures, and physiological functions, including promotion of the proliferation of butyrate-producing bacteria and enhancement of butyrate production, are discussed. We also describe the strategies for achieving directional accumulation of colonic butyrate based on endogenous generation mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1542587DOI Listing
December 2019

[The origin and evolution history of East Asian populations from genetic perspectives].

Yi Chuan 2018 Oct;40(10):814-824

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.

East Asia is widely concerned as one of the important places for the dispersal and evolution of the Anatomically Modern Human (AMH). How the diverse ethnic groups in East Asia originated and diversified is also widely focused by different disciplines of Anthropology. The adoption of genetic data had provided new clues for reconstructing the genetic history of East Asian populations. Genetic studies supported the hypothesis that the AMHs originated from Africa's Homo sapiens at about 200 kilo years ago (kya) and then migrated out of Africa at ~100 kya, followed by expansions into the whole East Asia since their arrival in Southern East Asia at 5~6 kya along the coastal route. Early Homo Sapiens might have genetic contribution to the non-African AMHs. Early settlement, cultural assimilation, population migration and genetic exchanges are crucial in the origination and evolution of East Asia populations. Previous studies made detailed analysis for the genetic history of East Asian populations, which largely resolved the longstanding divergence between archaeology and history. However, this needs further verification by whole-genome sequencing and ancient DNA studies. Here we briefly reviewed the progresses of genetic studies in exploring the population origin, dispersal and diversification in East Asia, which improved understanding of the evolution of East Asian populations. We also prospected the future of genetic studies in revealing the prehistory of East Asians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.18-202DOI Listing
October 2018

Fusion expression and anti-Aspergillus flavus activity of a novel inhibitory protein DN-AflR.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Feb 18;290:184-192. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

The regulatory gene (aflR) encodes AflR, a positive regulator of transcriptional pathway that activates aflatoxin biosynthesis. It has been demonstrated in our laboratory that L-Asp-L-Asn (DN) extracted from Bacillus megaterium inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus. We fused gene encoding DN with the gene encoding specific dinuclear zinc finger cluster protein of AflR, then fusion protein competed with the AflS-AflR complex for the AflR binding site and significantly improved anti-A. flavus activity (growth of A. flavus and biosynthesis of aflatoxin B) of DN. The fusion gene dn-aflR was cloned into pET32a and recombinant plasmid was introduced into Escherichia coli BL21. The highest expression was observed after 10 h induction and fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography column. Compared with DN, the novel fusion protein DN-AflR significantly inhibited the growth of A. flavus and biosynthesis of aflatoxin B (P < 0.05). This study promoted the use of competitive inhibition of fusion proteins to reduce the expression of regulatory genes in the biosynthetic pathway of aflatoxin. Moreover, it provided more supports for deep research and industrialization of such novel anti-A. flavus bio-inhibitors and biological control of microbial contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.10.015DOI Listing
February 2019

MKK6 Functions in Two Parallel MAP Kinase Cascades in Immune Signaling.

Plant Physiol 2018 11 5;178(3):1284-1295. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada

Arabidopsis () MAP KINASE (MPK) proteins can function in multiple MAP kinase cascades and physiological processes. For instance, MPK4 functions in regulating development as well as in plant defense by participating in two independent MAP kinase cascades: the MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4 cascade promotes basal resistance against pathogens and is guarded by the NB-LRR protein SUMM2, whereas the ANPs-MKK6-MPK4 cascade plays an essential role in cytokinesis. Here, we report a novel role for MKK6 in regulating plant immune responses. We found that MKK6 functions similarly to MKK1/MKK2 and works together with MEKK1 and MPK4 to prevent autoactivation of SUMM2-mediated defense responses. Interestingly, loss of MKK6 or ANP2/ANP3 results in constitutive activation of plant defense responses. The autoimmune phenotypes of and mutant plants can be largely suppressed by a constitutively active mutant. Further analysis showed that the constitutive defense response in is dependent on the defense regulators PAD4 and EDS1, but not on SUMM2, suggesting that the ANP2/ANP3-MKK6-MPK4 cascade may be guarded by a TIR-NB-LRR protein. Our study shows that MKK6 has multiple functions in plant defense responses in addition to cytokinesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.18.00592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236617PMC
November 2018

[Effects of detritus removal on soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry and related factors in a temperate deciduous forest in the Maoershan Mountain, China.]

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2018 Jul;29(7):2173-2182

Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

A detritus-removal experiment was conducted in a temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in 2007 at the Maoershan Ecological Station in Northeast China, including two treatments: Litterfall removal (NL), root removal (NR). Soil water content, bulk density and the concentrations of soil C, N and P were measured in 2016. The results showed that the C concentration at the surface soil layer (0-10 cm) was reduced by 15.6% and 10.7% for the NL and NR treatments, respectively, while the weighted-mean soil C concentration in 0-30 cm depth was reduced by 7.9% and 4.6%, respectively. The N concentration of the surface layer in the NL treatment decreased by 10.2%, whereas the surface-soil P concentration in the NR treatment increased by 6.6%, resulting in reduced C:P and N:P for both treatments. The standardized major axis regressions showed that the regression slopes between the C, N and P at each layer of 0-30 cm soil depth differed significantly among the treatments. The intercepts of the regressions between soil C concentration and bulk density or soil water content had significant differences among the treatments. The results suggested that detritus-removal caused a coordinated variation in soil C, N and P stoichiometry and physical properties. Therefore, we recommend taking the effect on soil ecological stoichiometry into account in future detritus-removal experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201807.015DOI Listing
July 2018

Attenuates Airway Remodeling via PI3K/Akt/NF-B Pathway in Cigarette Smoke Mediated-COPD Rats Model.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 13;2018:1281420. Epub 2018 May 13.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

(SB) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of the early intervention with SB on airway remodeling in a well-established rat model of COPD induced by cigarette smoking. COPD model in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were established by exposing them to smoke for 6 days/week, for 12 weeks, 24 weeks, or 36 weeks. Meanwhile, rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, Budesonide (BUD) group, and the SB (low, middle, and high) dose groups with 8 rats in each group and 3 stages (12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 36 weeks). After treatment, the pulmonary function was evaluated by BUXCO system and the morphology changes of the lungs were observed with HE and Masson staining. The serum IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and TNF-, TGF-beta (TGF-1), MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels in BALF were detected by ELISA-kit assay. The protein expression levels of AKT and NF-B (p65) were determined by western blot (WB). The oral of SB significantly improved pulmonary function (PF) and ameliorated the pathological damage and attenuated inflammatory cytokines infiltration into the lungs. Meanwhile, the levels of TGF-, MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were partially significantly decreased. The levels of PI3K/AKT/NF-B pathway were also markedly suppressed by SB. SB could significantly improve the condition of airway remodeling by inhibiting airway inflammation and partially quenching TGF- and MMPs via PI3K/AKT/NF-B pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1281420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5971322PMC
May 2018

Reversing SKI-SMAD4-mediated suppression is essential for T17 cell differentiation.

Nature 2017 11 25;551(7678):105-109. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

T helper 17 (T17) cells are critically involved in host defence, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is instrumental in T17 cell differentiation by cooperating with interleukin-6 (refs 6, 7). Yet, the mechanism by which TGFβ enables T17 cell differentiation remains elusive. Here we reveal that TGFβ enables T17 cell differentiation by reversing SKI-SMAD4-mediated suppression of the expression of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt). We found that, unlike wild-type T cells, SMAD4-deficient T cells differentiate into T17 cells in the absence of TGFβ signalling in a RORγt-dependent manner. Ectopic SMAD4 expression suppresses RORγt expression and T17 cell differentiation of SMAD4-deficient T cells. However, TGFβ neutralizes SMAD4-mediated suppression without affecting SMAD4 binding to the Rorc locus. Proteomic analysis revealed that SMAD4 interacts with SKI, a transcriptional repressor that is degraded upon TGFβ stimulation. SKI controls histone acetylation and deacetylation of the Rorc locus and T17 cell differentiation via SMAD4: ectopic SKI expression inhibits H3K9 acetylation of the Rorc locus, Rorc expression, and T17 cell differentiation in a SMAD4-dependent manner. Therefore, TGFβ-induced disruption of SKI reverses SKI-SMAD4-mediated suppression of RORγt to enable T17 cell differentiation. This study reveals a critical mechanism by which TGFβ controls T17 cell differentiation and uncovers the SKI-SMAD4 axis as a potential therapeutic target for treating T17-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature24283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743442PMC
November 2017

Effect of guar gum on stability and physical properties of orange juice.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 May 9;98:565-574. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

The objective of current study was to determine the stability and physical properties of orange juice which was added with guar gum. The optimal formulation showed good stability and physical properties, in light of better indices on the serum cloudiness (turbidity), sensory analysis, particle size distribution, aroma concentration analysis and rheological properties. By serum cloudiness (turbidity), the viscosity of optimal guar gum used in orange juice was 584mpas; by the other four methods, the optimal formulation was determined: 0.1% guar gum (584mpas) combined with 0.03% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The results indicated that the guar gum can be used to partially replaced CMC and improve the stability and physical properties of orange juice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.02.031DOI Listing
May 2017

Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 01 20;9(1). Epub 2017 Jan 20.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China.

Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of and that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, / statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9010042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5308274PMC
January 2017
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